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A New Hampshire Magazine 






, 1S99 ; 


Y 63^ 

Published, 1899 

By rat Granite Monthly Company 

Concord, N. H. 

Printed, Illustrated, and Electrotyped by 
Rum/ord Printing Company (Rum/ord Press) 
Concord, Ne-cu Hampshire, U. S. A. 



The Granite Monthly. 


January — June, i8gg. 

Abac!, Elena Piedra. The OUTING Club .... 

A Bit o History, Ezra S. Stearns ..... 

A Colorado Canon, Fred E. Keay ..... 

Adams, Ida G., The Philippines (poem) .... 

Alaska, Converse J. Smith ...... 

Alaskan Experiences, Some. Converse J. Smith 

A Look at the Old Farm. Ben Bridge .... 

ARBUTUS (poem), Fred Lewis Pattee 

A Reminiscence (poem), Samuel Hoyt .... 

A Tip-Top Experience on Moosilauke, Ellen E. Webster 

P. B., The Difference in Girls 

B., G. K., Harriet Belcher Stowe (poem) 

Bridge, Ben, A Look at the Old Farm .... 

Burell, Carl, What Lily- Bell Told (poem) 

Cavis, Harry M.. Esq., The Federal Supreme Court 
Chase, Rt. Rev. Philander, D. D., Bishop of Ohio and op- 
Daniel C. Roberts, D. D 

Ciark, Ade-Ibert, Officers of Company K (poem) 

"The House that Jack Built 1 " .... 

The Knot of Army Blue (poem) . .• - . 

The Month of May (poem) 

Colby, Fred Myron, The Wild Flowers of Spring. 

Doctor Johnson and Mrs. Thrale . . . . ... 

Colby, Henry B., New Hampshire Industries— Our Only Piaj 
Cupro: A Song (poem), Grace Fletcher .... 


o Factory 

bailing, Alice O., The Country Depot (poem) . 

Dcnio, Herbert W., A. M., Library Legislation in Xew Hampshire 


















i IV 


Doctor Johnson and Mrs. Tht ale, Fred Myron Colby . . . . . 
Down the King's Great Highway: A Sketch of Stratham, R. M. Searrimori 
Durgin, Mark W. F., The COCHECO (poem) 

Dyer, Elizabeth B., The Birth of the White Mountains {poem) 

4< Finnigan's Chateau," Belie C. Greene 
Fletcher, Grace, Cupid : -A Song (poem) 
Fletcher, Lisa A., Sleighing (poem) 
Folsom, Channinc, John B. Stevens, Esq. 
Foster, Maj.-Gex. John G., Biographigai 

Sketch of, Frank G. Noves 

Gibson, T. C, Some Old Tales and Traditions of the White Mountains 
Greene, Belle C, *« Finnigan's Chateau" .... 
Greenwood, Alice D. O., The Shadow of a Coming Event 

Hadley, E. D., The Exit of the Royal Governor . 
Hoyt, Samuel, A Reminiscence [poem) .... 

Jack and Pirie . ... . 

Java and the Colonial System of the Dutch, Jules Leclerq 

Keay Fred E., A Colorado Canon ..... 
Kent, Henry O., Songs of Norwich University 

Lawrence, J. B., The Dreamer (poem) .... 
Leclerq, Jules, Java and the Colonial System of the Dutch 
Library Legislation in New Hampshire, Herbert W. Denio 
Lord, C. C. The Lord Escutcheon ..... 
Low, General, Sir Benjamin Thompson, Cccnt of Rumford 

Marston, Gilman (poem), E. E. Parker . 

Mitchell, Lona Bertell; New Hampshire's Young Poet 

Mr. Unlukikus Has Rheumatism, Clarence Henry Pearson 

Mr. Unlukikus Shoots, Clarence Henry Pearson 

My Dream (Poem), Annie Rogers Noyes .... 

My Secret (Poem), Gertrude Palmer Vaughn 

A. M 

New Hampshire Industries — Our Only Piano 
New Hampshire Necrology . . 

Aiken, Dr. F. J. ... 

Allen William H. 

Bartlett, Capt. A. YV. . . 

Barton, Hon. Levi \V. 

Brock, Solomon H. . 

Brown, Amos .... 

Brown, George L. 

Burt, Henry M, 

Buxton, Elizabeth M. 

Cilley, Prof. Bradbury L. 

Claggett, Rufus P. . 

Clement, Judge Nathaniel H. . 

Cleveland, Judge John Robinson 

Factory, Henry B. Colby 

62, 125, 191, 235, 31 

























New Hampshire Necrology (Continued) 
Coffin, Per ley S. 
Cole, Benjamin J. 
Cook, Orren J. . 
Cournover, Key. Narcesse 
Crane, William . 
Cressy, Rev. Azariah 
CrqsSj Daniel J. 
Cross, Edward Winslow 
Dillon, Col. John J. . 
Dodge, Benjamin 
dustin, isaiah 
Eastman, John W. 
Elkins, Dr. Joseph L. 
Emerson, Capt. George H 
Fiske. Adeline M. 
Folsom, E. J. 
Freeman, Washington 
Gerrish, Hiram F. 
Graves, Dr. Irving S. 
Hale, Dr. E. F. . 
Harris, Hon. Brouchton Davis 
Hibbard, Benjamin 
Holt, Thomas R. 
Hook, Elder John G. 


Hutchinson, Cart. Edmund P. 
Jewett, A. H. C 
Jones William F. 
Kimball, Samuel S. . 
Laighton, Cedric 
Lamos. Horace A. 
LeGro, Rev. James Dudley 
Leviston, William 
Locke, Dr. Frank B. 
Mason, James L. 
McDuffee, Hon/ G. W. 
Moore, John A. . 
Oberlv, Hon. John H. 
Peabody, Dr. L. W. . 
Pendercast, John H. 
Pike, Amos W. . 
Piper, Benjamin H. 
Pitman, George W. M. 
Pitman, Oscar V. 
Ramsey, David B. 
Sanborn, Charles H. 
Sanders, George A. . 
Sawyer, Mrs. Susan Ellen 


New Hampshire Necrology (Continued): 

Shelley, Mrs. Roena 

Shrigley, Charles 

Sides. William O. 

Silsby, Arthur \V. 

Sinclair, Col. Charles A. 

Smith* Eleazer . 

Smyth, Ex-Goy. Frederick 

Story, Sarah Little . 

Tenney, Mrs. Lydia C. 

Towle, Rev. Charles A. . 

Trussell. Rev. C F. '.. 

Virgin, Rufus E. - . 

Walker, Capt. G. A. . 

Weare, Col. John M. 

Webster, Nathaniel S. 

Webster, Robert S. . 

Whitney, William H. 
New Hampshire People . 

Babbidge, Major Paul F. . 

Bodwell, Capt. Charles B. 

Churchill, Col Frank C. 

Colby, Capt. George H. . 

Dyer, Capt. William H. . 

Egan, Major John F. 

Faunce, Rev. W. II. P., D. D. . 

Hall, Rev. George E.. D. D. 

Howard, Lieut. -Col. Charles W. 

Kimball, Major Frank L. 

Parker, George H., M. D. 

Parker, John C, M. D. 

Phalen, Rev. Frank L. 

Ray, Major Albert F. 

Richardson, Lieut. Edward W. 

Rop.y, Lieut. Harley B. 

Russell, Major Frank W. 

Smith, Rev. Henry B. 

Straw, A. Gale. M. I). 

Tetley, Col. Edmund 

Timson, Major Julius C. ■'. 

Tolles, Brig. -Gen. Jason E. 

Tutherly, Lieut. -Col. William 

Upham, Col. Edwin O. 

Waldron, Adjutant George D. 

Walsh, Capt. R. Emmett . 
New Hampshire's Young Poet, Lona BertelJ Mitchell 
Nicholls, Ralph D., The Passing of Spain 
Nichols, Laura D., The Old Daguerreotype 
Noyes, Annie Rogers, My Dream (poem) 
Noyes, Frank G.. Biographical Sketch of Maj.-Gen. John G 



vi i 

ire nee Moores Weed 


Officers of Company K (poem), Adelbert Clark 

On Puget Sound. Converse J. Smith . 

Our Winter Birds and their Food Relations. CI 

The Dear Old Homestead Farm {poem) . 
Pattee,.Fred Lewis, Arbutus (poem) . 

Pearson, Clarence Renry, Unlukikus Loses His Self 
.Mr. Unlukikus Shoots .... 
Mr. Unlukikus has Rheumatism 

Puget Sound, On, Converse J. Smith 

Rankin, Jeremiah Eames, D. D., LL. D., The Eames Family in Coos County 


Roberts, Caroline M., The Winter is Past [poem) 
Roberts, Rev. Daniel C, D. D., Rt. Rev. Philander Chase, D. D., Bishop of 
Ohio and of Illinois ...... 

Rumford, Count of, Sir Benjamin Thompson, General Low- 
San Francisco, A Letter From. Seen Through New Hampshire Eves 

Converse J. Smith 

Scammon, R, M., Down the King's Great Highway: A Sketch of Stratham 
Seen Through New Hampshire Eyes. A Letter From San Francisco 
Converse J. Smith ......... 

Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford, General Low 
S., J. R., Reflections of an Automobile 
Sleighing (poem), Lisa A. Fletcher 
Smith, Converse J., ALASKA 

On Puget Sound .... 

Some Alaskan Experiences 

Seen Through New Hampshire Eves. A Letter From San Francisco 
Some Alaskan Experiences, Converse J. Smith ..... 

Some Old Tales and Traditions of the White Mountains, T. C. Gibson 

Songs of Norwich University, Henry O. Kent 

Stearns, Ezra S., A Bit of History . . . . . . . . 

Stevens. John B., Channing Folsom ........ 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher (poem), G. K. B. ..... 

Stratham, A Sketch, of: Down the King's Great Highway, R. M. Seamrnon, 

The Beginning of Methodist Theological Education in New Hampshire, 
William F. Whitcher ....... 

The Birth of the White Mountains (poem), Elizabeth B. Dyer 

The Cocheco (poem), Mark W. F. Durgin . . . 

The Country Depot (poem), Alice O. Darling .... 

The Dear Old Homestead Farm (poem), E. E. Parker 

The Difference in Girls, B. B. 

The Dreamer (poem), J. B. Lawrence . . . . 

The Eames Family in Coos County, Jeremiah Eames Rankia, D. D., LL. D. 
The Exit of the Royal Governor, E. D. Hadley . 
The Federal Supreme Court, Harry M. Cavis, Esq. 
"The House that Jack Buii/t," Adelbert Clark 




The Knot of Army Blue (poem), Adelbert Clark 

The Lord Escutcheon*, C. C. Lord . 

The Month of May (poem), Adelbert Clark 

The Old Daguerreotype. Laura D. Nichols 

The Outing Club, Elena Piedra Abad 

The Passing of Spain, Ralph D. Nicholls . 

The Philippines (poem), Ida G. Adams 

The Shadow of a Coming Event, Alice D. O. Greenwood 

The Wild Flowers of Si ring, Fred Myron Colby . . . * . 

The Winter is Past (poem), Caroline M. Roberts .... 

The Wives of Weinsberg (poem}, Mary H. Wheeler . . - . . 

Unlckikus Loses His Self-Poise, Clarence Henry Pearson 

Vaughn, Gertrude Palmer. My Secret (Poem) ..... 

W T ebster, Ellen E., A Tip-Top Experience on Moosilauke 
Weed, Clarence Moores, Our Winter Birds and their Food Relations 
What Lily- Bell Told (poem), Carl BureU . . 

Wheeler, Mary PL, The Wives of Weinsberg (poem) 
Whitcher, William F.. The Beginning of Methodist Theological Education 
in New Hampshire 















Volurr/c XXVI 



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NEW 1898-1899 STYLES. 

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You "will JL/SltG £i Presoott 

Because the tone is both sweet and brilliant. 

You oara ^f£ox*cl a Fresoott 

Because the terms are easy and prices are reasonable. 

You will Buy ol Presoott 

As soon as you are fully aware of its merits. 


Our new Catalogue gives you further information. Write for one, or call at factory, 

13^1 Xortli IVIciira. Street 







SKe sat at the whe?i one afternoon in autumn. 


The, Granite Aortmm. 

Vol XXVI. 


No. 1. 


(confidential to CUPID.) 
By Gertrude Palmer Vaughn. 

Cupid! pray listen, 
You scheming young elf, 

1 'ye a secret to whisper 

To you, of myself. 

I 've fallen in love. 

There ! the secret is out. 
Now Cupid, stop laughing, 

Mind what vou 're about. 

The picture is finished, 

Her name would you know? 

They called her the ls Mayflower,' 
Long, long years ago. 

" The Mayflower of Plymouth," 

So John Aldeu said, 
Her name is Priscilla, 

The Puritan maid. 

But listen, and hear me, 
I 've something to tell 

Of a dear little maiden 
You know very well. 

If I were an artist, 

Her picture I 'd paint, 

This dear little maiden, 
So sweet and so quaint ; 

With a queer little cap 
On her tresses of brown, 

And cheek like pink roses, 
And sober gray gown ; 

With a rogue in her dimples, 
And laughing brown eyes, 

Whose depths are the coverts 
Where witchery lies. 

A witch, I should call her, 
I 'm sure that is right, 

For my heart 's in her keeping, 
She 's stolen it quite. 

I cannot but love her, 
This maiden demure ; 

She 's taken me captive, 
The conquest is sure. 

Cupid ! go tell her,— 
No time for delay, — 

1 pray you don't loiter 

To play by the way ; 

But haste to Priscilla, 

And whisper it low. 
I '11 wait while you tell her ; 

O Cupid ! please go. 



A Grouo of Ir.diar. Boys. 


By Converse J. Smith. 

THOUSAND pens have 

attempted to describe 
Alaska, but the won- 
I derful territory with its 
^ entrancing scenery has 
never yet been faithfully portrayed 
by even the most versatile writer ; the 
attempt will not be made by myself, 
but certain impressions gained may 
be of interest. 

The distance from Seattle to Sitka, 
which is the capital, is about 1,200 
miles, and from five to seven days is 
required to make the trip, stops be- 
ing made at Victoria, B. C, Mary's 
Island, Wrangle, Juneau, and Skag- 
way ; the fare, until recently, has 
been S50 each way, which included 
meals and stateroom ; at the present 
time, by reason of competition, tickets 
are sold for S25, or one may reach 
Wrangle, Juneau, or Skagway for 
$10, which is a ruinous rate. 

It was in 1867 that it became 
known that Secretary of State Sew- 
ard had negotiated a treaty for the 

purchase of Alaska, in consideration 
of S7, 200, 000; few approved, and 
many condemned the pioposed ac- 

Blaine, Logan, Washburn. Cullom, 
and other leaders entered their pro- 
test, while Charles Sumner in the 
senate and General Banks in the 
house favored the appropriation. 
Hon. A. P. Swaineford, at one time 
governor, and an authority on Alaska, 
states that during the debate in con- 
gress, E. B. Washburn defied any 
living man on the face of the earth 
to produce any evidence that one 
ounce of gold was ever extracted 
from Alaska, and declared the coun- 
try was absolutely without value, yet 
on the 31st of October, the day prior 
to my sailing from Seattle, the United 
States assayer in that city showed me 
$350,000 in gold that was brought 
down from Alaska by the last steam- 
er arriving, and stated that between 
April and October of the present year 
$7, 000, 000 had been delivered to him 


to be assayed, another million had 
been sent to San Francisco, and a 
few hundred thousand dollars in gold 
dust had been sent or taken east by 
miners. A single mine has produced 
more gold than the original appro- 
priation for the purchase of the ter- 
ritory. It is interesting to speculate 
as to why Russia disposed of her 
North American possessions, and the 
reason United States decided to pur- 
chase. It is probable that Russia 
feared, in case of war, she might not 
be able to defend her possessions. 
and it would be natural for Great 
Britain to desire the vast territory 
contiguous to her colonies. On the 
other hand it is the opinion of those 
with whom I have conversed that 
United States desired to reward Rus- 
sia for her friendly attitude men- 
tioned during the Civil War, and 
then it is well to remember a power- 
ful corporation that had controlled 
the country for years was behind the 

It is difficult to comprehend the 

magnitude of Alaska, its grand scen- 
ery, or its mighty rivers. Hon. John 
G. Brady, the present governor of 
Alaska, who resides at Sitka, in- 
forms me the present population is 
estimated at 50,000, and of this num- 
ber about 30,000 are Indians; the 
latest computation places the area as 
Soo,ooo square miles, or equal to all 
the territory east of the Mississippi 
river, while the coast line is 26,000 
miles, a distance that would more 
than circle the globe. 

Sitka is more than 4,000 miles 
from Concord, yet one may travel 
west from this place over 2,400 miles 
and still continue irr Alaska, or if 
the national capital was to be located 
in the centre of the United States 
Sitka would be near the geographi- 
cal centre. 

A letter from Concord asks if I 
will call on Richardson, Barrett, and 
others who are on the Yukon river. 
To do so and follow route taken by 
them it would be necessary to sail 
to St. Michaels, a distance of ^,000 


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miles, then follow the Yukon river 
some 2,000 miles further. It appears 
the officials at Washington find it 
difficult to comprehend the territory 
as well as the ordinary citizen, as the 
collector of customs, who resides at 
Sitka, 'was instructed not long since 
to proceed to Circle City, make an 
investigation, and submit a report by 
return mail. Before taking up the 
investigation he advised the depart- 
ment that six months' time would be 
required to make the journey, and 

currence, and the annual tempera- 
ture is substantially that of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


There are many glaciers iii Alaska, 
and more or less are to be seen from 
the steamer on its regular course 
from Seattle to Sitka ; now and then 
one is pointed out as a dead glacier, 
due to formations that have appeared 
front of the mouth, preventing dis- 
charge into the sea. All of the 
glnciers impress one profoundly and 

. '-'■' - 




$1,500 would be needed to defray 
expenses. His instructions were re- 
voked. Other letters received refer 
to the climate, and give much advice 
as to wearing apparel, if I expect to 
survive. One might as well speak of 
the climate of the United States with- 
out mentioning locality, the popular 
opinion being that Alaska is a bar- 
ren, desolate region of perpetual 
snow and ice, glaciers, and ice-bergs. 
The facts are that there is extreme 
heat and cold in different localities. 
In Sitka zero weather is a rare oc- 

ir Glacier. 

the grandeur cannot be described. 
The Muir glacier, which is about 
70 miles from Juneau, is the largest 
in this vicinity, and the most wonder- 
ful. The main body occupies a vast 
amphitheatre, with diameters rang- 
ing from 30 to 40 miles. The water- 
front is one mile wide, the height of 
the ice above the water is from 250 
to 35° f eet , and is grounded at a 
depth of about 750 feet, therefore, if 
the glacier was all visible it would 
present a solid wall of clear blue ice 
a full mile long and 1,000 feet high. 


It is a river of ice moving to the sea. 
It is estimated that this particular 
glacier moves three feet daily, on an 
average, and in summer months often 
forty feet a day. Try and estimate 
the enormous amount of ice thus fall- 
ing into the sea, which may be seen 
ioo'miles distant. A single block, by 
actual measurement, has been found 
to be 400 feet square. 


The Yukon, undoubtedly, is the 

and there are large steamers plying 
its waters. 



The town of Sitka occupies a 
beautiful site at the head of Sitka 
sound, on the west side of Baranoff 
island. It has a line harbor, and 
here is the - official residence of 
the governor, collector of customs, 
U. S. judge, marshal, commissioner, 
and others. 



: :! 

greatest river in the world, and while 
it has not been seen by the writer 
many have been met who have navi- 
gated its waters. For a distance of 
100 miles the width is. from 12 to 20 
miles, and for 1,500 miles it is three 
miles wide, and the vast volume of 
water is discharged into the sea by 
half a dozen channels. There are 
three great tributaries, one larger 
than the Mississippi, and all are 
navigable for many hundred miles. 

Then there is the great Nughegak 
river, which is 20 miles wide for a 
distance of 50 miles from its mouth, 

There is an Indian school, or- 
phans' home, in which instruction is 
given in both English and Russian 
languages. The Greek church is 
one of the great attractions, espec- 
ially for reasou of valuable paint- 
ings. That of Madonna and child, 
with its drapery of gold, is one of 
the most precious relics. Mount 
Edgecumbe. an extinct volcano 
8,000 feet high, stands like a sen- 
tinel over the place. There are 
about 2.000 inhabitants, one half of 
whom are Indians. 

Skagway has a population of 5,000 






Davidson Glacier. 

: • ! 

inhabitants, and the residents claim 
it is the largest town in Alaska, yet 
a year and a half ago the place 
was unknown. They have a daily 
paper, the nearest telegraph office 
being 1,200 miles distance, substan- 
tial business blocks, school build- 
ings, large stores, and about every- 
thing that goes to make up a 
business city. The Pacific & Arctic 
railroad, the only railroad in the ter- 
ritory, begins here, and is now oper- 
ating fourteen miles of road, and is 
within four miles of the summit of 
White Pass. It is claimed the trail 
over this pass can now be followed 
by the bones of houses that have died 
en route. The road in question is 
to be extended some 300 miles — the 
fare to-day is 30 cents per mile. 

Juneau is situated at the base of a 
mountain which is some 4,000 feet 
in height, and is most picturesque. 
This town has good streets, large 
stocks of merchandise, a theater and 

opera-house, a weekly paper, tele- 
phone service, etc., etc. Across the 
channel, two miles distant, is the 
famous Alaska-Treadwall gold mine, 
with the largest stamp-mill in the 


cannot be comprehended; her vast 
mountains are stored with gold and 
silver ; there are fields of coal, moun- 
tains of iron and copper, and the 
fishing industry surpasses in value 
the entire Atlantic coast. The fur 
trade is simply immense, and good 
judges predict that at no distant day 
the great valley of the Yukon will 
produce sufficient grain to rival in 
value the production of gold, and to- 
day a good variety of vegetables are 
successfully cultivated within sixty 
miles of the Arctic circle. 

Who of us will undertake to defi- 
nitely estimate or limit the value of 
Alaska's undeveloped' resources? 


By Ralph D. Nidwlls. 

TBjLt^* YEAR 1898 witnessed 
)£\ . ^ the final fall of a power 

^$ that was once a world's 

o §■? ruler, of a power whose flag 
was the first ever planted in 
American soil, and whose flag, after 
centuries of misrule, has now been 
flung back, over the seas, and up- 
rooted from its last possession, on 
this side of the water, by the sons of 
the land that its bearers diseovored. 

Spain, the first great colonizing 
power, has seen, as an old man sees, 
the advancing signs of old age, the 
gradual loss of all her once great 
power, the passing from under her 
flag, and dominion, those vast em- 
poriums ot wealth, and gold, from 
which once her galleons sailed, laden 
with riches, — her colonies. 

Once a world-wide power, whose 
flag was borne on every sea, whose 
name was feared in every land, a 
power so great as to boastfully as- 
sume the right over all the west- 
ern seas, and close them tc all but 
Spanish traffic. Eess than four hun- 
dred' years ago, the flag of his 
most Catholic Majesty, the king 
of Spain, floated in the southern 
breezes, waved its gold and crimson 
standard over mountain and valley, 
sea and shore, of all this vast con- 
tinent, North and South, while the 
islands of the seas owned his sway, 
and delivered up their annual tribute 
to the bottomless coffers of the Span- 
ish throne. 

Now, over four hundred years 
from the first time the banner of 
Castile and Arragon was placed in 
the fertile soil of the New World, 
that banner, blood-sprinkled and 
shamed, is uprooted from' its last 
stronghold, and the last remnant of 
Spain's power in America is hurled 
back, broken and defeated, to the 
mother land, now in her old 
age, reduced, forlorn, and beggared, 
tossed and torn with the seething 
undermath of incipient revolution, 
she faces the future, a pale phan- 
tom of what she once was, and 
with the traditions of a glorious, 
yet bloody, past behind her, sinks, 
before the eyes of all, into obscurity 
and oblivion. 

O' er the lauds where once the 
black cowled monk and dread Inquis- 
itor glided to and fro, dark emblems 
of evil: o'er the land where cower- 
ering slaves worked to the hissing- 
music of the lash, till they died in 
the golden mines; o'er the land 
where corruption and treachery were 
so common that it was a matter 
for remark to see an honest, public 
man, now waves a glorious banner, 
the symbol of peace, justice, right, 
and liberty, its heavenly colors danc- 
ing in the sky, bringing hope to the 
downtrodden, and peace to all, the 
flag of our glorious Union, the flag 
of a nation ready to take up arms 
for the helpless and oppressed, — our 
flag, the Stars and Stripes. 



From the fertile valleys, the pros- 
perous cities, the rugged mountains 
•of Porto Rico, from the tangled 
forest growth, from the burnt, deso- 
lated homes and farms, from the 
starving mothers and helpless chil- 
dren, from the bleeding, stern, pa- 
triot bands of Cuba, goes up a cry of 
joy, a cry of thanksgiving, that the 
great shadow of a black darkness 
has passed away forever ; from the 
homes and hearts wells up joy too 
deep for utterance, that henceforth 
they may sit down in peace and 
quietude under their own roofs, and 
none will dare to molest them, and 
that, under the flag that now floats 
over their heads, their lives, their 
homes and dear ones will be safe. 
and their native land will enjoy free- 
dom and peace from all oppression. 

What a contrast from the time 
when Spain's troops under the 
dreaded Alva, overrun Europe and 
compelled kings and emperors to 
sue. for peace. Then, the "first in- 
fantry- in Europe," now, a defeated 
host, shipped back to their native 
country by a generous foe. 

Spain, stripped of her colonies, 
her fleets wrecked, her armies 
beaten, her prestige lost, ceases to 
have any importance in modern his- 
tory, and sinks to the level of a 
third-rate power: having lost all, 
she passes from the stage of history, 
where once she was wont to play 
so important a part, and where she 
once queened it in haughty disre- 
gard of all others. With the pass- 
ing of Spain from the stage of his- 
tory, another power arises to take 

her place, and all eyes are turned 
to the new star of the West, whose 
bright and dazzling rays above the 
horizon, make the Old World nations 
to fear, as they gaze at the entrance 
of a new power among the great 
ones of the earth, and speculate 
what effect this new comer will 
have on their selfish interests and 
schemes. A new voice will now be 
heard in the counsels of the nations, 
speaking, not in harsh and selfish 
disregard of all others' rights, with 
angry tones and strident voice, but 
in a sweet, clear tone, with trumpet 
ring, she will cry before all the glo- 
rious words of the fundamental key- 
stone of her very being, "All men 
are free and equal," while her motto 
shall ever be, for her guidance in 
the new and larger realm of activity 
to which she is now called, "We 
stand for liberty, not license: free- 
dom, equality, and our Union is 
cemented and bound together hy a 
tie that takes in all, as upon our 
crest shall stand in letters of living- 
fire these words : ' One for all, all 
for one.'" 

And in the future union of all 
peoples and tongues, in peace and 
good -will to each other, described 
by the poet in the short, expressive 
phrase, "The parliament of man. 
the federation of the world," one 
may surely venture to prophesy 
that the leader of them all, and the 
presiding genius of that brotherly 
assembly, will be the star-crowned 
Columbia and her ensign will be 
ours — the gloriou; 
Stars and Stripes. 

banner of the 

/; ' .-■ 




Caot W lliam A. Sai bo n. 
Lieut. Joseph L. Morfill. 

Lieut. Rocert S. Foss. 

By Adelbert Clark. 

Four pictured forms before me 

Iu loyal blue, I see, 
Who left their homes and loved outs 

To set a nation free. 
Each face shows hope aud courage, 

Each heart is just and true, 
And each proud form is fit to wear 

The honored loyal blue. 

Four officers of Company K, 

Their praise who would not sing? 
True men as God has ever made, 

And firm as any king. 
Their noble forms stand erect, 

Each eye is keen and clear, 
And on each face with beauty marked, 

There is no shade of fear. 


This one — is Captain Sanborn 

With epaulets sparkling bright 
Upon his manly shoulders, 

Beneath a glowing light. 
How faithfully he led the ranks 

That morning long ago, 
When orchards dreamed of summer, 

And dropped their leaves of snow, 

The next — Lieutenant Morrill, 

The captain's faithful friend, 
And friend to every comrade 

Whose love with his did blend. 
Beneath the flag of freedom, 

From days of early youth, 
1 le learned to love its crimson bars 

And choose the way of truth. 

Here — is Lieutenant Avery : 

Sufficient manly grace. 
And love for home and country 

Gleams from his noble face. 
And 'neath the starry banner 

His heart is always true, 
And never did a man more brave 

Put on the army blue. 

And still beneath the banner 

Of red and white and blue, 
Lieutenant Foss, the fourth one, 

Doth bear an honor, too ! 
The clanging of his sabre, 

The army's fadeless blue, 
They tell us that beneath it ail 

The heart is staunch and true. 

God bless these noble officers; 

Long may their honor live, 
'Till Christ comes in his glory 

The crown of life to give. 
'Till then. O God, I pray Thee, 

Kid every nation cease 
From war's dark, gloomy shadows. 

And gently whisper — Peace ! 


«SflONES ! FKRRY is a 

2y]i small town lying among 

'•-•' the New Hampshire 


hills, in the valley of 
its principal river. It's 
name dates back to the time when 
Amos Jones used to ferry the occa- 
sional passengers across the bridge- 
less river in his shaky scow. A sub- 
stantial bridge long ago displaced 
the old boat, which, with its owner, 
has drifted away into the dim and 
distant past. 

It is an unknown town, a sleepy, 
unnoticed place, but life goes on 
there just as steadily and unceas- 
ingly as in the great cities of the 
country. To the few inhabitants it 
is as real, interesting, and absorbing 
as the constantly shifting scenes 
upon that broader stage. Comedies 
and tragedies are daily enacted, and 
the drama is always "on" to a care- 
ful observer. 

One morning in early June, while 
the dew was still hanging in glisten- 
ing beads from each blade and leaf, 
Deacon Btittersworth came briskly 
up .the one street of the village, on 
his way to the store for a new ox- 
goad. The deacon was a tall, spare 
man, with sharp-cut, rather good- 
looking features. His eyes were 
clear and piercing, and his fingers 
were long and bony, and had a 
gripping habit that was typical of 
the man. He was prominent in the 
church, as his title implied, passed 
the box, and spanked the unruly 

small boy, but was not over- lavish in 
expenditure, unless he could see a 
dollar overlapping the one he ad- 
vanced, even in the service of the 
Lord. He believed in casting his 
bread upon the waters, but he wanted 
to have some attachment upon it so 
that if it did not return readily, he 
could pull it back by main strength. 

As he was passing Squire Perkins's 
house, the owner, who was working 
in the yard, sauntered leisurely down 
to the gate, as if to pass the time of 
day with his neighbor. 

" Fine mornin', Deacon! " 

"First rate! Need some rain, 
though. Crops won't start without 
it. My corn \s just getting up, and 
if it don't rain soon, the sprouts will 

"Well, looks like we might get a 
scud afore night," replied the squire 
consolingly. "Pretty sudden thing 
that, down to the Bolton's," he con- 
tinued. "Heard 'bout it I sup- 

"Yes, just like the bottom dropping 
out 'n a pail," answered the deacon, 
smacking his hands together to give 
force to his illustration. "And it's 
a warnin' to us all," he went on. 
" Beats the nation how some families 
always seem to be in hot water! 
Only last year Seth died, and now 
here 's his widder goes off without a 
moment 's notice, leavin' those chil- 
dren without a cent." 

" What 's goin' to become of 'em ? ,? 

"Well, I suppose the town '11 have 



to take 'em. Haven't any kin as I 
ever heerd of." 

"Taxes are gettin' pretty stiff, 
Deacon. Over one and a half last 
year, and there 's the new school- 
house this year," and the squire 
pursed up his lips and rubbed his 
chin ruefully. 

"And it falls heaviest on you and me, 
Squire," replied the deacon, a black 
scowl falling across his placid fea- 
tures. " I don't see what good such 
shiftless people are, anyway. Xow, 
there was Seth, if he had learned 
some trade he might have left his 
family somethin' to live on instead of 
turnin' them over to you and me to 
support. But he had to become a 
painter and spend all his time daub- 
in' on a piece 'er cloth. The only 
rational thing I ever heerd of his 
doin' was when he painted that sign 
for the butcher down to Reedsville, 
and he done that for a joke." 

Poor Seth Bolton ! his kind heart 
would have suffered a twinge of sad 
pain could he have heard these two 
hard-shelled old farmers reproaching 
him for his devotion of his life to his 
beloved art. With the best i men- 
tions in the world, and with uni emit- 
ting labor he had scarcely been able 
to feed and clothe his small family, 
and when death had suddenly ended 
his career, he left behind him a 
few half-foished pictures, a sunset 
painted from the hill above the town, 
and a lot of squeezed p lint tubes, as 
empty as his pocket-book, His bal- 
ance at the bank was nil. and his 
credit with the grocer zero. 

His brave little wife had put her 
willing shoulder to the wheel and 
managed to keep it from sinking into 
the mire of utter penury, but now 
she was as suddenly taken away, 

leaving nothing behind for the sweet 
little babes but the lingering: reraem- 
brance of her love and care. The 
sun of their fortunes seemed to have 
set completely, and the West was 
leaden with the promise of a sad to- 

The funeral was over ; the poor 
little mother was taking the first rest 
she had had in years, and the chil- 
dren had been brought back to the 
house by the neighbors to await the 
action of the selectmen as to their 
disposal. The woman who was sup- 
posed to take care of them in the 
interim had gone home to dinner, 
and intended, doubtless, to bring the 
children something to eat when she 
returned. As far as the neighbors 
knew, there were no relatives to 
whom the children could be sent, 
and there seemed no outlook for 
them but the work-house. Sorrow- 
ful ending for the little lives for 
which Seth and his dear wife had 
planned so brilliant and happy a 
future ! 

Jack was a bright, sturdy little 
fellow, just a year in knickerbockers. 
His eyes looked out fearlessly from 
under his long dark lashes, while his 
chubby fists were ready to do battle 
on all occasions. His stout little 
legs, his straight back, and open 
brow all denoted fearlessness and 
honesty. Pirie was four, with long 
golden curls, and great, round blue 
eyes, big enough to hold his little 
hands -when he cried. His was one 
of those confiding little faces which 
go straight to a mother's heart. Just 
at this minute the blue eves were 
filled with tears, and weary sobs fol- 
lowed each other in rapid succession 
like waves upon the beach. He was 
crying for the dear mother, for when 



they told him she was dead that 
meant nothing to him, and he met 
all Jack's sad attempts to pacify him 
with the plaintive cry so pitiful to 
hear : 

" Me wants mamma ! '.' 

Alas ! she would never smooth 
back his golden curls again, nor 
kiss the tears from the soft round 
cheeks. The rough hand of ad- 
versity had replaced her tender and 
loving fingers. 

"Don't cry, Pirie, dear!" said 
Jack, great drops starting from his 
own eyes and dropping upon the lit- 
tle one's upturned face. ' ; Mamma 
won't come any more, Pirie," he 
said in tremulous voice. " Mamma 
is way up in the blue sky with 
papa and the angels ; but she sees 
you and me, and she is paiting 
you on the head now, though you 
can't feel it." 

"Me wants to feel it; me wants 
her here, Jack," wailed Pirie. 

Jack choked back a sob, took 
him in his arms, and tried to rock 
him to sleep. After a while the 
tired little head fell back on his 
shoulder, and his troubles were for- 
gotten. Poor little motherless 
babes ! No one in the wide, wide 
world to care for them ; no gentle 
hand to guide their faltering, un- 
knowing steps; no watchful eye to 
foresee and prepare for coming 
troubles; nothing but the work- 
house, the work-house for these 

Patiently and softly, back and 
forth, rocked Jack, Pirie's curly 
head lying quietly on his shoulder, 
while the great tears rolled slowly 
down his own cheeks. Poor Jack ! 
He could not fall asleep and forget 
it all. He k?iew what death meant 

in a dim, uncertain way ; he knew 
that never in the long years before 
them, would that sweet smile bring 
peace to their grieved little hearts, 
smoothing away all troubles. But 
Jack was older than his years ; Jack 
was a philosopher. He saw that 
he was left the head of a family, 
and his brave heart, instead of giv- 
ing way to despair, rose to meet 
the occasion, and he pressed back 
the sobs, cuddled Pirie closer to his 
breast, and resolved to "manfully 
fight under Christ's banner against 
sin, the world, and the devil," as he 
had been baptised to do, though of 
course he did not use the'se words. 

His mother had died very sud- 
denly, just as her husband had 
done, and had been able to make 
no provision for her little ones, but 
she had often talked with Jack 
about her sister in California, and 
told him if anything happened to 
her he must take Pirie and go to 
this Aunt Clorinda. Of course she 
did not mean for them to go alone, 
for she did not expect to die so 
suddenly, but simply wished him to 
remember that there was some one 
to turn to in case of need. As the 
little fellow thought over what he 
should do, these words came back 
to his mind, and he decided at 
once "to go to his Aunt Clorinda's 
in California." He did not know 
any more than that she lived in 
California, and he had about as 
much idea of what and where Cali- 
fornia was as he had of the Mo- 
hammedan religion. He did not 
even know his aunt's last name, for 
she was married, and his mother 
had never spoken of her except as 
"Aunt Clorinda," but that did not 
trouble Jack. He thought every- 



one must know bis 'Aunt Clo- 
rinda." He knew everyone in 
Jonesville, and supposed Jonesville 
was a large segment of the uni- 

Before the funeral. Jack had over- 
heard the squire and the deacon 
talking things over behind the 
house, and was greatly terrified 
when he caught them discussing 
the advisability of sending them to 
the work-house. He had not a 
very clear idea of what the work- 
house was, but knew it must be 
something awful, because he had 
once heard his mother say that 
"she would rather go to the work- 
house than sell one of the sunsets 
which adorned the walls of their 
little parlor." 

He feared they would carry out 
their evil intentions at once, and it 
suddenly occurred to Jack that he 
must act quickly or it would be 
too late. So, quietly laying Pirie 
down upon the sofa, he began his 
preparations for departure. 

To a boy of his age the first 
thought was for something to eat. 
He remembered certain jolly pic- 
nics they used to have before his 
dear father died, so he got a little 
basket and went to the pantry, and 
filled it with what he could find, 
though the cupboard was nearly in 
the' condition in which old Mather 
Hubbard krAiv: hers; but a few 
slices of bread, some cold meat, 
and a stray doughnut or two filled 
the small basket. Having provided 
the food for the trip to California, 
Jack went back into the little 
parlor, and looked thoughtfully at 
Pirie cuddled up on the sofa, his 
head pillowed on his amis, and his 
fat little legs drawn \\\) like those 

of a kitten. When his eyes fell on 
the bare legs he shook his head. 
'' It would never do in the world," 
he thought. " Pirie could not walk 
to California, be it ever so near. 
His legs would give out before 
they had gone half way," and he 
remembered how often he had had 
to carry him when they had gone 
over to the "Ferry" together to 

Plere was a serious question. He 
felt sure of his own sturdy legs, but 
poor little Pirie, who did not even 
wear trousers ! Oh ! no, he could 
never do it in the world ! 

Suddenly a bright idea occurred 
to him, and he ran out into the 
shed. He was gone several min- 
utes, but presently came back draw- 
ing a little four-wheeled cart such 
as children have to play with, only 
this one was strongly built. Jack's 
father had made it for the children. 

This, thought Jack, would 
straighten matters out, for when 
Pirie was tired, Pirie could get in 
and ride. Xow, having his sup- 
plies and his conveyance ready, 
Jack scratched his head to see if 
there was anything else. It was 
summer, but sometimes it got cold 
as night came on, and he remem- 
bered that when they went out for 
an afternoon his mother always 
used to carry Pirie's little coat and 
a shawl, so he went tip-stairs and 
got the gray coat with the brown 
braid on the sleeves, and the red 
plaid shawl he had seen her carry, 
and stowed them carefully in the 
wagon, occupying as little space as 
possible. Then, after making sure 
that his most important piece of 
property (a large jack-knife) was 
in his pocket, he decided that 


everything' was reach" for depart- 

He was reluctant to wake Pirie, 
but felt that he must get away be- 
fore those fearful men carried out 
their purpose ; so he gently shook 
the little fellow, and .when the 
sleepy eyes opened wonderingly, he 
said : 

"Wake up, Pirie! I'm going 
over in the woods to play Indians. 
Don't you want to come?" 

" Ess," cried Pirie, wide awake 
in a moment when such a lark was 
in prospect. 

" Well, hurry up and let me put 
on your hat then, 'cause I want to 
get over there as soon as I can," 
and Jack bustled about, and got 
Pirie's straw hat (the la^t thing his 
mother had done for the little fel- 
low was to trim this hat), and put 
it on his glossy curls, now some- 
what tangled by his nap. Then, 
after smoothing down his dress and 
straightening his collar, he took 
him by the hand, and hauling the 
wagon with the other, hurried out 
through the front door. 

Just as they were about to go 
down the steps Jack stopped, and 
telling Pirie to wait a minute, went 
back to the little parlor. Pulling a 
chair across the room, he climbed 
up, and kissed a tiny portrait of 
his mother, which his father had 
painted, and then moved the chair 
over to his father's favorite paint- 
ing, and pressed his sad, little face 
to that as a last good-by to all that 
was dear in the poor, little home. 
Then he stood for a moment in the 
middle of the room, the tears rolling 
slowly down his cheeks, and look- 
ing from one painting to the other. 
He was thinking that he would 

xxv 1—2 

like to take these pictures with 
him, but he knew that if Pirie 
once caught sight of his mother's 
portrait his plans would all be up- 
set, so he decided to leave that 
and take the painting. Placing a 
cricket, in the chair he pulled the 
cord over the hook, and lifted the 
picture, which was about a foot 
square, down to the floor. After 
dusting it carefully, with his hand- 
kerchief, he hurried out to the door 
and stood it in the cart with his 
other baggage, much to Pirie's 

Before venturing out . into the 
street, he peered up and down the 
highway to see if anyone was in 
sight, but it was the noon hour, 
and all the systematic country folk 
were at their middav meal. Seeins: 
that the path was clear, he grasped 
Pirie's hand, and they hastened 
down the graveled walk, on either 
side of which the early rose bushes 
filled the air with their fragrance. 
It seemed as though they were to 
get away without being discovered, 
and Jack felt relieved, but just as 
they were going through the gate 
they were stopped by a harsh voice, 
which cried out : 

"Hullo, Jack! " 

Somewhat startled, Jack looked 
round, and was greatly relieved to 
find that it was only Polly, the par- 
rot, who had been completely for- 
gotten in the hurry of the funeral, 
and had been left hanging on his 
perch, under the honeysuckle, on 
the porch. 

"Poor Polly!" said Jack sadly 
to himself, "who will take care of 

"Hullo, Jack! Does yer mother 
know you're out? Polly wants a 



cracker!" yelled the pa-rot; 'and 
Jack thought it quite probable that 
she did want a cracker, for, as near 
as he could remenibrr, she had had 
nothing all day, so he opened his 
basket, took v out a piece of bread, 
and went back to give it to her. 
The old bird, the friend and com- 
panion of many a happy day, 
"climbed down off her perch, rubbed 
her nose against the boy's hand, 
and ate the bread with relish. 
This little mark of affection touched 
Jack's heart, and he resolved not to 
leave her behind to the tender mer- 
cies of such men as the squire and 
the deacon. It seemed to him that 
Aunt Cloriuda could not object to 
having such a bright, cheery bird 
as Polly. 

This parrot had been the pet of 
the family for yeai's, and was sup- 
posed to be anywhere from fifty to 
two hundred years old. He had 
been labored with by several gen- 
erations of various religious pro- 
clivities, and some, it is to be 
feared, with no religious procliv- 
ities, to judge from his acquire- 
ments. He was remarkably adept 
at picking up anything odd, origi- 
nal, or profane. If he overheard 
the boys in the street Ubiug any 
slang phrase he was sure to crop 
oat with it shortly. 

With the bird perched upon the 
edge of the cart tiu-y started once 
more on their pilgrimage. As soon 
as the bread was fairly swallowed 
Polly gave vent to her feelings as 
follows : 

"Jock 's a brick ! Jack 's a brick ! 

Jack's a rip-snorter!" and she 

kept on repeating these important 

facts to the trees and fence posts 

or the next twenty rods, and filling 

the whole air with his praises. She 
was an appreciative bird- 

It was lucky people were busy 
with their dinners at the rear of 
their houses, or this little trio 
would certainly have been discov- 
ered and their plans upset ; but for- 
tune favored them, and even Pine's 
toddling steps soon carried him 
outside the village, and under the 
fragrant forest trees which lined the 
road. When they had gone for 
some distance into the woods, Pirie, 
who had hitherto been too much 
absorbed in hauling the cart to 
notice where they were, suddenly 

" Will 'oo play Injun now, Jack?" 

11 No, not just yet, Pirie, this isn't 
so good as a place I know of down 
here a little farther." 

"Oo said you were going to play 
Injuns," objected the little one. 

" I know, Pirie, but we must n't 
stop here, we will by and by." 

" Where is 'oo going. Jack?" 

"To Aunt Clorinda's in Cali- 

"Me don't want to go to Aunt 
Clorinda's. Me w T ants to stay here 
and play Injuns." 

"But we can't stay here," objected 
Jack. "Mamma is gone, and we have 
no one to take care of us now, 
and we must go to Aunt Clorinda's." 

"Me don't want any Aunt Clo- 
dinda ; me wants my mamma!" cried 
poor little Pirie, and the great tears 
rolled down his already streaked 

"Now, Pirie," said Jack, putting 
his arm round him protectingly and 
wiping away the great drops, "you 
must be a brave boy, for we have 
got to go a long ways, and we must 
hurry up so as to get away from 



seme wicked men, and then you 
don't know what a beautiful place 
we are going to. Oh ! it's the finest 
place in the world ! and they have 
ponies, catts, and rabbits, and flow- 
ers and music — and circuses — and — 
and " : here Jack's invention gave 
out, but he had described a suffi- 
cient number of beautiful things to 
make Pirie's eyes brighten up, and 
he turned his eager little face up to 
his brother in happy, expectation. 
He promised not to cry any more, 
and so, taking up the handle of the 
cart, they paddled on once more ; a 
strange procession under the great 
pines. vSturdv little Jack leading 
blue-eyed Pirie, whose golden curls, 
now all disheveled, waved in the 
lazy afternoon breeze, and rolling on 
behind them the red-striped wagon, 
with the knowing old parrot perched 
on one side, gazing abstractedly at 
the bright-hued sunset, which occu- 
pied the opposite side of the cart. 

For some time Polly kept silent, 
evidently enjoying the fragrance of 
the trees, and tasting the novelty 
of the situation, but silence was 
not her forte, and after a while 
she began to rehearse her vocab- 
ulary of choice expressions. She 
had learned, among other things, a 
number of tripping rhymes, which 
she reeled much * more accurately 
than a person could do. 

Pier first attempt was the follow- 
ing, well known to all children : 

" Robert Rowley rolled a round roll round ; 
A round roll Robert Rowley rolled round ; 
When rolled the round roll Robert Rowley 
rolled round." 

" That's a good one! Polly, give 
us another," said Jack, when the 
parrot stopped for breath. It re- 

minded him of home, and com- 
forted his troubled heart. 

" Dat \s a dood one ! Polly/' lisped 
Pirie. " Dive us anoder ! " 

14 Hold your yawp," screamed 
Poll}', who did not like being inter- 
rupted, and then went on, 

" Under a shady tree they sat, 

He held her hand, she held his hat ; 
I held my breath, and lay right fiat. 
He held that kissing- was no crime ; 
She held her head up even,' time ; 
I held my breath and wrote this rhyme. 
While they thought no one knew it." 

* You try that, Pirie," said Jack r 
wishing to interest the little fellow 
and prevent his feeling tired. 

11 Me tan't say dat, but me tan say 
the 'odder." 

"Well try the other then," an- 
swered Jack encouragingly. 

1 ' Wobert Wowly wolled a woll — 
woll wound Wobert Wowley wolled 
a woll — woll — wound — Oh ! Me tan't 
do it Jack ! Me's tongue sticks." 

" Well, never mind. Polly will do 
it for you;" and so Polly went on 
with her instructive poems. 

It will have been noticed by this 
time that Jack's ideas of geography 
were rather vague. He thought 
California must be somewhere at the 
end of the turnpike that went by the 
house, and all he would have to do 
to get there would be to follow it 
right into' his Aunt Clorinda's arms. 
With this idea in his mind he was 
now on his way, with his helpless 
charges fleeing from a poor-house to 
cast himself upon the mercy of a not 
over - generous world. Two wee 
elves! two babes! alone under God's 
heaven, with no friend, no shelter, 
no food to speak of; but perhaps 
Jack's supreme trust in something, 
he knew not what, was a more 



powerful protection than the shield 
of the mightiest ruler in Christen- 
dom. Surely the echo of these weary 
little footfalls fell upon God's heart ! 

After progressing in this manner 
for about an hour and a half, a man 
■with a wagon overtook them on the 
road. They did not know him, but 
jack had noticed that Pirie was show- 
ing signs of fatigue, and thought, 
perhaps, the man would give them a 
ride. So, just as the horse was 
abreast of them, and the man was 
looking curiously down upon the 
strange trio, Jack asked if they 
might get in and ride a little way. 

"Who be you/ anyway ? " asked 
the man as he reined in his horse. 

"Jack and Pirie," answered our 
hero simply. 

"Well, who's yer father, yer lit- 
tle tramp? Oh, I know you! You 
needn't tell me ! You belong to one 
'er them gipsy tribes and they 've 
sent you out to steal. Ye can't come 
none of yer tricks on me. G 'lang 

Poor Jack looked at the man in 
/ wide-eyed fear and amazement, and 
Pirie's little lower lip began to quiver 
and pucker at the harsh words. But 
they had a defender, and cue who 
was equal to the occasion. Polly, 
who had been listening intently, 
screeched after tlie man loud enough 
to wake the dead : 

"Go to Tuuket' you old rap- 
scallion ! " 

"What's that!" cried the man, 
furiously reining in his horse. 

"Goto Tunktt! go to Tunket!" 
reiterated Polly. "Rapscallion! 
Horse thief! Bummer! Skinflint! 
Wo-o-o-oe-o-u-'.v ! " at.d Polly ended 
up with a most terrific yell of deri- 
sion. She was thoroughly aroused 

and poured forth all the invectives 
she could command. 

The man had stopped his horse 
and sat staring at the bird stupidly, 
not knowing what to say or do, but 
he finally shook his fist at the little 
group in the dusty road and drove 
away, followed, till he was out of 
sight, by Polly's injurious remarks, 
and even when he had disappeared 
round a bend in the road, the old 
bird would bristle up and remark 
that " he was no gentleman ! " 

This man's rough speech troubled 
Jack a good deal. The boy had a 
vague idea that gypsies were very 
wicked, and he feared that there was 
something wrong about Pirie and 
himself, for every one seemed to 
want to injure them. After this 
rebuff lie rather avoided meeting 
anj'one, and would not have asked 
a favor of a man for the world. 

But, by this time, Pirie's strength 
had reached its limit. His short, lit- 
tle legs could walk no more ; he was 
all tired out, and looking pitifully at 
Jack he said : 

" I'se so tired, Jack ! " 

"You shan't walk any further, 
Pirie," said Jack, and he lifted the 
sleepy, little fellow into the cart 
beside the parrot and the picture. 
Then, after bolstering him up with 
the shawl and coat, he grasped the 
handle and went on. This was a 
change for Pirie, .and he was con- 
tented once more. He took the par- 
rot in his lap and stroked her head, 
and the good old bird chuckled to 
herself and winked her eye know- 

Past fences, fields, and through 
woods, sturdy little Jack trundled 
along, though he, too, was getting 
very tired, but he wanted, if possi- 



ble, to reach California that night 
before dark. He did not dare to ask 
a man any questions, but thought if 
he met a woman he would venture to 
do so. They did not meet a woman. 
but about five o'clock they came 
upon a little girl of about our hero's 
age carrying a pail of milk. The 
boys both looked hungrily at the 
milk, but did not dare to ask for any. 

The little girl had a kind face so 
Jack ventured to ask, 

" How far is it to California ? " 

The child was nonplussed, but not 
wishing to appear ignorant to this 
nice looking boy, she said, 

"Oh, 'bout a mile and a half." 

" Is this the right way?" 

" Yes, you keep right on and turn 
to the right." 

And the little girl trudged away, 
well satisfied with her directions. 
Jack also felt reassured. Certainly, 
these directions were explicit enough, 
and he could not fail to find his 
aunt. + 

And so he pulled his tired legs 
along, though he wanted awfully to 
lie down on every soft place he 
passed and rest, for he thought he 
ought to get there as soon as possible 
on Pirie's account. But supper time 
was drawing near and little Pirie's 
stomach began to cry out, and it 
wasn't long beicre Jack's course was 
stopped by a plaintive wail from be- 

"Jack, I se so hundry ! " and then 
Polly insisted that she "wanted a 

As there seemed to be a general 
call for food our hero stopped by a 
little brook, which they happened to 
be passing, and unloading the child, 
parrot, and basket on the bank pre- 
pared for supper. The contents of 

the basket were spread out on the 
ground and each helped himself, and 
when they got through there was 
only a crust of bread and a doughnut 
left. These Jack carefully put back 
in the basket, though he hardly 
thought they should need them, as 
the}* must soon get to " aunt Clorin- 
da's/' After making a cup out of an 
oak leaf, and giving Pirie a drink, 
they started on their way again. 

Darkness was now coming on. and 
our little hero began looking about 
anxiously 'for his aunt's, but he could 
see no house that though it 
could be the place he was in search 
of. In fact houses were very scarce 
and far between, and did not look 
very inviting. Of course, his aunt's 
must be an elegant place with great 
grounds and buildings, he thought. 
So on and on he trudged, his legs 
getting heavier and heavier every 
minute,. for it was a pretty long walk 
for the little fellow, to say nothing of 
hauling the cart and Pirie. 

But no house appeared, and he 
could not understand what the lit- 
tle girl had meant when she told him 
it was "only 'bout a mile and a half" 
further on. The shadows were fall- 
ing and as they lay in long, fearful 
shapes across the road, they appeared 
to little Pirie like monstrous dragons 
and fearful things he had heard of in 
fairy tales. He had kept pretty quiet 
lately, under the promise that the}' 
would soon be at " aunt Clorinda's/' 
where were all manner of beautiful 
things, but when it began to get real 
dark he could stand it no longer, and 
Jack heard the usual signal of dis- 
tress from the cart. Pirie's little 
lower lip was quivering pitifully, and 
now and then a restrained sob came 
from his overburdened heart. 



Is there anything in the world 
which is quite so pitiful, and ap- 
peals quite so quickly to any heart 
not made of stone, as that pucker- 
ing up of a baby's lip just before 
he begins to cry ? It gives the lit- 
tle face such a grieved, reproachful 
look that one feels that he would 
lay down his life to spare the sweet 
little toddlekius a pain. 

The moment Jack saw Pirie's lip 
go up he dropped the handle of the 
•cart and took the child right up in 
his arms and sat down in the road. 

"There! there! Pirie dear, don't 
cry," begged our hero, "you must 
be a brave little man ! " 

"Me wants mamma! Where is 
mamma, Jack? I'se so cold and 
hundry, and its all dark and I 'se 
afwaid ! " , 

" I know, Pirie, but we shall get to 
a beautiful place soon where there are 
great walls, and music, and flowers, 
and people, and rocking horses, and 
everything. Now, you jnst be a 
brave boy, and I know lots of things 
you '11 have." Jack had to invent 
his description of his "aunt's Clorin- 
da's," and thought it well to make it 
beautiful enough to divert Pirie's 
mind. His words had a certain 
effect for the sobs gradually ceased, 
and when he was quieted down our 
hero put him back in the can and 
wrapped the scrawl around him, after 
putting on hiss liUle gray coat. 
While he was doing \\\\< I\>lly, who 
had been taking a nap, woke up and 
said in very audible tones, 

"Whoop-la! Set 'em up again! 
Poor Pirie! Pirie want a cracker?" 
And then he cuddled up to the little 
fellow as though he, too, feared the 
dark and wanted companionship, and 
it made Pirie feel less lonely. 

Night was now upon them, dark 
and chilly, and no house was in 
sight, and Jack felt that he could not 
go much further, for his legs ached 
so badly that he could hardly stand, 
and when he thought of his being 
away off here alone with Pirie and 
no mother nor father to care for them 
the great drops began to fall from his 
heavy eyes. But he held back his 
sobs lest Pirie should hear them, 
for if be should break down he 
knew Pirie would lose all trust 
and confidence in him and go all 
to pieces, so he looked an-xiously 
through his tears for some place of 
shelter. What should they'do! It 
would never do to let Pirie sleep out 
doors all night. He would catch his 
death, but nowhere could he see any 
house, and he was about at the end 
of his strength. His heart began to 
sink, for the fields stretched away on 
either hand into the darkness, and 
no sign of life was visible. It was 
still as death, and even the birds and 
frogs seemed to have gone to sleep. 

Just as he came near allowing a 
sob to slip from his lips he saw some- 
thing round in a field a short dis- 
tance from the road, and hurrying 
towards it, straining his tired eyes, 
bitter was his disappointment to find 
il only a great hay stack ; one of those 
mounds which are sometimes piled 
up in the fields when the farmers 
have not sufficient room in their 
barns for all the hay. 

Jack turned away with a heavy 
heart and was about to continue his 
toilsome road when a thought struck 
him. Many and many a time he had 
played around such stacks at home, 
digging great holes through them 
and hiding there for hours, and it 
now occurred to him that he might 




do, Jack?" 
."Where is 

them vet, 

make a nice warm nest m this one 
for them to spend the night in, as 
there seemed no other place of refuge. 
It would surely be much better than 
sleeping out on the open road, so he 
trundled the cart with its precious 
load across the field to the stack, 
much to Pirie's wonder and amaze- 

''What "00 doiu' to 
asked N Pirie, sleepily. 
*oo castle and moosik? 

"We havu't got t< 
Pirie, but do you know I have a 
plan that will be lots of fun. Did 
you ever sleep in a haystack. 

" No," said Pirie with eyes wide 
open in wonder. 

"Well, I don't suppose you had 
better, but I often do, and it 's such 
fun, but you are so small I don't sup- 
pose you could be brave enough to 
do it." 

"Oh! 'ess I tould, Jack. I'se so 
brave! Me won't try a bit. Will 
'00 let me, Jack? " 

"Well, perhaps, Pirie, if you'll be 
awful good," and Jack appeared to 
give in reluctantly, which ouly made 
Pirie the more urgent. 

" Well, then, if you want to do 
it you must sit light still while , I 
make the house in the hay, and 
when I go in out of sight you 
mustn't be afraid." 

" No, me won't be 'fwaid.'' 

So Jack hauled the cart close to 
the stack and then began digging 
out the hay near the bottom to make 
a nest for them to sleep in. He 
worked away rapidly, pulling out 
great handfuis, and gradually dug 
his way right into the middle. 
When he had gotten in a few feet 
he dug it out on all sides of him so 

as to make a sort of little room in 
which the}' could turn around. 

Pirie got awfully frightened wait- 
ing all alone for Jack outside the 
stack in the dark, and if it had not 
been for the promise he had made 
and the reward he expected, could 
not have stood it. But finally Jack 
backed out of the hole and told Pirie 
that all was ready, and followed by the 
little fellow, who was rather fearful 
of the darkness, he crawled in again. 
When Pirie got inside he found tliat 
his brother had dug out a hole big 
enough for them both to sit upright 
in and turn round if necessary. 
After getting the little fellow accus- 
tomed to the darkness Jack went 
back for the bird and the other traps. 
But he had not gone more than half 
way out when he met the faithful 
old parrot, who did not mean to be 
left behind, waddling in on her own 

" In the gloaming, O my darling," 

sang Polly sotto voce, as Jack picked 
her up and crawled backwards to 
the nest and gave her into Pirie's 

Then he went out again and re- 
turned with the shawl and the basket 
and the picture. The picture he 
carefully stowed away in a corner 
where it would not get hurt, and 
then he opened the basket to see 
what there was left, for he was des- 
perately hungry, and knew Pirie and 
the parrot were, for he heard them 
talking it over confidentially as he 
was coming in. Pirie was saying: 

"I 'se so hundry, ain't you, Polly?" 
and then Polly would jerk out, 

" Polly wants a cracker, you bet ! " 

Poor Jack's heart sank when he 
saw the contents of the basket. A 
crust of bread and a doughnut was 



all that was left. A meagre repast 
for two hungry boys and a parrot. 
Bui without saying anything to Pirie 
our hero handed him the doughnut, 
and the famished little fellow soon 
put himself outside of it and looked 
hungrily up for more, but Tack could 
not give it to him. He was holding 
the piece or bread in his hand and 
i'eeling it over wistfully. Ue was so 
famished that he felt faint, but he 
remembered that there was nothing 
more in the basket and the parrot 
had not had anything and Pirie only 
a little, so. with a sigh, he broke the 
bread in two pieces and gave half to 
Pirie and the other half to Polly, and 
the two ate their allowance greedily, 
not knowing that their brave little 
protector was going without a mouth- 
ful in order to feed them. Poor Jack 
squeezed himself as far away in the 
hole as he could get and buried his 
face in the hay to hide his sobs from 
Pirie, for he could not restrain them. 
Of course it was quite dark so the 
little fellow did not notice what his 
brother was doing, and then lie was 
very busy eating the bread. 

After a while Jack screwed up 
his courage and resolved to brave it 
out, though he felt as though he 
could not go to sleep without a 
mouthful, but there was no help for 
it, so he ptal sonre wisps of hay in 
his mouth to try and appease his 
hunger. Wfeen Pirie had eaten the 
last mouthful Jack crawled up to 
him, and wrapped the shawl around 
him outside of the little gray coat. 
and then lay down by his side and 
hugged him up close to his hreast. 

" Now, Pirie, yon must go to 
sleep just as though we were in 
our own little trundle bed," said 
our hero. 

Pirie seemed contented for a while, 
and the novelty kept him absorbed 
in his thoughts, but presently lie 
said : 

"Jack, is that 'oo music?'' 

Jack listened, and could hear the 
frogs pipiug up in a neighboring 
pond, and remembered that he had 
told Pirie that they were going to 
a place where there was beautiful 
music. He thought it no harm to 
interest the little fellow, so he said : 

"Yes, Pirie, that's it, way off, 
and to morrow, when we wake up, 
we will go where it is and se^ all the 
players. Now, you just listen and 
hear the whistles and the drums." 

And the frogs kept up their 
thrumming songs, and as they 
drifted through the silent night air 
across the fields, they sounded not 
unlike distant music. 

The old parrot found a snag nest 
in the lunch basket, and after a 
violent fit of coughing, and a few 
remarks about the narrowness of his 
quarters, he relapsed into silence. 

The moon rose higher and higher 
in the heavens, and at last peeped 
into the hole which Jack had dug, 
and gazed lovingly on the two little 
forms, Pirie's golden head pillowed 
on Jack's arm, and his little knees 
drawn up, and resting in the pit of 
his brother's stomach. And a smile 
stole over the face of the moon, and 
it sailed on its way looking down 
upon scenes of happiness and joy, 
and upon others which were heart- 
breaking in their pitifulness. But 
this little nest in the haystack with 
its two helpless occupants was not 
forgotten by the moon, and next 
morning, when it had made its com- 
plete circuit and reported to God 
what it had seen during- the still 



night, it' asked that "Jack and 
Pirie" might be especially cared 
for. The ''man yh the" had 
taken them under his protection. 

It was late the next morning when 
jack opened his eyes and saw the 
broad Jight of day shilling in at the 
opening in the stack. For a moment 
he did not know what to make of it, 
nor where he was, but, after rubbing 
his eyes and getting the hay out of 
his hair, he remembered it all, and 
in spite of himself a sigh escaped his 
lips, for he realized how hungry he 
was, and how alone in the world. 

He thought he would not wake 
Pirie, who was fast asleep, but he 
disturbed him in getting up and 
the little fellow slowly rubbed his 
sleepy eyes, and looked around ap- 
pealingly. Seeing nothing but the 
long spears of hay all about him, 
he puckered up his lips and began 
to cry. This woke the parrot, who 
stretched himself and pruned his 
wings and tail. 

Jack thought how he would like 
some of his mother's rolls and coffee 
and how good it used to seem to 
sit around the cosey little breakfast 
table in the morning, and his stom- 
ach began to ache again from long 
fasting. Pirie was hungry, too. and 
Jack had not a morsel to give him. 
The basket was absolute!}' empty; 
not a ciumb was left. What was to 
be done ? Evidently they could not 
stay there. The only thing was to 
push on and get to "aunt Clor- 
inda's" as soon as possible, though 
the little fellow did not feel as if he 
could walk a step, he was so tired 
and sore from his long tramp of the 
day before. After quieting Piiie as 
well as he could, he led the way out 
into the open air. carrying the basket 

and the parrot, etc. When they got 
outside they found that it was broad 
daylight and the sun well up in the 
heavens, for, being so tired, their 
sleep had been long and heavy. 
The dew was still on the grass, and 
the birds were singing everywhere. 
It was a beautiful day, fortunately 
for the little ones. 

The\- could now see around them, 
and note their surroundings. The 
stack in which they had slept was 
in the centre of a big hay field, and 
away off beyond some trees, could 
be seen the chimneys of a house and 
the top of a windmill. Jack looked 
at these chimneys wistfully, for he 
could see the smoke pouring out of 
them, and his imagination pictured 
the owner and his family sitting 
down to a good breakfast, while he 
and little Pirie were out here with 
their poor little stomachs all puck- 
ered up with the pain of hunger. 
He glanced down at his brother and 
saw that the round little face was 
pale with fatigue, and he drew him- 
self up and resolved to go to this 
house and get something to eat at 
any cost. Pie could suffer himself, 
but he could not see Pirie suffer, 
and no matter what they might say 
to him about being a gypsy, he 
would insist on having something to 
eat for Pirie. 

Without waiting longer, he placed 
Pirie and the parrot in the wagon, 
and started off across the fields tow- 
ards the chimney tops. The wagon 
seemed to have grown many pounds 
heavier during the night, and his 
legs felt as though there was a stick 
running right down through them, 
but he labored on, holding one hand 
on his stomach to quiet the pain, for 
it ached and ached. 



After proceeding in this way for 
fifteen minutes or so, he came to the 
trees, and found that they consisted 
of a large orchard of pear and apple 
trees, and beyond and through them 
he could see a great lawn with enor- 
mous elms scattered here and there. 
Winding among the trees he went 
across the orchard towards the lawn 
which he supposed must le?.d to the 
house. He looked anxiously up at 
the spreading limbs in hopes there 
were some apples on them, but it 
was too early and none were ripe. 

On the edge of the orchard was a 
sweeping driveway running around 
the lawn under an avenue of trees. 
and Jack turned into it and trundled 
his wagon over the hard surface 
towards the now visible house. 
The)' had not proceeded far when 
they saw a man approach i ng carry- 
ing a child in his arms. This reas- 
sured Jack, for he felt that a man 
with a child of his own would not be 
cross to them, but when they got 
near enough to see dearly their eyes 
opened wide in wonder, for though 
a child in size he was a man in years. 

A strange, misshapen little form, 
held in the arms of a strong man, 
evidently a servant ; his legs which 
were thin and cro< ked, hung over 
the man's arms, while his poor, weak 
arms encircled the man's neck. His 
back was humped and his head was 
large, but his face was sweet and 
noble. He had large, expressive 
eyes, a high forehead, and beautiful 
teeth. If one had see a only his face 
they would have exclaimed, "What 
a handsome man!" But his body 
was terrible in its deformity. His 
features denoted nobility of soul, and 
showed the marks of extreme suffer- 
ing, either mental or physical. 

As they came near, the children 
looked at him in wonder, and Pirie 
whispered to Jack, just loud enough 
to lie heard by the dwarf, 
- "Jack, is 'at a brownie?" 

" Hush! " said our hero, who saw 
the momentary pained look come 
over the sweet face and then turn 
into a smile. 

"Who are you, my little man," 
said the dwarf, as the weary caval- 
cade came to a halt at his feet. 

11 Jack and Pirie," said our hero. 

The sen-ant almost laughed, but 
the "Brownie" nudged him and he 
restrained himself, and then his mas- 
ter went on in the softest voice in the 
world so that Pirie felt no fear at all. 
Besides, how could he be afraid of 
this queer little man, carried in an- 
other's arms, and especially as he 
had such a pitying face ? 

"Yes, but I mean where do you 
come from and where are you go- 
ing?" asked the little man. 

" We left home last night and we's 
going to aunt Clorinda's in Califor- 
nia," answered Jack, modestly. 

" But where are your father and 
mother, and why do they allow you 
to wander about in this way? " 

" Father died last year and mother 
three days ago, and they were going 
to put us in the work-house, and we 
ran away." The tears sprang to 
Jack's eyes, and at the mention of 
his mother little Pirie began to sob 

A suspicious moisture gathered in 
the eyes of the little man, and his 
lips said something about "poor lit- 
tle babes!" He leaned over in his 
servant's arm and smoothed Pirie's 
tangled hair and tried to quiet him, 
while giving Jack an encouraging 
nod to restrain his own tears. Then 




be asked where they had stayed over 
night and what they had to eat, and 
when our hero told him how they 
had slept in the haystack on his own 
land*, and in sight of the house, and 
had nothing to eat scarcely, he turned 
abruptly to his servant and told him 
to huffy to Ihe house, and then he 
hade Jack to follow, so this queer pro- 
cession wended its way up through 
the long avenue of grand old trees 
towards the beautiful residence which 
Jack could see through the branches. 
Passing through an immense entrance 
hall they were led into a dining-room, 
which would have held all the little 
home they had left behind them, and 
by pressing a button in the wall a 
servant' was summoned, who was 
ordered to bring the boys something 
to eat. This order was quickly 
obeyed, and in a few moments the 
children are ensconced in great, soft 
chairs, and eating all their little 
stomachs would hold of the best 
things they had ever tasted. 

While they ate the little man, who 
had been placed in a chair and whose 
head just came up to the level of the 
table, watched them intently. He 
noticed the great lines which tears 
had made down the round cheeks, 
how the chubby, little hands were 
soiled and grimy, how the collars, 
evidently accustomed to being neatly 
fastened to the clothes, were askew, 
how the little shoes were all covered 
with dust from their long, weary 
tramp, and a lump rose m his throat 
and a tear sparkled down his cheek, 
which the children were too intent on 
their breakfast to notice. 

As the programmes at the theatre 
say, "six months are supposed to 
have elapsed since the last scene." 

The curtain rises and discloses a 
long, winding avenue, bordered by 
great elms, which meet overhead and 
form a perfect arch of green leaves 
and waving branches, among which 
the birds are singing their sweetest, 
and the sun of a beautiful morning, 
as it glints through the leaves, falls 
upon bright- colored wild flowers, 
which grow near the hedge. Away 
off up the avenue a little pony car- 
riage, drawn by two long-maned Shet- 
land ponies, can be seen approaching, 
and the brisk little fellows are scuf- 
fling along at a famous rate* and soon 
near us so that we can see the occu- 
pants of the wagon. Two little boys 
occupy the seat, one with black hair 
and one with yellow curls. The 
larger of the two is driving and the 
smaller wielding the whip. Just as 
they pass us, at a hand gallop, we 
catch what the two boys are saying. 
The elder one, with sparkling eyes, 
turns to the little fellow by his side 
and says : 

" Ain't this fine, Pine?" 

" Ess, the bestest time me ever had, 

So here are our babes again. We 
left them filling their empty little 
stomachs, while the sweet-faced, de- 
formed mau watched them. This 
little man was very rich and owned a 
magnificent house in New York, as 
well as this great country seat. He 
had not one living relative in the 
world, no one to care for him or to 
love, and as he sat there on the op- 
posite side of the table watching 
these two helpless children, his 
lonely heart was filled with love and 
compassion, and he resolved to make 
them his own and to watch over 
them as tenderly as the mother they 
had lost. So, after thev had eaten 



all they could, he drew Jack one side 
and got the whole story from him, 
not omitting their intention to go to 
California and live with their " aunt 
Clorinda." When he found that 
there was a relative concerned he im- 
mediately took steps to look her up, 
but as Jack's information was very 
meagre, the search was not success- 
ful, and "aunt Clc rinda *' never ap- 
peared on the scene. 

When he had satisfied himself that 
no relatives were to be found, this 
kind, little man formally adopted our 

two babes and installed them in his 
great house as his children, and ten- 
derly did he care for them. They 
lived like princes, as we can judge 
from seeing them whirl by in their 
little pony cart, and our friend, the 
parrot, was placed on a great perch 
on the front piazza, where he held 
forth at seasonable and unseasonable 
hours in a choice collection of highly 
colored epithets, rich and resounding 
adjectives, and uncomplimentary com- 
pliments to the gardener or any one 
who happened to come in sight. 

By Lisa A. Fletcher. 

Tinkle, tinkle, go the bells, 

As swiftly o'er the snow we slip, 

Up the hills and down the dells 
With happy smiles upon the lip ; 

Passing meadows white with snow, 
Which in summer dreamed in flowers, 

When- in May the violets blow 

And bird songs fall in happy showers : 

Down into a shadowy glen, 

.Where folded in a silver dream, 
Patiently waiting spring again, 
Winds a frigid frozen stream ; 

On into the forest deep, 

Where great pines their arms outspread 
And lowly ferns their vigils keep, 

Pair tokens of the summer dead ; 

Swifter and swifter gliding on, 

Nerves a-tingle with delight, 
Taster now the breath is drawn, 

1 or oh, for oh, this seems like flight. 

Tinkle, tinkle, go the bells, 

As swiftly o'er the snow we glide, 

Up the hills and down the dells, 
With joyous praise for wintertide. 

By Grace Fletcher. 

The following poem, contributed by C. C. Lord of Hopkinton, is by Grace Fletcher, a native of 
Hapkintoa, celebrated in history as the first wife of Daniel Webster. Grace Fletcher was a 
daughter of the Rev. ElijaB Fletcher, who was settled in Hopkinton in 1773, his daughter, Grace, 
being born in 1782. Rut'n Bailey, to whom the poem is addressed, was a daughter of Capt. 
Joshua Bailey of Hopkinton, who commanded a company at Bennington under Gen. John Stark. 
Ruth Bailey was born in Hopkinton in 177?. 

tpi^i^^y ^^ c7j71*? 

/<r*\, -ifu-t 


By Clarej&d Henry Pearson. 

N New Year's Day sev- 
eral of the usual crowd 
were lounging in the 
tsJ§l§?£«ffl little shoemaker's shop 
on the corner. Some 
one made use of the word luck and 
that naturally suggested Mr. t'n- 

"That man," said the shoemaker 
pausing in his work, " never stays 
out of the soup long enough to get 
dry. Never saw anything like it. 
A year ago last summer I was in 
Dane's wheelwright shop when he 
came in to buy a wheelbarrow. 
Lord only knows what he thought he 
wanted of a wheelbarrow, but he 
.bought one and then when he was 
making change, fell backward over 
it and broke his arm That's just a 
specimen of his luck." 

"Bah! there's no such thing as 
luck," said cue. 

" Mebbe there aint," said the man 
with the cream-colored goatee, "but 
there's sunthin' that acts enough like- 
it to fool the undersigned anyhow. 
I saw that, there same Unlukikus 
in one of the wnst pickles that ever 
mortal man got inter- sunthin' that I 
don't b'lieve could a-happened to 
any other human ciitter. It was at the 
burial of a member o f the order of 
Royal Rungstarteis an' Unlukikus 
was a-readin' the service. He was 
gettin' along fine, too. You know 
what a rich s'norous, silvery voice 
he has an' I tell you he made it 

sound solium. An' right in the most 
techin' an' impressive part, gentle- 
men, right where it says 'dust ter 
dust an ! ashes ter ashes,' he forgot 
hisself an' took a kind of a half step 
for 'aid an' pitched keels over head 
right inter the grave. When he felt 
hisself a-goin' he let out a yell that 
you could hear from Ballyhack ter 
breakfast. Oh ! it was awful. It 
jest turned the hull obsickwees inter 
a circus. Purty nigh every one 
'eeptin' the late lamented snickered 
an' the widder had a highsteeric fit. 
But I never did pity a man as I did 
Unlukikus — he felt so cut up. Why, 
the man just laid right down in the 
grave an' begged 'em to fill her up 
an' have no more fuss about it. 
' When a man,' he says, 'gits ter be 
such a silver-plated idiot, such a 
monumental intellectual wreck that 
he can't keep hisself from walkin' 
inter another man's grave with his 
eyes wide open,' says he, 'it's time 
ter let him return to the yearnin' 
bu?zum of his mother airth, an' ter 
begin ter cultiwate sweet violets an' 
night bloomin' dog fennel above his 
fool head. I've capped the climax,' 
says he. ' I've reached the grandest, 
proudest hights of dodderin' idiocy 
ever dumb by a mortal man,' says he, 
' an' now I am ready to depart in 
peace. Why not let me perish now,' 
he says pleadin 'ly, ' when I am ready 
ter die an' everybody else is ready 
ter have me?' An' they actually had 



K>r f aul the pocr fetter out of the , 
grave by force." 

At this moment the subject of this 
graphic narration entered, and the 
shoemaker with his usual ready tact. 
changed the course of the conversa- 
tion by remarking that having 
readied the beginning of another 
year he had resolved to give up the 
habit of using tobacco. Several 
others told of habits which they had 
determined to lay upon the altar, and 
the funny man turning to Mr. Unluki- 
kus asked, "Well, old man, which of 
your pet vices are you going to give 
up ?" 

Mr. Unlukikus had seated himself 
in the only remaining chair r.nd then 
had drawn back a few feet to get 
away from the deadly fumes of a par- 
ticularly offensive stoga that the 
funny man was smoking. This 
brought him directly under an old 
hanging lamp which usually kept 
company with the cobwebs that orna- 
mented the ceiling, but now huiie 
about five feet from the floor. Tilt- 
ing completely back in his chair he 
glared at the funny man a few mom- 
ents before replying to his question. 

"I hadn't thought of giving up 
anything," he said at last. "To 
tell the truth, though, I did 
make one resolution this morn- 
ing. You all know that I have the 
reputation of being very unlucky. 1 
have come to the conclusion that 
I owe by far the greater part of my 
misfortunes to the fact that I am 
easily excited and act too hastily. I 
go off at half-cock as it were. What 
I want is more self-control. During 
the year upon which we are entering, 
I shall- keep a strict watch over 
myself, I shall restrain my natural 
impetuosity, I shall try to keep my- 

sely in a calm and placid state of 
mind, I shall cultivate self- poise — " 

At this moment sounds from the 
street seemed to indicate that a dog 
fight was in progress in front of 
the shop, and Unlukikus sprang to his 
feet, banging his head against the 
lamp with such force that he fell 
back into his chair. 

"Wow!" he 3-elied, "What in 
blue blazes are you doing ? Show 
me the red handed assassin that hit 
me on the head with an axe. Where 
is he?'' and he jumped up again hit- 
ting the lamp and falling backward 
as before. This time some one held 
him down until the shoemaker re- 
turned the death-dealing lamp to its 
usual place near the ceiling. 

"Holy Mackinaw!" shouted the 
injured man as he struggled to his 
feet and executed a war dance in the 
center of the room. "Did you ever 
see luck like that ? Here this bing- 
fired lamp has hung in that same 
place for twenty years and over forty 
thousand people have passed under it 
without knowing it was there. It 
was waiting — waiting for a whack at 
me, and the very first time I came 
within reach of the consarned thing 
it gleefully swooped down and skin- 
ned fourteen square inches off my 
scalp. What are you cackling 
about ?" he demanded savagely of the 
funny man. 

"You want to cultivate self-poise, 
you know r ," g ur g^ ec ^- tne funny man 
with a sob of laughter. 

"Self -poise be hanged," he 
howled, as he pressed both hands 
to his aching head. " When a billy- 
dished lamp goes seven feet out of its 
way to swat a man on the head, 
it isn't self -poise he wants. He 
wants first of all to see his friends 


happy. lie wants to be where his then chuckle and choke and haw- 
ravished ears can drink in the music haw themselves into convulsions — 
of their wild yelps of uncontrollable that's what he wants." 
laughter. He wants to sit in the And Mr. UnLukikus went out, 
center of a circle of mirthful lunatics shutting the door so hard that it 
while they soak themselves full* of made the funny man's false teeth 
bliss, walch.iii&r his stifferinsrs and rattle. 


[Reprinted from the Dover Gazette of April 28, 1S49.] 
By Mark W. F. Durgin. ^ 


O, sweet are the days that have left me forever, 
But mem'ry still often recalls them to view, 

When I roamed by the banks of that sweet winding river. 
The lovel_v Coeheco, with surface so blue. 

How peaceful thy bosom, how gentle thy flowing 
'Till .'led to the brink of thy terrific fall; 

No tempest affects thee — thou heed'st not the blowing 
Of .winds ; thou 'it sheltered by forest trees tall. 

Thy falls tho ? so frequent, yet calm thou approach'st them 
And calmly flow'st on when their terrors are past, 

With awe I beheld thee so swiftly rush o'er them, 
And shrunk from the vision with terror aghast. 

Yet when I beheld thee roll on toward the ocean, 
UnrufFied, unmoved, and so sweetly serene, 

It instantly banished all painful emotion, 

And added fresh beauty and charms to the scene. 

How often, in youth, I have strolled by thy margin, 
And thought of the future, when manhood arrived — 

Built castk*s in air for my thoughts to enlarge in, 
From fanciful greatness, much pleasure derived. 

Alas! all those castles, in truth were but airy — 
Mere day dreams of fancy by ign'rance begot, 

Mid-age has discovered the fate that must carry 
My life to its issue — and then I'm forgot. 

But thou, lovely river, unchanged shalt continue 
To flow, as in youth I beheld thee so oft, 

Till time shall no longer send forth his retinue 
Of days, months, and years on thy bosom so soft. 



w *■ 





By.' John B. Stevens., Esq, 


f?~S:rS'- : - tne public 

system cf ranning 

schools of 

was ridiculous 
and nobody knew how 
to mend it. District 
No. 2 was a solitaire amidst twelve 
educational precincts. To its annual 
examinations trooped the best teach- 
ing talent cf trie country. But its 
influence was insufficient to leaven 
the whole city. 

But a radical change was immi- 
nent. It happened in 1S69. Chan- 
ning Folsom became a candidate for 
a school in iSf>S, under the following 
circumstances : 

A male pnueipal was wanted for 
District No. 2. grammar school. The 
last occupant of the desk had not 
met expectations. 

An ex aur nation was ordered for 
August 11. It occurred in Lhe city 
clerk's ofhee. Chairman Thomas E. 
Sawyer, Rev. James Rand, Rev. 
Jonathan M. Brewster, Dr. John R. 
Ham : and John B. Stevens, Jr., of 
the superintending committee, were 

The lion. Thomas E. Sawyer was 
a man, who, in his prime, must have 
been of commanding presence. - But 
he had shrunk. His hair and beard 
were white, eyebrows bushy, nose 
. and mouth large. He had puzzled 
schoolma'ams and schoolmasters for 
forty years. His committee asso- 
ciates ordinarily accepted his esti- 
mate of a candidate without ques- 

tion. He had an aversion to youth- 
ful male teachers. An infusion of 
young blood in the committee 
slightly menaced this supremacy. 

Three applicants appeared, and 
were subjected to an old-fashioned 
test of scholarship. In addition, 
each one was questioned as to expe- 
rience, methods, and reference. 

The board of committee unani- 
mous])- agreed as to the best man 
under the conditions. He was 
squarely made, vigorous, and self- 
contained, and withal full of assever- 
ation. He wore an abundant beard, 
and looked like a farmer. The can- 
didates were given a recess. 

On the youngest member of the 
committee, in point of sendee, the 
unrenunciative applicant had made 
an impression. To him the man's 
positiveness w r as not egotism, but 
confidence. He combated the pre- 
vailing impression saying, "This 
man will govern and teach at once, 
and improve in manner." 

The saturnine chairman replied, 
" This man's nature will not change. 
He will shape it as he grows older, 
but beneath the surface it will remain 
unchanged. When fort}* he will be 
a great instructor. He is too young. 
Let him get his discipline else- 

" He has a mathematical order of 
mind," said Brewster. 

" Granted, but the mathematician 
is usually without tact." 




"Upon further acquaintance he 
may come nearer your ideal,' : sug- 
gested Ham. 

lf It is impossible to idealize him. 
He constantly puts his personality 
forward ; and in so far as he recog- 
nizes this trait, it is a thing he 
accepts as a matter of course ; it is 
an integral part of his make-up, con- 

It was noticed that one of the chair-- 
man's feet was moving uneasily. 

At this juncture, Parson Reed 
allowed himself to be drawn out in 
favor of the positive applicant. " In 
these days," he said, "the one thing 
needful is courage. ' T is only the 
undismayed who are respected in 
grammar schools. * ' 

During the silence which followed, 
Dr. Ham signified acquiescence by a 
nod of his head. Then Brewster 
pulled his chair nearer the Doctor's, 
and Stevens smiled approval. So 
sides were drawn, for and against. 

The scene now assumed all the 
dimensions of a catastrophe. The 
meeting became dry as iron filings. 

But the wily chairman made a di- 
version. The candidates were re- 
called. Again the hirsute youth- 
demonstrated hi-- superiority. The 
chairman stood alone in opposition. 
In rasping ton..-, he -said : 

'-'S. W. You:u; of Pittsfield, what 
is your age ? " 

" Thirty-two, sir." 

" E. T. Shurbum of Portsmouth ? " 

" Twenty-three, sir." 

"Charming Folsom <A Xewmarket?'' 

" Twenty." 

The oldest was chosen, Stevens 
only voting for tlie youthful appli- 
cant. But the district was in the 
market for another principal at the 
end of the term. 

Chauning Folsom made his mark 
in Portsmouth and elsewhere, and. 
upon consolidation of her school 
districts Dover shortly selected him, 
over a host of competitors, to take 
charge of the Belknap grammar 
schools. His success was so marked, 
and became so widely known that he 
was called to the Boston Eliot school. 

But he had built up a lasting and 
favorable impression in Dover, and 
with the utmost unanimity he was 
recalled to fill a still more responsible 
and lucrative position. For. sixteen 
years he remained our honored super- 
intendent of schools, retiring in order 
to assume the higher duties of state 
superintendent of public instruction. 

He was conspicuously prominent 
in vitalizing the plans which made 
Dover a single school district, and so 
long as the memory of that achieve- 
ment runs, the record of Charming 
Folsom 's labors will run parallel with 
it. He has made himself a man of 
mark in educational circles. His en- 
ergy and industry still remain unim- 
paired, and he is devoted entirely to 
his work. 

His natural abilities, his capacity 
and inclination for work, the mingled 
warmth and non-explosiveuess of his 
temper, and his enthusiasm in the 
cause of public education, exhibited 
through a long term of office-holding 
in Dover, combined to make him 
strong and influential. Our cumula- 
tive obligations to him are very great. 

In the discharge of his school du- 
ties he struggled always in the for- 
ward direction ; participated strenu- 
ously in whatever was going on in 
educational circles ; and to carry a 
point indulged sometimes in a good 
deal of humor, and told a good story, 
or hit off a character, very shrewdly 



and graphically. It was easy to 
make him show his tenacity, but he 
never exhibited prejudice or egotism, 
and his talk was always good and 
utterly unpedantic. 

He never made compromises with 
hissense of duty. He could hesitate, 
but not because of self-saving timid- 
ity. He shrank from no noises, and 
took criticism, whether applausive or 
-otherwise, in good part. In his inter- 
course with teachers he recognized 
individuality, and was tolerant in 
matters of detail. He sought results. 

But his labor to improve our sub- 
urban schools, and bring them into 
line with the larger opportunities of 
the higher grades, was his superlative 
merit. In this direction he worked 
like a Titan. By frequent visits he 
kept track of ttachers and scholars, 
and poured out in these wayside ly- 
ceums the accumulated wealth of his 
teaching experience. In consequence 
of his untiring efforts the geograph- 
ical position of a boy's home utterly 
ceased to mould his chances for good 

Of course there were differences in 
opinion about some of his solutions of 
every-day problems; but nobody ever 
objected to his frankness and iutent- 

It is necessary to say he is more 
than a school manager, though he is 
that preeminently. His straightfor- 
wardness has never been sicklied over 
with irresolution, but his sure youth 
has rounded into mellowed yet dis- 
ciplined manhood. 

He is a thinker, analyzer, construc- 
tor. He brought his fresh youth to 
Dover, and gave freely from his ma- 
ture strength, something valuable, 
something lasting, and we are grateful. 

The subject of this sketch, a son of 

Dr. William Folsom of Newmarket, 
and his wife, Irena Lamprey of 
Kensington, was born in Newmar- 
ket, June i, 184S. He attended the 
public schools of his native town, fit- 
ted for college at Phillips Exeter 
academy, and entered Dartmouth 
college, September, 1866. He re- 
mained two years at Dartmouth. 
Weak eyes and insufficient financial 
resources made this step unavoidable. 
His college gave him the honorary 
degree of A. M. in 1SS5. 

While in college he taught, a dis- 
trict school in Durham, and the high 
school at Newmarket. After leav- 
ing college, he taught a winter term 
in Sandwich, Mass., two years in 
Amesbury, Mass., and four years in 
Portsmouth, N. II. He came to 
Dover as principal of Belknap gram- 
mar schools in 1S74, and remained till 
late in 1S77. Was successful in Eliot 
school, Boston, Mass., from Decem- 
ber, 1877, till April, 1S82. Dover 
superintendent from April, 1S82, to 
October, 1S98. 

Mr, Folsom married Ruth F. Sav- 
age of Newmarket, Nov. 12, 1870, 
by whom he has five children, Henr} r 
H., born in Portsmouth, Sept. 2S, 
1 87 1 ; Alice I., born in Portsmouth, 
Jan. 9, 1S73; Arthur C, born in 
Dover, Jan. 17, 1875 ; Emily S.,born 
in Dover, Sept. 3, 1876; Mary H., 
born in Somerville, Mass., Oct. 8, 
1S80. Henry was graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in the class of '92, 
and is now practising law in Boston, 
Mass. Alice has been a successful 
teacher in Dover. Arthur, Dart- 
mouth college, '97, is in commercial 
life at Boston. 

He is an attendant upon the Meth- 
odist church, and has been a life-long, 
stalwart Republican. Has been a 



member of the Masonic fraternity since 
twenty -one years of age, being charter 
member of Soley lodge of Sonierville, 
and of Moses Paul lodge of Dover. He 
has been master of Moses Paul lodge 
for three years, and is a member of 
Belknap chapter, and Saint Paul com- 
maudery, Knights Templar. He is a 

member of the Improved Order of 
Red Men, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, Royal Arcanum, and Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. Charter 
member of Dover Grange, and for two 
years past its worthy master. He is 
owner of ancestral acres upon which 
his forefathers settled in 167,}. 

By Alice 0. Darling. 

A little, old lady stands down by the track, 
Commissioned to welcome the wanderer back. 

Though his baggage be checked to the borders of sin, 
She bids him " God speed " ere the journey begin. 

No matter how far in his folly he roam, 

She's first of all others to welcome him home. 

This little, old lady is plain in the face, 

She has lost, -with her youth, the best part of her grace! 
Of alien birth, though for years and years 

She has echoed our laughter and witnessed our tears, 
In greeting and parting until she has grown 

In bonds that are sacred, like one of our own. 

Com.- bearing the trophies of wealth or of fame, 

Came weary and heartsick, her greeting's the same. 

All summer she waits and all winter her love , 

Is warm as the heart of her rusty, old stove, 

.And e'en for those lost ones her beacon lights burn, 
The loved and the longed for who never return. 



By T C. Gibson 

• ^±^:St : f T is peculiarly character- 




istic of mountainous 
countries that they 
have nearly always a 
romantic and interest- 
ing history, and that their hills and 
valleys are usually associated with 
strange traditions and weird legends. 
This is strikingly exemplified in such 
European countries as Scotland, 
Spain, Switzerland, the Tyrol, the 
mountainous parts of Germany. Nor- 
way, and other mountainous coun- 
tries, all of which have a fascinating 
history, and are rich in traditional 
folkdore. Who has not been en- 
chanted by legends of the Vikings, 
or thrilled by tales of Sir William 
Wallace, or of William Tell? Who, 
during the past few months, has not 
been deeply interested in the romantic 
story of Cuba, amongst whose beauti- 
ful mountains has been carried on 
for so long that patriotic struggle for 
freedom which is now.' by the aid of 
the American arm.-, about to be 
brought to a successful issue ? 

But il is not necessary to go so far 
afield as Europe or Cuba to find a 
mountainous country of romantic in- 
terest. Nay, indeed, it is not neces- 
sary to go further away than New 
England, for in the beautiful White 
Mountains of New Hampshire there 
is to be found a wealth of material 
awaiting the pen of the romancist. 

that seems to have been strangely 
neglected up till the present. 

The White Mountain region was 
once the home of powerful Indian 
tribes, and these entertained some 
strange beliefs regarding the moun- 
tain.-,. Their theory of the origin of 
the White Mountains is as interesting 
as it is singular : " Cold storms were 
in the northern wilderness, and a lone 
red hunter wandered without food, 
chilled by the frozen wind. He lost 
his strength and could rind no game ; 
and the dark cloud that covered his 
life-path made him weary of wander- 
ing. Lie fell down upon the snow 
and a dream carried him to a wide, 
happy valley, filled with musical 
streams, where singing birds and 
game were plenty. His spirit cried 
aloud for joy, and the ' Great Master 
of Life ' waked him from his sleep 
and gave him a dry coal and a flint- 
pointed spear, telling him that by the 
shore of the lake he might live, and 
find fish with his spear and fire from 
his dry coal. One night he had lain 
down his coal, and seen a warm fire 
spring therefrom with a blinding 
smoke. And a great noise like thun- 
der filled the air, and there rose up a 
vast pile of broken rocks. Out of the 
cloud resting upon the top came 
numerous streams, dancing down, 
foaming cold ; and the voice spake 
to the astonished red hunter, saying : 


1 Here the Great Spirit will dwell and 
watch over his favorite children.' ' 

The Indians held the mountains in 
great fear and veneration. A curious 
superstition peopled the higher peaks 
with superior beings, invisible to the 
human eye. who had complete control 
of the tempests. These Mountains 
they never dared to ascend ; and 
when the first white explorers came, 
the Indians not only assured them 
that to make the ascent of those 
mountains was impossible, but ear- 
nestly entreated them not to make 
the attempt, lest the spirits that ruled 
the tempests might be offended and 
utterly destroy them. Once, indeed, 
tradition says a famous Indian chief 
named Passaconaway, who held a 
conference with the spirits above, 

" To those mountains white and cold, 
Of which the Indian trapper told, 
Upon whose summit never yet 
Was mortal 'oot in safety set ; " 

and from thence passed to a council 
in heaven. Another Indian tradition 
told of a great flood once having taken 
place when all the world was drowned 
save the White Mountains. To these 
one single powwow and his squaw re- 
treated and found safety from the 
waters, and thus preserved the race 
from extinction. 

Perhaps the most interesting Indian 
tradition is that which is associated 
with Mount Chocorua, a peculiarly 
shaped peak to the north of the Presi- 
dential rare,-- Chocorua was once a 
powerful chief, who, after the rest of 
his tribe had bit the country, re- 
mained behind amidst his native hills 
and valleys over which he had once 
held sway. There seems to be more 
than one version of the tradition re- 
lating to his death and his curse. 

The one given by Drake in his i( Plis- 
tory of the North American Indians "' 
is usually regarded as correct and is 
to the following effect : Pursued by 
a miserable white hunter Chocorua 
had retreated to the mountain which 
now bears his name. He had 
climbed to the highest point where 
his further flight was barred by a 
great precipice, where he stood un- 
armed, while below stood his pursuer 
within gunshot. Chocorua besought 
the hunter to spare his life. He plead- 
ed his friendliness to the whites, and 
the harmless, scattered condition of 
his few followers. But the hardened 
hunter was unmoved ; the price of his 
scalp was too tempting ; gold pleaded 
stronger than the poor Indian. See- 
ing that he should avail nothing, the 
noble chieftain, raising himself up, 
stretched forth his arms, and called 
upon the Gods of his fathers to curse 
the land. Then, casting a defiant 
glance at his pursuer, he leaped from 
the brink of the precipice to the rocks 
below. " And to this day, say the in- 
habitants, a malignant disease has 
carried off the cattle that they have- 
attempted rearing around this moun- 
tain." In an old volume which the 
writer has had the privilege of exam- 
ining there is another story given in 
connection with Chocorua's curse, the 
truth of which, however, is not 
vouched for. It is a sad, though a.- 
beautiful story and we regret that it 
is not possible to give it in full, but an 
outline must suffice. Cornelius Camp- 
bell had been a follower of Cromwell,, 
and a bitter enemy of the House of. 
Stuart ; and on the restoration of 
Charles II he had been compelled to- 
flee to America, where he and his 
beautiful and noble-hearted wife found 
a home amongst the New Hampshire- 



hills. Campbell is described as a man 

possessed of great intellectual powers 
and a gigantic frame, and passion- 
ately devoted to his wife and family. 
To their house came the son of Cho- 
corua, a boy of nine or ten years, to 
whom Mrs. Campbell showed much 
kindness. One day this boy acci- 
dental!}' drank some poison while 
paying one of his" usual visits to the 
Campbells, and shortly afterwards 
died. From that time Chocorua med- 
itated revenge, and one day Cornelius 
Campbell returned home to find his 
wife and children murdered, and that 
so cruelly that there could be no 
doubt as to who was the perpetrator 
of the foul deed. For a. time Camp- 
bell's frenzy amounted to madness, 
but at last he set out with a party in 
pursuit of the Indian, who had re-' 
treated to the mountain which now 
bears his name. Here he was found 
by Campbell at the edge of the preci- 
pice already mentioned. With an 
Indian's calmness Chocorua faced his 
terrible adversary, saying that the 
11 Great Spirit " had given life to Cho- 
corua and that he would not yield it 
to the white man! "Then," said 
Campbell, "hear the Great Spirit 
speak in the white man's thunder,'' 
and raising his gun, deliberate!}' took 
aim and fired. Chocorua, with his 
dying words, prayed that a curse 
might rest on the land. It is a some- 
what curious coincidence that for 
long it was found impossible for cat- 
tle to live in the neighborhood of this 
mountain. Scientists eventually dis- 
covered that the trouble was in the 
water, but for long the superstitious 
believed that Chocorua's curse lay on 
the district. 

. The power of the White Mountain 
Indians was completely broken in the 

fight known as the battle of Saco 
Pond. The expedition which s ter- 
minated in this fight was organized 
by Captain Lovewell, and the object 
was to put a stop to Indian depreda- 
tions which had for long kept the set- 
tlements in the vicinity of the moun- 
tains In a state of perpetual fear and 
terror. The most dreaded tribe was 
the Pequawkets, and Lovewell deter- 
mined to attack them at their home 
on the Saco. His band at first num- 
bered forty-six volunteers but on the 
march that number was reduced by 
sickness to thirty-three. This intre- 
pid band fell into an ambush at Saco 
pond and a desperate fight ensued 
which lasted from ten in the morning 
"till the going down of the sun." 
Among the first to fall mortally 
wounded was the brave Captain 
Lovewell : and when night fell only 
nine of his heroic followers remained 
un wounded, and of the Indians only 
twenty left the field uninjured. 
Their brave chief was among the 
slain and although the advantage lay 
with them at the close of the fight 
their power was so broken as never 
again to be rallied. The story of the 
retreat of the whites is full of pathetic 
interest and noble self-sacrifice. 

The settlement of the White Moun- 
tains is of comparatively recent date. 
Not more than a century ago the first 
settlers were struggling to overcome 
difficulties that seemed all but insur- 
mountable, and braving dangers from 
which the boldest might shrink, with 
a fortitude and heroism to which jus- 
tice has never been done. Slowly, 
inch by inch almost, had they to 
clear their way through a forest of 
remarkable density, through which 
prowled many fierce animals, such as 
the wolf, bear, and most dreaded of 



all, the terrible lynx or gray-eat. 
But even when a clearing had been 
made and fenced off from the attacks 
of wild beasts there still remained to 
be removed a vast quantity of rocks 
and great boulders, and this was often 
a more difficult undertaking than the 
clearing of the forest. 

The pass through the White Moun- 
tain Xotch was only discovered so 
recently as 1779, and this way he set 
down as the real starling point in the 
history of the settlement of the White 
Mountains. This important discov- 
ery was made quite accidentally by a 
hunter named Nash while on a hunt- 
ing expedition on Cherry mountain. 
This pass gave direct communication 
with the lower towns, and the sea- 
board. Hitherto a long detour had 
to be made round the mountains in 
order to get to any of the lower settle- 
ments. The first article of merchan- 
dise to be brought up through the 
Notch was a barrel of rum, which, 
it is recorded, was, when delivered 
at its destination, nearly empty 
" through the kindness of those who 
had helped to bring it up." Many 
years elapsed, however, before a road 
was made through the Xotch, and 
many hardships had to be endured 
before roads or railways were known 
amongst the mountains. 

One of the first settlers was Captain 
Rostbrook, whose cabin it is said was 
at one' time thirty miles from any 
other human habitation and the way 
to^ it was only marked by "spotted 
trees." Captain Rosebrook was a 
man strong and athletic, and inured 
to hardship. During the Revolu- 
tionary War his services had proved 
of great value to the American forces 
in the Indian warfares they were 
often obliged to carry on. Of his 

connection with the mountains many 
stories are told. It is said that on 
one occasion the want of salt com- 
pelled the Captain to go on foot to 
Haverhill, a distance of So miles 
through a trackless, wilderness; fol- 
lowing the Connecticut river as his 
guide, to obtain a supply of this 
humble commodity. There he ob- 
tained one bushel which lie shoul- 
dered and trudged home over the 
same rude path. 

The town of Bethlehem is now one 
of the most popular summer moun- 
tain resorts in America. Its situa- 
tion, commanding a most magnificent 
prospect of mountain and valley, is 
unequalled. Occupying an elevated 
plateau from which, in the back- 
ground, rises Mount Agassiz, Bethle- 
hem annually attracts thousands of 
health and pleasure seekers from all 
parts of this country and even from 
beyond the seas. Its magnificent 
street, extending along the base of 
the mountain for about two miles, is 
lined with palatial hotels, boarding 
houses, and summer residences, 
wdiere every luxury abounds in 
plenty. New York and all the prin- 
cipal New England towns are within 
a few hours' journey. But let us look 
at Bethlehem as it was in 1799 — not 
quite a hundred years ago. We see 
then a backwoods settlement, far 
removed from any populous district, 
surrounded by the great primeval 
forest through which prowl many 
fierce beasts and where still lurk a 
few miserable Indians, remnants of 
the once powerful tribes that had for- 
merly held sway in this region. 
Often in the night would the settlers 
be startled by the howling of packs of 
hungry wolves ; or on arising in the 
morning: would find that during the 



night bears had broken in on their 
flocks, killing and devouring them. 
But, worst of all, there conies a 


Provisions have run short. The 
nearest towns, where fresh supplies 
can be got, are far away ; and besides 
they have not the means to purchase 
provisions. But these people have 
all their lives been accustomed to 
hardships ; and have faced difficulties 
and dangers only to overcome them. 
On this occasion, therefore, their 
expedient is to go into the forest 
where they burn wood sufficient to. 
make a load of potash for a team of 
oxen, which they dispatch to Con- 
cord a distance of 011c hundred and 
seventy miles. But four weary and 
anxious weeks must elapse ere the 
teamster can return with provisions 
and during that time the people only 
keep themselves alive by eating green 
chocolate roots and such other plants, 
to be found in the forest around, as 
will yield them any nourishment. 
Such is a picture we have of Bethle- 
hem a hundred years ago. The town 
of Littleton, which is now the princi- 
pal business centre in northern New 
Hampshire, within the memory of 
some still living, consisted of three 
small houses built of logs. 
, There have been, happily, few 
tragedies connected with, the history 
of the White Mountains, and these 
have already been often told. The 
best known is probably that con- 
nected with Nancy's brook. Nancy, 
a servant-girl, was engaged to a man 
in the employ of Colonel Whipple, 
and it was arranged that they should 
accompany the Colonel to Portsmouth 
to be married. Having entrusted all 
her savings to her lover, Nancy went 
to Lancaster to make some purchases 

necessary for the journey, and on her 
return found that Colonel Whipple 
and her lover had already departed. 
Though it was late at night and mid- 
winter at the time, Nancy started out 
in the hope of overtaking them, and 
her body was found by the brook 
which now bears her name, cold and 
frozen, with her head leaning on her 
staff. A few years afterwards her 
recreant lover died a rawing maniac. 

All who are acquainted with the 
White Mountains are familiar with 
the story of the terrible disaster 
which caused the destruction* of the 
Willey family in the night of the 
great slide in 1S26. Houses of enter- 
tainment were at that time not very 
plentiful in the mountains, and the 
one kept by Samuel Willey at the 
White Mountain Notch was much 
frequented by farmers as a stop-over 
place on their way to and from mar- 
ket. A long spell of drouth was fol- 
lowed by a terrific storm which in 
one single night is said to have dis- 
lodged a greater quantity of trees, 
rocks, and soil than the slides of the 
previous hundred years had done. 
A tremendous slide took place 011 the 
mountain behind the Willey house. 
The house itself escaped as if by a 
miracle, a great rock behind the 
house dividing the slide in two, and 
deflecting it to the right and left of 
the house. But the whole family, 
consisting of nine persons, perished. 
In seeking to escape they had been 
overtaken by the terrible avalanche. 
Six of the bodies were afterwards 
taken from beneath the debris, some 
of them terribly mutilated, but three 
bodies still lie buried beneath the 
awful mass of rocks and earth that 
overwhelmed them on that night of 
terrors. The writer has been told, 



by one who can recollect of that not, therefore, follow that there is- 
awful storm, that the appalling noise nothing of poetry or romance to be 
made by the slides that night could 
be distinctly heard in Bethlehem fif- 
teen or twenty miles distant. 

It has often been deplored that the 
White Mountains are almost destitute 
of interesting traditions and associa- 
tions, and it has been said that if 
they were only in Europe instead of severance. The romance of the 

found in the New England moun- 
tains. We think there is much of 
both to be found in the life of the 
pioneers and early settlers, in their 
struggles and sacrifices, their patient 
toiling, their braver}* and .heroism, 
and their great hardihood and per- 

America that there would be a story 
or a legend connected with every 
rock and crag, and that even* moun- 
tain and glen would be wrapped in 
an air of mystery and romance. It 
must be remembered, however, that 
the White Mountains were practically 
unknown a hundred years '-"ago, and 

White Mountains has still to be 
written. Surely such grand scenes 
are worth)- of the pen of a Scott or a 
Byron ; and it may be that there will 
one day arise another "Wizard of 
the North ' ' whose pen shall weave 
around the old mountain dwellings, 
where, far away in the shades of the 
compared with those of European almost trackless forest the travelers 

countries that is but as yesterday. 
It must necessarily follow, therefore. 
that the romance of the White Moun- 
tains must always be essentially dif- 
ferent from that which the legends 
and traditions of remote ages have 
associated with the mountainous 
countries of Europe. But it does 

of a century ago were wont to find 
rest and shelter, stories of romance ; 
who shall make a Trossachs of this 
beautiful region, or make classic the 
Saco or the Ammonoosuc ; and who 
shall throw around the White Moun- 
tains of New England a bright halo- 
of romance that time shall not dim. 

By G. K. />'. 

God ioveth woman, but none more than she 
Whose delight was in the law of His love. 
If choral, angels chant in heaven above 
Hymns of human praise, all will sweetened be 
With recollections dear to God and thee, 
Of one great soul, great mind, greater mother, 
Than whom rich freedom's land hath no other 
Deeper stored in our hearts' fathomless sea. 
Her astral soul devoted to the slave ; 
Her quiv' ring woman's frame born but to crave 
Only love that passeth sorrow's weighing; 
The victories of her great burdens laying 
Too gracefully at the Redeemer's feet, 
And gently summons all to His white seat. 


[Translated from the Rez ue des Dettx Mbndes by Samuel C. Eastman.] 
By yules Lecterq. 

cent colony 

HE Dutch do not fail to 
demand of the traveler 
returning from Java 
what most Impressed 
him in their magniri- 
There is a temptation 
to answer: seeing them there and see- 
ing them remaining there. This little 
people, whose country is a mere point 
on the chart of Europe, has ruled 
with admirable tenacity this vast 
colonial empire of the Indian ocean, 
which contains 35,000,000 of inhabi- 
tants, embracing islands as large as 
France, islands in whose interior 
England would be only an islet, lost 
in a sea of forests. Java, Sumatra, 
three quarters of Borneo, the Moluc- 
cas, the Celebes, Bali, Sembok, Sum- 
bawa, Flores, Timor, these are what 
Holland still possesses of their im- 
mense oriental empire, which formerly 
reached from Bengal to the Cape of 
Good Hope. Java, the queen of the 
archipelago, was torn from them in 
1 Sir; but the: English, after an ephe- 
meral rule, restored it to them in 1816, 
without knowing its value. They 
did not know that they were aban- 
doning the most beautiful colony of 
the world. Did not Adam Smith say 
that this island, by the fertility of its 
soil, by the great extent of its coasts, 
by the number of its navigable rivers, 
is the best situated country for the 
seat of a great foreign commerce and 

for the establishment of a great divers- 
ity of manufactures? The illustrious 
economist doubtless knew that the 
commerce has existed in the Indian 
archipelago from the most remote 
antiquity; that the Tyrians visited it: 
that it was from these that the an- 
cients imported into Egypt the cloves 
mentioned by Strabo. As the Eng- 
lish have never returned a single col- 
ony, it is doubtful if they would have 
returned Java if they had not still 
been in the intoxication of triumph, 
after the "Battle of Waterloo, and 
full of recognition of the aid which 
Holland had contributed to their suc- 

Since then how have the Dutch 
maintained themselves in the archi- 
pelago ? How do thirty thousand 
Dutchmen peaceably govern twenty- 
five million Javanese, who are satis- 
fied with their lot ? This is the most 
marvelous thing in Java, and is what 
interests us to examine. 

Holland has not, like England, 
self-ruling colonies, with their gov- 
ernment responsible to their parlia- 
ment, like the Cape colonies, where 
even the natives have a right to vote, 
and whose institutions are faithfully 
copied from those of Great Britain. 
The Dutch colonies, properly speak- 
ing, have no existence ; they are 
subject to the control of the mother 
country, and the representative of 


/A VA. 

the crcwn exercises an almost om- 
nipotent power there ; they are like 
what. the English call crown colonies 
in distinction from those which have 

Before the Dutch constitution of 
1S4S the king had the exclusive: 
-administration of the foreign posses- 
sions ; at the present time the crown 
fixes the taxes of the colony and the 
most important matters. The admin- 
istration of the foreign possessions is 
conducted by the minister for the 
colonies in the name of the king and 
a detailed report of colonial affairs is 
annualh' presented to the Dutch 
parliament. The government of the 
Dutch Indian possessions is no 
longer, as in the time of the famous 
India company, exercised by a cor- 
poration, but rests in the hands of a 
single man, the agent of the king, 
and responsible to him for the dis- 
charge of his duty ; a responsibility 
which is made effective by trie power 
granted to the king and to the 
second chamber of the parliament 
to present him for impeachment. 

, This agent of the king has the title 
of governor-general. He is the chief 
of the land and sea forces of the 
Dutch Indies ; he exercises supreme 
control over the different branches of 
general administration ; he makes 
ordinances on all matters not regu- 
lated by law or by royal decree ; he 
declares war, concludes peace, and 
makes treaties with the native 
princes ; he appoints to civil and 
military offices ; he exercises the 
power of pardon, and no sentence of 
capital punishment can be executed 
without his authority. Protection of 
the natives is one of his most impor- 
tant duties ; he takes care that no 
grant of land does injury to their 

rights, and subjects the govern- 
ment farms to the limitation of ad- 
ministrative regulations ; he regu- 
lates the nature and the extent of the 
labor contributions, and looks after 
the execution of the ordinances relat- 
ing thereto. He can banish for- 
eigners who disturb the public peace. 
In a word, the representative of the 
king is invested with complete 
power ; in the Indian empire he is 
almost a king, in the most absolute 
sense of the word, 

B\- his side, or rather below him, 
there is indeed a council of the 
Indies, sitting with him as president, 
and composed of a vice-president and 
four members ; but it is only a body 
for consultation, whose ad rice he 
takes, without being obliged to 
follow it : in certain cases specified 
by law he is bound, it is true, by the 
advice of a majority of the council, 
but as it is not the council which is 
responsible for the conduct of the 
government, he has the right to 
appeal to the king to protect his 
responsibility ; he may even, against 
the advice of the council, take meas-. 
ures which he thinks expedient, 
when he believes that the general 
interest of the colony would suffer 
by the delay which an appeal to the 
king would entail. In reality then, 
the governor-general alone exercises 
the executive power and the legisla- 
tive power. 

There are no ministers at the head 
of the different departments of civil 
administration but officers, five in 
number who have the modest title of 
directors ; these officers are placed 
under the orders and under the exalt- 
ed supervision of the governor, who 
is actually the prime minister. They 
are the director of the interior, of 



finance, of education, of agriculture, 
and the director of justice and of 
public works. The commanders of the 
army and navy are placed at the head 
of war department and of the navy. 
The union of the different chiefs'of 
the department of civil administra- 
tion, assembled by the order of the 
governor-general, forms the council 
of directors. That the directors have 
been chosen from the brothers of die 
governor shows to what degree the 
council is a family affair. 

The mechanism by which a very 
small number of officers governs the 
most dense population of the world 
is ch'sclosed in all its ingenuity in the 
machinery of the local administration 
even better than in that of the central 
administration. The island of Java is 
divided into twenty-two provinces at 
the head of which are placed European 
officials who are as omnipotent in their 
province as the governor- general in 
the colony. But just as the heads of 
the departments only have the title of 
director, so those governors, or pre- 
fects, of the provinces are modestly 
called residents, and their provinces, 
containing a million souls on an aver- 
age, are called residences. The 
resident, appointed by the governor- 
general, is the representative of the 
government in his proviuce; under 
this title he is the chief of the civil 
administration, of the finances, of 
justice, of police, and he has the right 
to carry \\\e ponvig- or golden parasol, 
which in the eyes of Javanese sym- 
bolizes the supreme rank. He is 
assisted by sub-residents, who have 
the title of assistant-residents and 
these in their turn have under their 
orders controllers, who warch over 
the execution of the regulations 
rtdating to the natives, visit periodi- 

cally the villages in their district, lis- 
ten to complaints, supervise the 
government plantations, and are, as it 
were, the hand which unites the na- 
tive administration to the European. 
Java is administered by a hier- 
archy of officials which constitute a 
select body. Trained at the college 
of Delft or at the University of Ley- 
den, which are the nurseries of the 
colonial administrators destined for 
the civil sendee, they have all passed, 
either in Holland or at Batavia, a spec- 
ial examination, the programme of 
which is arranged by the minister for 
the colonies. This programme varies 
according to the duties for which the 
candidate is to be prepared. For the 
highest posts the "grand examina- 
tion of officials " must be passed,, 
which deals with essentially techni- 
cal affairs, including chiefly the his- 
tory, geography, and ethnography of 
the Dutch Indies, the civil and reli- 
gious laws, the political institutions 
and customs of the nations, the Ma- 
lay and Javanese languages. There 
are two examinations at intervals 
generally of two years ; the second 
embraces the same subjects as the 
first, but more extended and more 
thorough. The candidates for judi- 
cial functions must be Doctors of 
Law, and in addition have passed 
examinations in the Malay and Java- 
nese languages, the Mussulman law. 
and the customs of the Dutch Indies, 
international law and the colonial in- 
stitutions of the foreign possessions. 

The selection is made annually 
under the direction of the colonial 
minister, who, after consultation with 
the government in Java, announces 
in the official journal the number of 
candidates, administrative or judicial, 
to be placed at the *disposition of the 

4 6 


governor-general. The examination 
rank determines the selection. The 
candidates selected, besides a first- 
class passage, are entitled to an 
allowance for their equipment, and 
on their arrival at the colony they 
receive a provisional salary, pending 
their definite appointment ; for they 
are not immediately given an impor- 
tant position, but must serve an ap- 
prenticeship under a controller or 
an assistant resident, who initiates 
them into the practice of colonial af- 
fairs. The salary of the civil officials 
is fixed by the king or by the gov- 
ernor-general. These salaries are at 
-least three times as much as they 
would receive in Kurope in similar 
situations, and a pension is given on 
retirement. The governors of prov- 
inces receive, the residents 
$5,000 to $7,000, the controllers 
$1,600; even a modest justice of the 
peace is well paid. In the large cit- 
ies of the colony, Batavia or Souva- 
baya, a good lawyer has an income 
of at least $20,000. It is plain that 
the corps of officials which presides 
over the destinies of Java is wisely 
organized, carefully recruited, and 
well paid ; it constitutes the elite of 
the mother country by critical selec- 
tion. It is, perhaps, the most perfect 
colonial personnel in the world. 

The mechanism of the Dutch Colo- 
nial system in Java skilfully conceals 
the real motors of the machine under 
the machinery of pure parade, by 
leaving to the native princes the illu- 
sion of power, and by concealing the 
action of the European directors. 
>Eaeh residence includes one or more 
regencies, and by the side of the resi- 
dent there is one or more regent. 
While the resident is always a Euro- 
pean official, the regent is always a 

native official, belonging to the high- 
est families, and often, even, of 
princely birth ; according to the im- 
portance of his rank he has the title 
of Raden Adipati or Mas Toemeng- 
gpeng or Pangeran (prince). 

The natives are subject to the 
regent, their natural chief ; as to the 
resident, the real possessor of power, 
he acts only through the regent ; but 
to conceal his authority he appears 
to the eyes of the natives as the 
"older brother" of the regent, and 
it is in form of " recommendations " 
that he gives orders to his brother. 
This formula, which would be re- 
garded as commonplace with us, has 
an important meaning among the 
Javanese, for as they view it, the 
elder brother, after the death of the 
father, is the head of the family, 
respected by this title by his younger 
brothers, but considered always as 
a brother and not as an official chief. 
Since they are brothers the regent 
explains his plans to the resident ; 
the European official is even bound 
to take the advice of the native offi- 
cial, when the interests of the native 
are involved ; the younger brother is 
the intimate adviser of the older 
brother in all cases where the latter 
ought to be enlightened as to the 
condition of the people; but when 
the resident has made up his mind 
on the advice of the regent, the lat- 
ter, as a dutiful younger brother, 
ought to submit. 

The regent, who has only the sem- 
blance of power, has, as compensa- 
tion, all the external marks which 
would impress the multitude; in 
order that he may keep up his rank 
and keep up the luxury of an Asiatic 
court, he is better paid than the resi- 
dent himself; he ranks above all the 



European officials except the resi- 
dent ; he is surrounded with the 
pomp of a prince, holds a court in 
which the natives, even if members 
of his own family, approach him only 
on their knees, has a numerous suite.. 
exercises control over the native 
chiefs o f the regency; in a word, in 
the eyes of the natives he is their 
lord and master. To this material 
authority is added spiritual authority. 
for he is also their high priest ; more 
than that he is their judge for he is a 
member of the Landraad (council), 
.and presides at the court of the 
regency. You can see that the 
regent is apparently everything, but 
it is his elder brother who rules him, 
even while treating him in public 
and in private on a footing of perfect 
equality and frank cordiality. The 
regent would take care not to dis- 
obey the "recommendations" of his 
brother, for he knows what it would 
cost him ; appointed by the govern- 
ment, he knows that he will be kept 
in office only on condition of pleasing 
the government. 

The regent is always chosen from 
the nobles, who, before the conquest, 
governed the district in the name of 
the native ruler. The last vestige of 
the feudal regime, which flourished 
in Java in the past ages, he descends 
in direct line from the vassals of the 
ancient kingdom of Matavam. The 
Dutch have reduced the power of 
these nobles, while leaving them their 
prestige, which they use to serve 
their plans, and it is by their assist- 
ance that they introduced their fa- 
mous system of cultivation, to which 
they gained them by giving them 
possession of the soil. To keep them 
better under control they granted to 
them heredity in the transmission of 

power, thus treating with respect a 
principle which has prevailed in Java 
from time immemorial. They com- 
prehended that the natives would 
much more docilely allow themselves 
to be governed by a regent of exalted 
lineage., known and respected in the 
country, than by an official chosen 
from the lower classes, or taken from 
a distant province. As much as pos- 
sible the ancient divisions of the 
country have beeu preserved, so that 
the authority of the regent extends 
over the same territory and the same 
populations as that under the control 
of his ancestors. He has the income 
of the lands which belong to his 
charge. But in spite of all the pomp 
and all the dignities wdiich are as- 
tached to his rank, in spite of all the 
influence due to his being a prince, 
he is, under the externals of a native 
rajah, only a salaried employe of the 
Dutch government ; when he dies, 
his son is ordinarily called to succeed 
him, out of respect for the hereditary 
rule ; but this is not a matter of right, 
and the government which appoints 
this official can also remove him. 
From the day when he is deprived of 
his office he is only a member of the 
family of the regent and his pomp, 
his fortune, and his power pass over 
to the one whom the government has 
chosen in his place from the same 
family. An English writer has re- 
marked that the policy of the Dutch 
in Java seems to have been inspired 
by the experience acquired from a 
long residence in Desima ; either on 
account of natural similarity or in 
consequence of being favored by the 
Dutch, many of the details of life in 
Java resemble those of Japan. Just 
as abdication is a common event in 
the customs of Japan, so in Java the 

4 8 


regents and the native chiefs, coming 
to the threshold of old age. like to 
lay aside the responsibilities of power 
in favor of a son or some other mem- 
ber of their family. The retired re- 
gent then enters the LanJraad, and 
thus preserves an elevated rank. 

One of the most interesting charac- 
teristics of the Dutch policy is the 
wisdom with which it has known 
how to respect the importance which 
the natives attribute to rank and 
pomp. The first clause to which the 
regent submits himself in taking the 
oath of office is that in which he ex- 
pressly promises to observe the de- 
crees relative to these special ques- 
tions, and to treat the natives accord- 
ing to their rank. The Dutch in this 
respect do not profess the disdain 
which the English and French affect. 
They concede that they must regard 
the ideas of the natives, not from the 
European point of view, but from the 
native point of view ; they officially 
recognize the importance of these 
questions, and wisely leave the regula- 
tion of them to the natives themselves. 

Parallel to the hierarchy of the 
European officials, there is a whole 
hierarchy of native officials. Just as 
the resident has under his orders as- 
sistant residents and controllers, so 
the regent has for subordinates wedo- 
nos, assistant wcdo7ios and mantries. 
Each/regency is divided into districts 
which are administered by a wedona. 
This chief of the district is, like the 
regent, a native of good family, und 
he is, like him, salaried by the gov- 
ernment ; but he is elected by the na- 
tive community, subject to the ap- 
proval of the resident. He is charged 
with the police of the district and ex- 
ecutes the orders of the regent ; lie 
presides at the district court ; every 

month he accompanies the controller 
in his tour of inspection, and the lat- 
ter indicates what improvements 
should be made., The wedono is as- 
sisted by the chiefs who have the title 
mantries, and whom he selects from 
the young men of the best families, 
even from the sons of the regent. 
The mantrie lives in the house of the 
li'cdciio, who can send him at any 
hour of the da3" or night to the place 
he designates to execute the orders of 
the controller. The young mantrie 
performs all the tasks, requiring a 
journey ; he constantly travels over 
the country on horseback and that is 
why on the day of his appointment 
he receives a pony and a kris. The 
government thus saves the cost of 
those innumerable peons or messen- 
gers, which, elsewhere surround Eu- 
ropean or native officers. 

One of the most skilful means by 
which the Dutch know how to tem- 
per their rule, ib the employment of 
the native language in all the rela- 
tions between the Europeans and the 
natives. In the greater part of the 
colonies founded by great nations in 
our own as well as in ancient times, 
the conqueror has been seen to im- 
pose his own language on the con- 
quered. The Dutch, a people patient 
and persevering, find the best policy 
in learning the language of the people 
they govern, and they practise this 
system not only in Java, but in the 
whole extent of their colonial empire. 
In Java the problem is complicated 
by the presence of four races which 
divide the island among themselves 
and which speak each their own lan- 
guage : Mala}', Soudanese, Javan- 
ese, and Madourien. I saw at Djok- 
jokata a resident who spoke no other 
European language than Dutch, but 



who knew thoroughly the four native 
languages, one of which, the Javan- 
ese,' has three dialects, according to 
the rank of the person addressed ; cue 
can judge of the complication. 

In order to give to the natives the 
illusion of autonomy, the Dutch do 
not content themselves with leaving 
their regents, their wedo/ios, their vil- 
lage chiefs* they even leave them their 
emperor. The territory of the vorstm- 
landen (prince's lands), this central 
province which occupies the fifteenth 
par' of Java, forms a little empive, 
the last remains of the kingdom of 
Mataratn. This territory is divided 
between two princes, the sotsochoc- 
nan and the sultan ; the former lives 
at Solo or Sourakarta. and the latter 
at Djokjokarta. These two capitals 
are still the centres of Javanese life, 
and there one can best get an idea of 
what Java must have been in the past. 

Formerly the vorste?ila?ide?i formed 
only a single province, subject to the 
soesochocnan alone ; but in the last 
century the emperor, Hamangkoe, 
despairing of subduing a Chinese 
insurrection, called the Dutch to his 
aid, and in return granted the lands 
to them. Scarcely was he delivered 
from the Chinese, he was obliged to 
reckon with the pretention of his 
brother, who claimed the right of 
sharing the throne. Hamangkoe, to 
avoid new contests, left the matter 
to the arbitration of die Dutch, who 
put an end to the dispute by a solu- 
tion suited to their policy, inspired 
by the principle, Divide ut imperes. 
They divided the kingdom into two 
provinces, which was the best way to 
weaken a powerful state ; the largest 
of the two divisions formed the prov- 
ince of Sourakarta, and remained the 
share of the socsoehoenaii ; the other 

xxvi — i 

division was assigned to the brother 
of the emperor, who became sultan of 

The present emperor and sultan, 
are the descendants of these two 
princes. The emperor has the title 
of soesde/zoenan, which means " his 
highness;" he also has the titles of 
"clove of the world," "commander 
of the arnn-." "servant of the mer- 
ciful," "master of culture," "regu- 
lator of the religion." He is re- 
garded as the "elder brother" of the 
sultan. This is a rather typical ex- 
ample of the skilful management of 
the Dutch. Formerly, the two sov- 
ereigns met annually at Garau, near 
Djokjokarta; the interview took 
place with great pomp, and the sul- 
tan paid homage to the emperor by 
taking off his sandals, and kneeling 
before him in the attitude of adora- 
tion. But as this ceremony attracted 
a great multitude of people, the Dutch 
found it prudent to put an end to it. 
To induce the sultan to renounce it, 
they represented to him that a prince 
who did homage to another would 
not be considered as really indepen- 
dent in the eyes of Europeans. The 
following year, on the day fixed, the 
emperor arrived with his usual reti- 
nue, but to great surprise he 
found the sultan, contrary to all pre- 
cedents, dressed in a military uni- 
form, seated by the side of the throne, 
and very little disposed to accept the 
humiliating ceremony. He swal- 
lowed the insult without letting his 
spite appear, and this interview' was 
the last. The Dutch had thus se- 
cured a double end : embroiled two 
princes who till then had been united, 
and put an end to a national festival 
which attracted too large a number 
of natives. 



The two princes of the versientan- 
den have only the empty appearance 
of the authority which the powerful 
potentates, who oppressed the Java- 
nese for so many centuries, possessed; 
from concession to concession they 
have been despoiled of their powers 
to such a degree that there is only an 
insensible shade of difference between 
the so-called s government 
of vorsienlanden and the government 
directly exercised by the Dutch in 
the other provinces. When one of 
the princes is near to death, the resi- 
dent is installed at the kraton for 
some weeks : he is, in fact, the sov- 
ereign for the time being, until the 
choice of the successor has been 
arranged in concert with the Dutch 
government. This successoi is not 
accepted unless he concedes all that 
is demanded. And so each change 
of emperor brings about some new 
concessions. And as these emper- 
ors, surrounded by two or three thou- 
sand wives, succumb quickly to their 
debauches, the concessions have a 
direct relation to the frequency of 
the vacancies or. the throne. 

Not content with reserving to itself 
the choice of the prince, the gov- 
ernment names and discharges the 
minsters, whose salaries it pays, it 
watches over the administration of 
the kingdom, the police, the levying 
of taxes, the Eecruiting and the equip- 
ment of the army, who are, moreover, 
only troops for parade, and absolutely 
unfit for war ; the government also 
reserves to itselt the control of opium, 
the management of the forests and 
of the swallow's nests, the rights of 
entry and departure. The authority 
of the princes is limited to their na- 
tive subjects; as to the Europeans, 
they are under the direct authority of 

the residents established in the two 
capitals of the. vorsienlmiden^ and 
whose palaces are protected by solid 
forts, which frown upon the palaces 
of the so-called sovereigns. 

In compensation for the conces- 
sions of authority and territory, the 
emperor and the sultan receive large 
pecuniary indemnities, which enable 
them, like their ancestors, to main- 
tain the ceremonial of an oriental 
court, to surround themselves with 
thousands of servants, and to keep up 
their dignity in the eyes of the- peo- 
ple. This suffices to make them per- 
fectly satisfied with their present con- 
dition, and they regard as marks of 
honor the titles and decorations 
which the queen of Holland confers 
upon them. The indemnities, which 
are taken annually from the Indian 
budget, amount to about 1,300.000 
florins (S52Q,ooo), of which the em- 
peror receives about two thirds, and 
the sultan one third. The emperor, 
who represents the old house of Mata- 
ram, and whose persou is consid- 
ered sacred, still has a great prestige 
in the eyes of the Javanese people, 
and this prestige extends even be- 
yond the limits of his kingdom. 
While leaving these princes only the 
semblance of authority, the Dutch 
policy, which understands the orien- 
tal taste for parade, leaves them the 
old organization of the complicated 
ceremonial of their courts ; it lets 
them show themselves to their people 
in all the pomp and splendor em- 
ployed by their ancestors; it has 
maintained the rank, the titles, the 
symbols, the salaries of the officers. 

To conceal the authority of the 
government by means of native inter- 
mediaries, so as to make the people, 
gentle but proud, believe that they 



are still obeying their natural 
chiefs, is. as it appears, the psycho- 
logical side of the entirely peculiar 
systein of colonization which* the 
Dutch have introduced into Java, 
ami the like of which one would 
search for in vain in all the other 
European colonizations. 

The economic side of their colonial 
system proceeds from the same idea, 
and is not less peculiar nor less 
curious. While they have left to 
the natives their princes and their 
regents, while they have kept up 
the institutions under which the 
natives have lived for centuries, they 
have not modified in any respect the 
land and. agricultural system, they 
have perpetuated the law of property 
as it has been established from time 
immemorial in Java. 

Under the despotic government of 
the sultans there had been no indi- 
vidual ownership ; the prince was the 
proprietor of the land, and to him 
belonged the right of trading with 
the foreigner. The inhabitants of 
the same village constituted a dessa, 
a community which had a political 
and civil character at the same time. 

Under the system of the dessa, the 
inhabitants live under the regime of 
the possession by the community, in 
other words, the land belongs not to 
individuals but to the' dessa. That 
dpes not mean, however, that the 
lands are cultivaU-d by the inhabi- 
tants of the village in common ; the 
system consists practically in an 
annual or periodical division of the 
arable laud among all the inhabitants 
of the village having a right to any 
part of the soil ; this division is 
neither equal nor general ; all the 
inhabitants do not have the right to' 
it, and the extent of the portions is 

regulated by custom and also by the 
favor of the chiefs of the dessa. The 
cultivator, to whom is assigned a 
piece of laud, can possess it individu- 
ally and to the exclusion of every 
one else ; but he has only a preca- 
rious tenure, and he must always 
expect that at the next partition his 
land will fall into other hands. The 
vice of this systein can be imagined ; 
as the improvements which the culti- 
vator may make in his field may 
profit others, he -lacks the powerful 
stimulant of personal interest -which 
inspires the individual owner. Be- 
sides the division is due to exactions 
and favors, for it is always in the 
power of the chiefs of the dessa to 
assign the best land to their friends. 

However defective the system is 
the Dutch have preserved it in order 
not to appear to overturn the insti- 
tutions of the Javanese people. For- 
merly the ownership was in the 
prince ; the Dutch government is 
simply substituted for the prince, 
and has kept the ownership of all the 
land in Java. This system has as 
corollary the corzies, or days of labor 
which the natives formerly paid to 
the prince as rent for the land they 
occupied. The corvee is the right of 
the prince to call for the personal 
labor of his subjects, without pay, 
for the building of roads, dikes, 
bridges, canals, for the maintenance 
of these works, for the postal service, 
and for other public services. The 
number of days of corvee could for- 
merly reach fifty-two, annually, as a 
maximum. The Dutch have been 
compelled gradually to soften the 
rigor of this rule, whose odiousness 
they understood ; so that the govern- 
ment regulated the extent of the 
corvee, and ordained that the laws 



relative to this subject should be 
revised every rive years. The extent 
aud nature of the corvie varies in the 
different provinces: in 1S93 it had 
been reduced to forty-two days in 
certain residences, to thirty-six in 
others, and everi to twenty- four in 
some. The regulations limit the day 
to twelve hours, the time of rest and 
the time of travel to and fro being 
Included therein. The person who 
gives the service cannot be com- 
pelled to perform it more than seven 
miles from his abode. He still has 
no pay, but he is not now obliged to 
furnish tools or materials which are 
his own. 

In certain provinces since 18S2 a 
commutation of forty cents a head 
has been substituted for the coi~vfa 
and from the receipts they have in- 
creased the indemnities given to the 
chiefs. Recently the question of the 
complete abolition of the corvee by 
means of an increase of the commuta- 
tion lias been discussed ; but they 
recognized that the economical situa- 
tion of the people did not now permit 
the carrying out of this plan, which 
" would involve the imposing of too 
high a tax. It was proposed also to 
give the natives the option of buying 
off the obligation ; but it was equally 
necessary to give this up, for fear that 
the chiefs would be tempted to keep 
the ransom and impose the forced 
labor on other holders of the soil. 

Besides the corvees due to the state 
there are other corvees due to the 
commune or to the dessa which are 
neither less numerous nor less heavy. 
The case is cited of a native who had 
the courage to complain because the 
corvees demanded of him by the dessa 
proportionately to the laud he occu- 
pied were so burdensome that if 

justice was not done he would give 
up his land. Examination showed 
that the number of communal corvees 
reached in certain dessa s two hun- 
dred aud twenty-four a year. 

There were two men who admira- 
bly understood what they could get 
out of the corvee to make the colony 
productive to the great advantage of 
the mother country ; these providen- 
tial men were two soldiers, Marshal 
Daendels aud Gen. Van den Bosch ; 
with their military genius they 
enrolled the millions of Java in an 
innumerable army of persons fit for 
the corvee.- From the regime of the 
corvees was born the famous system 
known under the name of cul- 
ture system which forms one of the 
most curious pages of colonial annals 
of modern times. It is generally 
believed that this system was in- 
vented by Gen. Van den Bosch, but 
Marshal Daendels made the first 
trial of it. It may be said that the 
economical history of the Dutch 
Indies is that of the administration 
of these two governors, for while 
employing different menus, one pro- 
ceeding by force and terror and the 
other by laws and orders, they were 
looking for the same t-nc], and if 
their system rests on principles which 
are to be condemned, it must be 
recognized that they are the founders 
of the colonial empire of the Dutch 
and that their names are linked with 
that of Java. 

Daendels, whom the Javanese 
designate to-day under the name of 
the "iron marshal," governed the 
island from 1808 to 18 ri, in the name 
of Louis Napoleon, then king of Hol- 
land. To cover the country with 
roads, the better to keep it in 
order by opening it to strategy, was 



the tactics of the generals of the em- 
pire. Iti less than tvvp years the 
marshal had accomplished an admi- 
rable system of roads extending from 
one end of Java to the other, a dis- 
tance of Soo miles, from Anjer on the 
West to Banjouvaugi on the east. If 
the Javanese roads are possibly in 
the best repair of any in the world, it 
is on account of the happy innova- 
tion thai they are made of two par- 
allel tracks, one for heavy teams and 
beasts of burden, and the other for 
horses and post carriages; each is 
wide enough for three vehicles 
abreast ; they are separated from 
each other by a ridge generally 
adorned by a hedge. 

The marshal had recourse to 
forced labor for the execution of these 
great works, Pie ordered each com- 
mune or dessa to bin Id a part of the 
road in a certain fixed time. If a 
village had uot finished the work in 
the fixed time the marshal sent a ser- 
geant and four soldiers with the order 
to seize the native chiefs and hang 
them. It can be understood that 
with this far too oriental system the 
roads decreed were finished as if by 
magic. The despotism of this Napo- 
leon of the Indies inspired in the na- 
tives a fear which exists to-day, as 
could be seen when recently an engi- 
neer by the name of Marshall came 
to Java to build railroads. The peo- 
ple imagining that he descended from 
the "iron marshal" lavished upon 
him marks of profound respect. If 
Daendels did great things he com- 
mitted many excesses. Suspected by 
Napoleon of wishing to create an em- 
pire in Java for his own profit, he was 
recalled to Europe, and soon after 
the crown jewel of the Indies passed 
over to the English. 

Daendels was thus the real inventor 
of the system of forced labor. Under 
his administration all the villages, 
whose laud was suitable for the culti- 
vation of coffee, were compelled to 
plant a certain number of coffee trees, 
generally a thousand plants for each 
chief of a family. At the end of five 
years the product of the plantation 
was estimated and the village was re- 
quired to deliver without pay, to the 
storehouses of the government on the 
coast, carefully cleaned and sorted, 
two fifths of the harvest, in default of 
which the village had to pay'a fine to 
the government, according to the 
tariff established each year, which 
averaged ten dollars a picul (135 
pounds). The remaining three fifths 
were the property of the cultivator, 
who disposed of it as he liked. 
Nevertheless the government, to se- 
cure the whole crop, bound itself to 
pay, according to the same tariff, the 
price of each picul of first quality 
coffee, transported to the coast 
cleaned and sorted. 

This system, which ought to have 
caused an enormous production of 
coffee to flow into the hands of the 
government resulted in failure on ac- 
count oi forgetfulness of a detail. 
The government, in truth, received 
the whole of the slender production 
of coffee harvested in the vicinity of 
the storehouses established on 'the 
coast, but it only received a small 
portion, much less than three fifths of 
the very considerable product of the 
interior. The reason was that in 
spite of the excellent roads with 
which the marshal had furrowed the 
island, the mountain villages were 
deprived of communication with the 
roads, or did not have the means of 
transport to carry the heavy loads of 




coffee to great distances. The result 
was that the coffee was bought on 
the place at a cheap price by the first 
comer, or exchanged for the half or 
third of its weight in salt, the sale of 
which was monopolized by the gov- 
ernment. The government received 
only a small portion of the crop, the 
greater part of which was sent to 
Europe by private buyers, who did 
not take pains to clean and sort it. 
The bad reputation which Java coffee 
thus acquired in the European mar- 
ket affected the price of the govern- 
ment Java. Besides the villages of 
the interior received so little profit 
from the coffee that they neglected 
its cultivation. So the system was 
abandoned under the English rule, 
and the villagers, not being obliged 
any longer to cultivate coffee, returned 
to their old crops, better suited to 
their needs. 

The English introduced into Java a 
system conformable to modern ideas. 
But these ideas were hardly practica- 
ble in a state of society analagous 
to that of Europe in the middle ages. 
When the Dutch received Java back 
from the English they returned to the 
former system and found it to be sat- 
isfactory for the first years. From 
1817 to 1S24 the revenue always con- 
siderably exceedtd the expenses, but 
in 1&24 there vas for the first time a 
deficit, which increased each year. 
From the return of the Dutch to 1833 
the excess of the expenses above the 
revenue amounted to Si 3, 000, 000. 
This deficit, covered by Holland, 
formed the debt of Java, which in 
eight years amounted to the revenue 
of a year and a half. This for Java 
was a heavy and exhausting debt like 
all debts held abroad, for which the 
interest must leave the country so 

that it produces a disastrous drain of 
money. As a result the people were 
living in gr-eat destitution, oppressed 
by the native chiefs, and the jewel of 
the Indian archipelago had become • 
a burden to the parent state. At this 
period Java was very nearly in the 
same desperate position as continen- 
tal India in '1856. On the other 
hand the finances of the home coun- 
try itself were compromised, as the 
result of the Belgian revolution, 
which had created a great breach 
in the public treasury. The, war 
which had swallowed up millions, 
and exhausted Holland, to relieve it- 
self from its distress, could only turn 
towards an impoverished colony. 

It was at this critical epoch that 
the other providential man was seen 
to arise, a man whose name, like 
that of Daendels, is linked to the his- 
tory of Java. General Van den 
Bosch presented himself as saviour, 
presented his infallible system and 
prophesied that he would make a 
new Pactolus of Java. He set out 
for the Indies in 1830, fortified with 
full power, and entirely free in his 
choice of means which would tend to 
fill the treasury. He built his plans 
upon the idea that the Javanese, so 
long as they were left to themselves, 
would never devote themselves to the 
cultivation of products destined for 
the European market. Different 
from his predecessor, Commissary- 
General du Bus de Gisiguies, who 
counted only on free labor and 
private enterprise, Van den Bosch 
wanted the exclusive monopoly of 
the state. 

In his view the state was a pro- 
ducer, a manufacturer, in the face of 
which no private competition could 
come in rivalry. He placed himself 



on the adai, that is, the collection of 
old institutions of Java, which im- 
poses upon the natives duties towards 
the sovereign and which confer upon 
him the right of demanding as tax 
either a certain part of the product of 
the soil or equivalent personal ser- 
vices. The natives, then, were 
bound for the payment to the gov- 
ernment, their new sovereign, of the 
laud tax in the form of a quota of 
their harvest, which might be esti- 
mated at about two fifths. Then 
Van den Bosch conceived this inno- 
vation, that the native instead of 
paying the tax of two fifths, should 
give up a part of his laud, not ex- 
ceeding one fifth, and that the per- 
sonal services which he owed to the 
state should be applied to the culti- 
vation of products which are wanted 
in the European market, such as 
indigo, tobacco, sugar, tea, coffee, 
etc. If the value of these products 
should exceed the amount of the 
land tax, the excess was to be paid 
over to the native. His solicitude 
for the interests of the native was 
even carried to the point that, if the 
harvest should fail from a superior 
power, the loss should be the govern- 

The idea of the originator of this 
plan was that the innovation would 
have the double advantage of enrich- 
ing the mother country and of stimu- 
lating the Javanese to work by inter- 
esting them by the suppression of a 
tax of an oppressive character. In 
principle the native was at liberty to 
free himself from this tax by aban- 
doning a part of his land, and as the 
relations between him and the gov- 
ernment ought to be regulated by 
agreement, the system apparently 
rested on the free consent of the par- 

ties. But it was easy to see that this 
arrangement would inevitably result 
in forced labor. 

It is an economical error to consti- 
tute the state an industrial agent, to 
expose it to the chances of gain or 
loss. Impelled by the need of realiz- 
ing great and quick profits the gov- 
ernment would very soon inaugurate 
coercive measures. In place of vol- 
untary contracts it would be orders. 
If the native was exempt from the 
land tax, on the other hand he would 
be paid only insufficient wages, and 
be reimbursed only by the excess of 
the harvest. They would demand of 
him not simply a fifth of his land, but 
a third or even more, sometimes even 
the whole, according to the needs of 
the treasury. The Dutch authors 
Veth and Van der Lith have exposed 
these abuses in detail. After 1S32 
there was no longer any question of 
voluntary contracts, since a circular 
from the governor-general imposed on 
each province the amount of products 
in proportion to the population .and 
at the rate of eighty cents per head. 
Better results were demanded of Java 
from year to year and consequently 
the native was pressed more and 
more. Independently of the "cul- 
ture system " there was placed upon 
him a multitude of personal services, 
which often were not even paid for, 
and the maximum of his power of 
endurance was demanded of him, for 
to secure an always increasing profit, 
it was necessary to put to work all 
the living powers he possessed. 

Van den Bosch understood that the 
realization of his plans was only pos- 
sible with the cooperation of the na- 
tive chiefs. To gain them to his 
ideas and to stimulate their zeal, he 
allowed them so much per cent., or 

J A V A 

premiums on the quantity of pro- 
ducts turned over. The absolute 
domination of the chiefs over the 
people was the key of the vault of 
the forced culture system. It was 
necessary to secure their connivance 
by strengthening their power. Ac- 

cord i: 

Van den Bosch went fai 

ther in this direction than his pre- 
decessors, who had already restored 
to the regents their ancient prestige, 
of which they had been deprived dur- 
ing the English regime. By the re- 
gents everything could be secured 
from the natives ; to exalt them in 
the eyes of the people, it was neces- 
sary to 'procure for them the means 
of keeping up a princely luxury by 
giving them a large part of the prof- 
its and by thus interesting them to 
encourage production. It can easily 
be conceived that these regents ac- 
customed to treat as pariahs their 
subjects, whom they considered as 
beings of an inferior class, would be 
inspired by the example of the gov- 
ernment to enrich themselves at the 
expense of the people, and to give 
themselves up to ail sorts of exactions 
and abuse of power, which it would 
be necessary to ignore. So that if 
the culture ^system was a source of 
m wealth for the chiefs, it was to the 
detriment of the well being of the 
natives. The right of choosing the 
chiefs of theidessa was denied to them. 
Since the chiefs of the dessa in the 
organization of the culture system 
were the instruments of the govern- 
ment, it was necessary to remove 
those who did not act with it. 
Deventer asserts that the chiefs of the 
dessa who did not secure a satisfac- 
tory product were whipped or de- 
prived of their office. A disgraceful 
trafic in the village offices was the 

result, and old domestic servants and 
grooms were placed at the head of 
the dessas. The rights which the 
natives had from the adat in the 
arable lands were not respected, and 
it was by no means infrequently the 
case that all the land of the dessa was 
used for a plantation of sugar cane, 
while the poor inhabitants of the vil- 
lage were compelled to raise their rice 
on laud exempt from the culture sys- 
tem because it was too far from the 
factory. As it was difficult to apply 
Van den Bosch's system in the prov- 
inces, where individual ownership of 
the land was in force, the rights of 
the occupant were simply disre- 
garded. One regent, to put an end 
to the possession of the individual, 
could find no better way than burn- 
ing the registers, which showed the 
titles. There was nothing that was 
respected, and usages and customs of 
the natives, that in the plan of Van 
den Bosch were to serve as the basis 
of the system, were trampled under 

For some years the results were 
brilliant for the mother Country, and 
gold poured into the treasury of the 
state. Vanden Bosch, on his re- 
turn from the Indies, was appointed 
colonial minister, and held the office 
till 1840. liis system was continued 
in Java by his successors, Band, de 
Kerens, and Merkus, to whom the 
minister left very little liberty of 
action. When Band announced that 
he should hardly be able to send four 
million dollars more than the pre- 
vious year, Van den Bosch ordered 
him to take care to send double that 
increase. The governors-general 
were only instruments in the hands 
of Van den Bosch, who did not hesi- 
tate to express his discontent when 

I A J A. 


they did not act according to his 
views, .that is to say, if they did not 
work, above all, for the constant in- 
crease of the revenue. 

The culture system had happy re- 
sults in the eastern provinces, where 
the people received a great benefit 
from it, by initiating them into oilier 
labors than the cultivation of rice. 
In these provinces the soil is produc- 
tive, and the crops introduced gave 
good wages to the natives. Never- 
theless, we might ask, withVau der 
Luh. the celebrated economist, if free 
labor and private industry would not 
have produced the same result. The 
effects of the new organization were 
not the same in other parts of the 
island. It is this which shows the 
evil of the culture system, consid- 
ered as a tax ; if it is profitable in 
certain districts, it creates heavy bur- 
dens in others, and a flagrant ine- 
quality is the result. In many prov- 
inces the Vrn den Bosch system 
caused the people to suffer; here, be- 
cause the soil was unfit for the crops 
the>- wished to introduce, or already 
exhausted ; there because the wages 
were too low for the amount of work 
exacted ; elsewhere, because the na- 
tives were not numerous enough for 
the corvee. 

The incredible disaster which burst 
upon then in 1849, under the admini- 
stration of Governor-General Roehus- 
sen, disclosed the vices of culture sys- 
tem. From the time of the inaugura- 
tion of the Van den Bosch system the 
policy of the system of an increase of 
revenue had been pushed to the ex- 
treme. Money was demanded ; al- 
ways more money, and the interests 
of the colony had always been blindly 
sacrificed to this constant preposes- 

To satisfy the insatiable needs of 
the treasury of the mother country 
the natives were obliged to neglect 
their own crops so as to secure the 
products designed for the European 
market. The cultivation of indigo 
had exhausted the laud ; that of to- 
bacco prevented the second crop; the 
sugar cane absorbed a large part of 
the population in the factor}-, where 
this product must be treated before 
it could be delivered over to com- 
merce. Governor Rochussen, com- 
prehending the colonial interests bet- 
ter than his predecessors, perceived 
the danger which might result from 
the culture system : while supplying 
the European market, the natives 
were becoming impoverished and 
might be in want of the ordinary 
necessities of life if the tendency to 
consider only the interests of the 
mother country was not resisted. 
But the warning of Rochussen was 
not listened to, and the orders which 
he gave to the residents were not 
obeyed. . 

The natives, in order to pay the 
land tax which was raised in pro- 
portion to their increasing poverty, 
were compelled to sell their buffalos 
without which they could not cultivate 
their rice fields. Finally, and what 
completed their misery, there were 
heavy levies (corvtes) for defensive 
works, which were exacted of them 
over and above the " cultures.'* To 
erect at Sourabaya and Sainarang 
useless fortifications, which entered 
into the defensive system planned by 
Van den Bosch, innumerable work- 
men were compelled to come from all 
parts of the island, and they, far from 
their fields, neglected the cultivation 
of rice. The harvest failed, the means 
of subsistance were wanting, and the 


most fertile colony in the world ex- 
perienced the horrors of famine. The 
exact number of natives who per- 
ished, victims of misery and epi- 
demic diseases, has never been 
known. ^Biit the number must be 
large, since in the districts of De- 
mark and Grobogan the native popu- 
lation was reduced two fifths. 

The news of this disaster dis- 
credited the culture system in Hol- 
land. An orator of great talent, a 
clergyman, Van Hoevell, who had 
passed several years in the Indies, 
came to the front in parliament. He 
became the apostle of the Liberals, 
who wanted to substitute free for 
forced labor and fought the govern- 
ment system ardently. If he did not 
succeed in getting his principles 
wholly accepted, he laid the way for 
their final triumph. The govern- 
ment entered upon a new path b}* 
entering upon a partial diminution of 
the cultures which were too burden- 
some for the people. Thus govern- 
ment cultivation disappeared little by 
little; and the abolition of the forced 
cultivation of sugar was the last blow 
given to the Van den Bosch system, 
for the forced cultivation of coffee, 
which alone still subsists at the pres- 
ent time, does not belong to the sys- 
tem introduced by this reformer. 
This cultivation, in fact, does not 
compel the natives to give up any 
part of their land, a fundamental 
principle of the Van den Bosch sys- 

So the government cultivation suc- 
ceeded little by little private culti- 
vation, with which the Van den Bosch 
system was incompatible, since the 
state, as the sole proprietor of the 
soil and uniting in its hands all pro- 
ductive forces, could not tolerate any 

private competition. Free industry, 
in order to % develop itself, demanded 
legislative intervention. Neverthe- 
less it was not till 1S61 that the re- 
form party obtained control. Minis- 
ter Therbecke at first entered upon 
the new road with, timid experiments. 
His successor, Frausen Van de Putte, 
in 1865, presented a draft of a law 
which went to the core of the colonial 
question, and regulated the principal 
points concerning the relation of gov- 
ernmental and private cultivation, 
but the draft did not become a law 
on account of the novelty of the prin- 
ciple which recognized that the 
native owned the laud he cultivated. 

Finally, in 1S70, on the recommen- 
dation of de Waal, the parliament 
adopted the celebrated "Agrarian 
law," which is still in force in 
the colony. This law allows 
Europeans to hire or lease, for at 
least sixty years, the uncultivated 
lands and guarantees to the natives 
the ownership of the land they have 
cleared up and cultivated. Another 
law of the time enacted that the gov- 
ernment would not grant any exten 
sion to the cultivation of sugar, 
which was to be definitely abolished 
in 1S90. With the exception of the 
cultivation of coffee, this law defin- 
itely swept away all that remained of 
the famous culture system of Van den 
Bosch, the blossoming and fall of 
which divide the colonial history of 
Java into two very distinct periods. 

What especially characterizes the 
new state of things sanctioned by the 
Agrarian law is that the state no 
longer exercises an absolute mo- 
nopoly. The colonist, the plain, 
private individual can secure land 
for cultivation by conforming to cer- 
tain regulations. He may contract 



with the natives who may agree to 
raise .certain products for the Euro- 
pean market, to be delivered on pay- 
ment of the price. - These contracts 
were often imposed by force upon the 
inhabitants of the villages by the 
native chiefs who were corrupted by 
Europeans. But the government has 
made this abuse disappear by pro- 
hibiting contracts with whole vil- 
lages through the chiefs; now the 
arrangements must be with the na- 
tives individually. 

Another way opened by the Agra- 
rian law for private enterprise is op- 
portunity given for leasing for a long 
term new land belonging to the state. 
The long term of the lease permits 
the tenant to reimburse himself for 
the cost of breaking up the land and 
gives him a real title, which he can 
mortgage, affording security to the 
lender. The state not only finds in- 
direct advantages in bringing the 
wild land into cultivation, which 
tends to increase the production and 
the advantages which result from it, 
but also direct advantages, such as 
the export tax on what is raised, and 
the rent paid by the tenant. The 
importance of this system of develop- 
ment is shown by the fact that in 
F.892 about 60,000 acres had been 
leased on a rental of £432,000 an- 

The Dutch have thus entered on 
the humanitarian path of free labor. 
Aside from the corvees^ which still 
exist in the cultivation of coffee and 
in publie works, no force is used, can 
be used towards the natives, whose 
services are hired by contract. To 
prevent any appearance of constraint, 
the government has abolished a law 
which punished the breaking of con- 
tracts by the native workman and 

substituted a provision according to 
which the breaking of the contract 
can be punished in certain cases 
only, and the proof .is often so diffi- 
cult that this provision generally re- 
mains a dead letter. The economi- 
cal situation of Java is thus in a 
period of . complete transformation, 
and little by little the old colonial 
system is disappearing to give place 
to a liberal rule answering better to 
modern ideas. Happily this trans- 
formation has been brought about 
insensibly, without shocks,. and it 
was begun before it became an im- 
perative necessity. 

The Dutch, a prudent and thought- 
ful people, do not proceed by radical 
and violent measures. Thus they 
have not abolished the corvee in the 
cultivation. of coffee, the last intrench- 
ment in which the culture system 
has taken refuge. This cultivation, 
organized on a grand scale by the 
government, offers such advantages 
to the mother country that it would 
have been rash to abolish it by a 
stroke of the pen. The shock in 
breaking up the whole economy of 
the old system might have had the 
most disastrous results for the Indies 
as well as for the mother country. 
But although the hour of complete 
emancipation has not yet struck, we 
may predict that the day is near at 
hand when there will no longer be 
seen in Java any vestige of the forced 
employment of one people by another. 

The culture system has had -heated 
panagyrists and inveterate, traducers. 
An English author (J. Money.) has 
proclaimed it to be the finest of the 
colonial systems; a Dutch author 
(Havelaar) in a celebrated book 
painted a sombre picture, which has- 
tened its fall, just as "Uncle Tom's 



Cabin'' eontribituted to the aboli- 
tion of slavery. The culture system 
deserves neither this excessive honor 
nor this indignity. It can be said in 
praise of Van den Bo^ch that he extri- 
cated the native from his natural in- 
dolence, inculcated in him habits of 
industry, and taught him other arts 
than the cultivation of rice, which 
had previously satisfied his limited 
wants. It is less the system than the 
abuses, of which it was the occasion, 
that deserves the blame. 

And, then, who would believe it? 
It is to the culture system that Java 
owes the increase of population, ex- 
ceeding everything" that could have 
been" imagined by General Van den 
Bosch, who had probably never fore- 
seen this unexpected result. The 
population, which at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century was esti- 
mated at 3,500,000, has now reached 
the chimerical number of 25,067,461 

inhabitants for a territory of 


geographical square miles, or 10,496 
inhabitants to a geographical square 
mile. In the double relation of den- 
sity and increase of population, the 
island of Java surpasses all the other 
countries of the globe. Now it is 
interesting to note that it is espe- 
cially since the introduction of the 
culture system that the population 
has increased with exceptional ra- 
pidity. At the time of the innova- 
tion Java contained 7,000,000 inhab- 
itants ; in 1850. 9,500.000: in 1867, 
15,000,000. Since 1S30 the popula- 
tion has doubled -every thirty-five 
years ; while in tho.^e European 
countries, where the increase is 
most rapid, as in England, sixty- 
three years have been required to 
produce the same result. 

The proofs of the relation be- 

tween the culture system and the 
increase of population are numerous. 
Besides the fact that this increase 
lias been produced especially since 
the introduction of the system, it 
has been most markedly manifested 
in the provinces where the system 
has been worked on a grand scale. 
It cannot be denied that General 
Van den Bosch has potently 
contributed to the repeopliug 
of the island of Java, which 
apparently sustained in ancient 
times a population much" more 
dense, judging from the remains of 
the civilization which has disap- 
peared. This prodigious density of 
population strikes forcibly the new 
comer to Java. Along the roads, 
which furrow the island, there are 
processions of villagers, men, women, 
and children, who seem to issue 
from the earth. If it is true that the 
prosperity and happiness of a peo- 
ple can be judged by the rate of 
increase of the population we must 
conclude that the Javanese nation 
is one of the happiest in the world, 
and also that it has not been so op- 
pressed nor so badly governed as 
has been claimed. The native 
seemed to me to be very well 
nourished, suitably clothed, and I 
have no recollection of having met 
a beggar in Java, as I have often 
seen in the fortunate isle of 

Nevertheless the culture system, 
was a factitious and artificial insti- 
tution, which might for a certain 
number of years be favorable to the 
development of the population by 
making the conditions of existence 
easy for it, but which could not 
continue to produce the same results. 
The system was admirably con- 

JA\ T A, 


ceiyed in view of the development 
of industry among a half-civilized 
people who had been curbed for a 
thousand years under their ancient 
masters. At the present time this 
people could not be forced to sub- 
mit to the despotism under which 
it lived so long'. But the forced 
labor, by increasing the population, 
must inevitably, by such a multi- 
plication of the number of mouths, 
reach a day when an incredible 
misery would suddenly succeed to 
the prosperity, without the natives 
having- been prepared to contend 
against the horrible necessity by 
the thousand resources of f r ee 

To the old system, founded on 
the ownership by the state and the 
subjection of the natives, a regime 
of preliminary steps towards indi- 
vidual ownership and liberty has 
been substituted. Formerly Java 
was an estate to be farmed rather 
than a colony, for it had neither 
colonists nor private proprietors of 
the soil. The Van den Bosch sys- 
tem was incompatible with European 
colonization, since the state was not 
willing to sell the land, which it 
was causing to be cultivated by the 
wrv&es. The few private plantations 
dated from the English rule, as 
they wished to establish individual 
ownership. Since the new regime, 
established by the Agrarian law, 
European colonization has become 
possible, the monopoly of the state 
is giving way little by little to 
private enterprise, and Java, which 
was hardly more than a farm, where 
the persons liable to be taken for 
the corvee were attached to the soil, 
is transformed into a country of 
colonization open to all trials. 

For a long time Holland was 
opposed to the establishment of rail- 
roads in Java. Mr. de Beauvoir, 
who visited the island at the com- 
mencement of the building of the 
roads, was greatly surprised at the 
vigorous oppositon made by the 
greater part of the Europeans. 
Men of importance assured him 
that railroads would be useless for 
Java, on account of the shape of 
the island, it being very long and 
narrowed by the mountains in the 
centre ; they thought the system of 
roads inaugurated by Dandaels suf- 
ficient. But this opposition was 
founded on their first and dominat- 
ing idea ot the fear of free labor. 
They explained, in fact, that with 
a regulation which forbid the in- 
habitants of one village from going 
to another without permission, rail- 
roads seemed to be a dangerous in- 
novation to the partisans of the 
economical ideas of another age. 
So Holland retarded as much as 
possible the introduction of rail- 
roads into its colony, but it has 
been obliged to adopt them on ac- 
count of the poverty of its means of 
transport, a poverty which made the 
price of rice vary considerably at 
short distances, and which, in the 
most fertile island of the world, 
allowed the inhabitants of one dis- 
trict to die of famine, while those 
of a neighboring district lived in 

The inauguration of the railroad, 
which from that time united the 
eastern and western provinces, is 
an ecomical fact of incalculable im- 
portance. This event, which oc- 
cured November i, 1S94, makes the 
beginning of a new era for the 
queen of the Indian isles. In the 



transition period which Java is now 
going through, it no longer enriches 
the mother country to the injury of 
natives, for such is not the end which 
a healthy colonial system should 
pursue. A colony ought not to fill 
the treasury of the mother country, 
it ought to enrich the nation. It 
is without doubt for this idea, that 
while Java no longer contributes to 
the treasury the chimerical income 
of former days, and even causes 

an annual deficit of more than 
>4 ,000,000, the renouncing of the 
pearl of the Indies is proposed in 
vain in Holland : it would rather 
sacrifice its last soldier. And yet 
the Dutch, these modern Phoeni- 
cians do not precisely pass for a 
dreamy or chimerical people ; they 
even have the reputation of being 
the most positive, the most method- 
ical, and the most thoughtful peo- 
ple of our era. 

i !_ 



~0Ff SI s^ 

W. : . . ; 



Two New Hampshire centenarians died during December, 1898. 

Mrs. Lydia C. Tenney, who died at West Concord, December 18, was one of 
ten children born to Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Crane of Bradford, Vt., her natal day 
being December 8, 1795. She was the last survivor of the family: the next a 
brother, dying in 1893, at the age of 94. Mrs. Tenney joined the Congregational 
church in 1S13 and in 1S16 was united in marriage with Jonathan Tenney of 
Corinth, Vt. , 

Mrs. Roena Shelley died in Keene, December 14, aged 102 years, eight 

months, and 25 days. She was a native of Springfield, Vt., being one of nine 

children of Rufus and Annie Ranstead. Her childhood was spent in Springfield, 

Weathersheld, and other Vermont towns, until about 15 years of age. when she 

moved to Westmoreland, X. H., to live with her grandparents. There she 

was married at the Age of 24 to Oren Shelley. She had resided in Keene since 

1846. • 


Capt. George H. Emerson of Lancaster, died in the hospital at Berlin, 
December 29. He was born at Lancaster, June 25, 1844. When a lad of 18 
he enlisted in the Seventeenth New Hampshire regiment and soon after the 
mustering out of that body he secured a position at Washington, in the treas- 


ury department. After a four years' sojourn in Washington, lie resigned his 
clerkship, and returning to Lancaster in 1S6S. founded the Lancaster Gazette 
and was its editor for seven years. In 1878, he was elected register of probate 
for Coos county and held the position until |SS6, when he resigned to accept the 
office of special inspector of customs, under President Cleveland's first adminis- 
tration, with official station at Calais, Me, Mr. Emerson lost his office in rSS9 
on account of the change of administration. In 1S90 he accepted the position 
of editor of the newly established Dover Times and Star, which position he held 
but a few months, being stricken with paralysis in April, 1S91. 


Amos W. Pike, father of Judge Robert G. Pike of the supreme bench, died in 
Rollinsford, December 30. He was born in that town, December 15, 1819. He 
was a school-teacher and taught thirty-seven successive years. He was superin- 
tendent of the schools of Rollinsford for over thirty years. In 1S53 he served 
his town in the legislature and for several years was selectman of the town. 


Washington Freeman, who died in New York, December 9, was born in Well- 
fleet, Mass., in 1829, and moved to Portsmouth when 10 years of age. For 40 
years he engaged in the oyster business in that city and was also a bank official, 
and for nearly 20 years a newspaper proprietor. He was prominent in Masonry, 
and had held the offices of alderman and representative to the legislature. 


Col. John M. Weare died at Seabrook, December 22. He was for many years 
the superintendent of the blacksmith shop at the state prison at Concord. He 
was one of the organizeis of the Rockingham Agricultural society. He had held 
every position in the state militia from private to colonel. He had been a mem- 
ber of the state legislature, senate, and a county commissioner. He was 84 years 

of age. 


l t> 

Benjamin Hibbard was born in Piermont, January 27, 1822, and died there 
in December. He had been one of the leading men in town and always noted 
for his integrity and honesty. For. several years he served as selectman and 
twice represented the town in the legislature. 


Capt. Benjamin Dodge was born in New Boston, August 9, 1819, and died 
there December 9. He married Eliza Ann Batchelder of Bedford. December 19, 
1844. He derived his title of captain from being captain of the first company of 
artillery, Ninth regiment New Hampshire militia. His lumbering interests in 
New Hampshire and in Wisconsin extended over a period of forty years. He 
had been a justice of the peace, selectman, town treasurer, and representative in 
the New Hampshire legislature. 



William H. Whitney, who died in Washington, D. C, December 10, aged 67 
years, was born in Maircfiester and there resided until 1864. when he removed to 
Washington. He remained in the national capital for twenty years, during four- 
teen of which he was chief of the pension division of the treasury department. 
In 1SS5 he returned to Manchester, where he had since resided, holding a posi- 
■ • tion to the time of his death in the Amoskeag Manufacturing company. 


William Crane, a well-known citizen of Candia, died December 8, at his home. 
where he has resided since purchasing the place in 1S49. ^ r - Crane was 84 
years of age, and had served the town as representative and in various town 
offices during the earlier part of his life. For many years he was a trustee of the 
Merrimack River Savings bank. In his young days Mr. Crane worked at the 
machinist trade and spent two years in Russia and two years in England. He 
was one of those who helped to build the railroad from Moscow to St. Peters- 
burg, having charge of the working of a steam shovel. 


Deacon William H. Allen died December 11, at his home in Penacook. He 
was bom at Seekonk, Ma^s., July 21, 1815. He came to Penacook in 1841, and 
entered the employ of H. H. and J. S. Brown as overseer of the spinning and 
• spooling department in the old stone mill on the Boscawen side of the river. 
Some years later he left there and was put in charge of the general store man- 
aged by the same firm. In 1855. he became associated with Dana W. Pratt, and 
for some years was engaged in the dry goods business with him, under the firm 
name of Pratt «\: Allen. Still later, Mr. Pratt withdrew from the firm, his place 
being taken by Lyman K. Hall. After the dissolution of this firm, Mr. Allen 
conducted the business alone, until he retired from active participation in it, 
about thirteen years ago. He was one of the original members of the First Bap- 
tist church, organized in 1S45. and represented Penacook, for two terms in the 
i legislature. 


Osca^ V. Pitman was born in Meredith April 29, 1839, and was educated 
there and at New Hampton. Since F/853 lie had been engaged in business at 
Concord as a grocer and real estate agent and owner. He died at Mount Ver- 
non, N. Y., December 9. 


James Lawrence Mason died in Concord, December 18, aged 83 years. He was 
born in Enfield, September 23. 1815. His early life was spent in Lebanon, Hano- 
ver, and Lowell, Miss., but the greater part of his life had been identified with 
the industries and interests of Concord. He came here 61 years ago last Octo- 
ber. For over 30 years he acted as superintendent of the iron department of the 


Abbot-Downing company's carnage establishment and he was one of the first 
engineers of the fire department. He served the city as an alderman, was a 
trustee of the Merrimack County bank and one of the finance committee a num- 
ber of years. He was a member of the. board of education for six years, a water 
commissioner for 15 years, and a member of the last constitutional convention. 
He was a staunch Republican. 


Rufus P. Claggett, a native of Newport, died at Newport, December S. He 
was a farmer and trader, deputy sheriff eighteen years, county jailer thirteen 
years, and high sheriff three times. He was born June 20, 1830. 


Nathaniel S. Webster, who died at his home on Boscawen Plain, December 7, 
was born in the house where he died, May n, 1S1S, and was, therefore, eighty 
years old. Two years ago he and his wife, Lucy Lord Webster, celebrated the 
fiftieth anniversary of their marriage. Mr. Webster had been active in the social 
and political life of Boscawen. He joined the Congregational church in 1835, 
and was always an active and consistent member. He had held most of the 
offices of the town, serving in the legislature two sessions. 


Dr. Irving S. Graves, a native of Nashua, thirty-two years ot age, died in. 
that city, December 15. He was city physician in 1S92, and in 1895 was elected 
milk inspector, an office in which he effected many changes and improvements. 

A. H. C. JEV/ETT. 

Albert Henry Clay Jewett was born in Laconia fifty-seven years ago and died 
in Washington, D. C, December 14. He served in the war and at its close 
studied and practised dentistry. About eight years ago he received an appoint- 
ment in the pension office at Washington. 


George W. M. Pitman died at his home in Bartlett, December 3. Judge 
Pitman was born May S, 1819. He was well known throughout the state, 
having served fourteen terms in the house of representatives ; two terms in the 
state senate, one year being president of that body ; three years in the consti- 
tutional convention ; was judge of probate and county commissioner for the 
county of Carroll, and selectman of Bartlett for years. 


Orren J. Cook died at Nashua, December 14, aged sixty-three years. Ten 
years ago he and a brother, Charles Cook, were implicated in a sectional war 
in Oklahoma, which was the result of a dispute over the location of a county 


seat. The outcome of the difficulty was the arrest of the Cook brothers and 
five others, on charges of murdering a deputy sheriff and six others, who were 
ambushed and killed in the district known as ,; No-Man •VLaiwl." The men were 
tried by the United States court in Texas and were found guilty and sentenced 
to death. Relatives of the Cook brothers in Nashua raised ^3.000 by subscrip- 
tion for the aid of the men in a new trial. The brothers were released on bail 
and returned to Nashua. Orren was soon rearrested and taken to Texas, but 
was subsequently acquitted. 


Colonel George A. Sanders was born in Laconia, Dec. 10, 1846, and died 
there December 2. He was educated in the public schools and at Gilford acad- 
emy. For twenty-one years he was a traveling salesman for a Boston firm. Skice 
18S7 he had been engaged in the plumbing business at Laconia. He was very 
prominent in social and political circles. He was a member of the legislature in 
iS89-'9o. one of the board of county commissioners from 1S92 to 1896, and aide- 
de-camp on the stair of Governor Tuttle in 1S01 and 1892, with the rank of colo- 
nel. He was engineer of the fire department in 1888-^89, an< ^ was elected chief 
engineer in 1S90, holding the position up to 1S96. 


Rev. Azariah Cressy died in South Sutton, December 2, aged seventy-eight 
years. He had been pastor of the church at South Sutton for many years. 


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NEW 1898-1899 STYLES. 

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You'wlll IlvJSoe 2.i Presoott 

Because the tone is both sweet and brilliant. 

You can Afford » Presoott 

Because the terms are easy and prices are reasonable. 

You will Buy a Presoott 

As soon as you are fully aware of its merits. 


Our new Catalogue gives you further information. Write for me, or cal! at factory, 

181 Xortli Arsaiix Street, 






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Tim (ii\A'Nrm -AlONTmw. 

Vol. XXVI. 

FEBRUARY, 1899. 



By Converse J. Smith. 

and icebergs of 

SSSFfN a former article, which 
was published in the 
January & r a xite 
Monthly, mention was 
made of the glaciers 
Alaska, the great 
area of the territory, and a prediction 
was made that the whole world would 
yet be astonished when the resources 
were fully developed. Possibly other 
information regarding Alaska may 
interest your readers. 


is a remarkable place when one btops 
to consider that early in 1897 there 
was but one house there. It' is 
located at the headwaters of navi- 
gation, hence it is truthfully the 
gateway to the Klondike, and the 
Atliu gold fields. The present popu- 
lation is about 5,000 inhabitants, and 
when the rush is on there are 5,000 
to 10,000 additional people there. 
There are sixteen hotels, two daily 
papers, issuing a Sunday edition, 
especially remarkable because of the 
1,200 miles from a telegraph office 
and with a very irregular mail ser- 

vice. They have a large electric light 
plant, and water- w r orks system, then 
they have a State street, a Broad- 
way, Fifth avenue, and the resi- 
dents claim the city is to be the 
San Francisco of Alaska, and that 
it will be the capital and the metrop- 
olis of the coming North Star state. 
It is the largest city in the territory, 
and yet, as is the case in other 
towns, there is no government other 
than a city council with no power of 
collecting taxes or enforcing its ordi- 
nances. There are no police, and 
but one United States marshal, yet 
this young city appears to be quiet 
and orderly. The city stands in a 
deep canon with immense mountain 
ranges on either side, and during the 
short days of this month the sun is 
visible for only thirty minutes a day, 
first appearing over the mountain 
peaks at about two o'clock in the 
afternoon, and lights are needed an 
hour later ; in summer months it is 
quite the reverse, hardly able to de- 
termine when one day ends and the 
next begins. It is claimed that 
during the summer men may often be 


seen shingling their houses at mid- 
night, and very good photographs 
are taken as late as ten o'clock in the 

The Indian hunters' path over 
the now famous White Pass de- 
veloped into the dreaded Skagway 

From Seattle north the country 
is covered with wrecked transpor- 
tation companies ; all manner of 
abandoned vessels may be seen in 
all the harbors, and great fortunes 
have been lost on every hand. To 
relieve the crowded condition of the 

- # 



**-' * 

» . 

, i 

i --- 


t - - .... 



Raiiroa^' 8cilding on Tunnel Mountain. 

pack trail where 5,000 horses were 
lost in four months, and it is esti- 
mated that more than double that 
number are now strewn along the 
trail, and yet to-day with this great 
number of horses lost a man is 
obliged to give five horses for one 
good dog that is available for use on 
a dog team. 

trail over White Pass from Skagway, 
and incidently to accumulate a for- 
tune for the owners, a w T agon road 
was made to the summit, a distance 
of twelve miles, which cost, $80,000. 


which is being built from Skagway 



to Fort Selkirk, some 50*3 miles, has 
killed this enterprise, forcing the 
company into receivers' hands. This 
railroad has, however, made a jour- 
ney to the Yukon no longer dan- 
gerous but even delightful certain 
seasons of the year. It is now hours 
against days, locomotives against 
horses or dogs, railway coaches 
against tents, and the line is along a 
scenic route unsurpassed in this 

dred tons of dynamite have been .used 
in construction thus far. The view 
from the car windows down the main 
canon to the town of Skagway and 
Ocean or Lynn canal, as it is known, 
and across to the vast mountains 
planed off by the glaciers on the 
opposite side of the valley, is simply 
magnificent. Miners and prospectors 
can well afford to pay thirty cents 
per mile fare oyer this line rather 

county-. The road is in operation 
twenty miles, and trains are running 
regularly within four miles of the 
summit, and that point will be 
reached in January. For a consider- 
able distance where the road-bed has 
been made, the mountain is nearly 
vertical, the engineers could not 
even run a line, and a beginning 
could only be made by lowering 
workmen from the heights above by 
the means of ropes, and three hun- 

than subject themselves to the hard- 
ships of the trail, yet a considerable 
number, who have dog teams during 
the winter, will make their way to 
the summit over the ice of the Skag- 
w r ay 'river. * 


or "Soapy" Smith, as he is known 
everywhere in Alaska, is still on 
every tongue. 

He came from Denver and his 






Porcupine Poi 

family connections were good. His 
first stop was at Wrangel, but was 
soon driven from there, and he 
moved on to Skagway, and soon 
absolutely owned, or run, the town. 
He organized a gang, of which the 
United States marshal was a mem- 
ber, and robbed men of their money 
and valuables as they were en route 
to the Klondike, as well as those 
returning with gold dust. The plan 
of operation was as follows : If the 
man was going to the gold fields, one 
of Smith's accomplices met him at the 
hotel, or on the street, inviting him 
to come over to the Board of Trade 
for a new and the latest map of the 
Yukon, which was difficult at that 
time to obtain : or, if the party was 
returning, he was told that Skagway 
citizens wished to build up the place, 
and would pay more for his gold than 
he could obtain elsewhere, and the 
victim was taken to a private room 
at Smith's liquor parlors, 317 Sixth 

avenue, where the robbery was ef- 
fected. Smith never was present 
when the robbery was made, but 
he saw the victim immediately after, 
expressing his astonishment and re- 
gret, taking him to the United States 
marshal, who promised to assist in 
the recover}-, and who would urge 
the loss be kept a profound secret, 
or the gang would be likely to mur- 
der him. 

As late as July 4th of this year, 
Smith appointed himself marshal, 
and led the procession, and held 
such sway that he could step into 
the banks and call for one or two 
thousand dollars, which was always 
promptly furnished, and he would 
walk away, giving neither note nor- 
collateral ; he, however, invariably 
repaid the loan. There was but 
one man in the whole city that nei- 
ther respected nor feared him, and 
that was a young civil engineer by 
the name of Reed, who had on sev- 



eral occasions come to the rescue of 
those beiug led* away to be robbed. 

The crisis canJe the last of July, 
when a man from the Klondike was 
relieved of eight hundred dollars in 
gold dust. A vigilance committee 
waited on Smith, and he promised 
to return the money by two o'clock 
that afternoon. He not only did not 
keep his promise, which, was his first 
failure, but he even challenged the 
committee to do their utmost. The 
result was that a meeting of the citi- 
zens was called, the appointed place 
was on the dock, no hall being con- 
sidered safe from Smith's spies, and 
there being but one entrance to the 
dock, guards could protect the citi- 
zens. Reed was one of the guards. 
The meeting was hardly organized 
when ''Soap}" Smith was advised, 
and taking a Winchester rifle, he 
hastened to the dock, when Reed 
ordered him to halt. He declined 

to do so, striking Reed with the 
stock of his gun, whereupon Reed 
drew his revolver, while Smith suc- 
ceeded in discharging his rifle at the 
same time. Both received their mor- 
tal wounds. Smith died instantane- 
ously, while Reed lingered for two 
weeks. Had the latter survived, he 
would have been the hero of Alaska 
to-day. His funeral was attended 
by the largest concourse of people 
ever seen together in the territory. 
The gold from the last victim was 
found in Smith's room. The United 
States marshal and other members of 
Smith's gang are now in jail waiting 
trial as confederates. 


produce quantities of gold dust can- 
not be questioned, but the public 
have little conception of the suffer- 
ings and of the failures. 

All classes of people in the terri- 

... . ........ 




Thfe Top of a Glacier. 



tory are' possessed of the gold fever, 
old and young, rich and poor; even 
the women have claims. Many mil- 
lions of dollars are annually discov- 
ered, and many persons have become 
fabulously wealthy, but we are likely 
to forget the thousands that have 
been unsuccessful. 

Conservative men do not hesitate 
to state that for every dollar in gold 
that has been brought out froi.i 
Alaska, two dollars have been ex- 
pended or lost by failure. 

Only men with strong constitution, 
accustomed to hardships, and not over 
fifty years of age, should attempt 
mining in the Klondike, is the gen- 
eral opinion of all who have had ex- 


and congressional legislation is what 
Alaska needs to-day. The prohibi- 
tion laws are a complete failure, and 
vast revenues are lost to the govern- 
ment by the smuggling of liquors 
from Canada. There should be laws 

for local government, or a better ad- 
ministration of the present laws by 
the United States government. 

Two men were apprehended in the 
act of stealing during my stay in 
Skagway, but were set at liberty, 
the United States commissioner and 
United States marshal being in at- 
tendance at a session of the United 
States district court at Juneau and 
there being no local government. It 
would also seem as if property in 
Alaska should pay its proportion of 
taxation. The people of Juneau 
boast that their town is the richest 
according to population in the United 
States. They have the world-re- 
nowned Tredwell Gold Mining Co., 
capitalized at five million dollars 
and producing $60,000 of gold each 
month. Why make Concord and 
other sections support Juneau? 
To-day not a tax is levied in all 
Alaska, a territory so extensive one 
can hardly comprehend its vastness, 
and so rich in resources that it is 
difficult to estimate its wealth. 





. ■ 

-il.-"'^ '"^J^d 

By E. E. Parker. 

"An honest man's the noblest work of God," 
Whate'er his lot in life, or rich, or poor ; 
And, whatsoever path his steps have trod, 
tVhen comes the end and Death knocks at his door, 
With read} r hand he flings it open wide, 
Welcomes his guest, nor fears what may betide. 

For him the dark and grim Plutonian shore 
Of Death's dread river naught of terror yields ; 
For, constant ever, through its solemn road, 
He hears the strains from bright Elysian fields 
Beyond its tide; and, hearing, trustful waits 
The call which bids him pass its open gates. 


Full many an honest man with pride has trod 
New Hampshire's rugged soil in days gone by, 
Who loved his country and who feared his God 
And, loving, fearing, looked, with fearless eye 
And mind serene, into the future's gloom ; 
And dying, passed death's tide as going home. 

To-day association sharp recalls 
One of that many ; one whose voice of yore 
Awoke responsive echoes in these halls, 
Alas ! its tones shall wake them nevermore, 
As Alpine horn awakes, with dulcet strains, 
The echoing hills to soft and sweet refrains. 

Rough in exterior, plain, nay sharp in speech ; 
His tongue was keen as Eden's angel's sword, 
And full as trenchant in its power to reach 
And pierce the sophistries his soul abhorred. , 
Knaves feared his power, yet while they feared, 
Despite themselves, respected and revered. 

Firm in his friendships; in his hatreds strong; 
A lawyer wise ; a warrior brave and bold ; 

And statesman whose dislike of wrong, 
In word or deed, his every act controlled. 

Yet did his zeal constrain to wrong assault, 
His honor quick inspired to mend his fault. 

Such was the man : such his posthumus fame. 
The curious stranger who, in coming years, 
Shall view the boulder huge which bears his name, 
Will pause in speechless wonder till he hears 
What Oilman Marston was, then haste to sa}% 
"An honest man's God's noblest work for aye." 

<S^'- : - "t^^A^w^*' 

By Clarence Moores Weed. 

fp^^sj^r is only the birds of 


exceptional feeding 
habits that can endure 
the conditions of our 
northern winters. For 
a large part of the time from Novem- 
ber until April, practically all of the 
summer sources of the food supply of 
birds is shut off, and the existence 
of the winter resident becomes a 
question of adaptation to a limited 
and special diet. So it happens that 
if you analyze the chief food sources 
of our winter birds you will find that 
each species or group of species 
depends upon some chief specialty in 
the way of food. Some search out 
the winter stages of insects in their 
hidden quarters ; others depend upon 
the seeds of herbaceous plants, per- 
haps projecting above the snow ; 
others find nutriment in the buds of 
trees; while the shrikes, hawks, 
and owls sustain themselves largely 
upon their fellow residents of the 
feathered world, as well as upon mice 
and related rodents. 

In these pages I have brought 
together a summary of the scattered 
information that has been published 
regarding the feeding habits of our 
common winter residents, omitting, 
however, the hawks and owls. 

In the family FringitlidcB \ which 
includes the finches and sparrows, 
are found several birds that stay with 
us' more or less in winter. The first 
on the list is the pine grosbeak — a 

northern form which ranges south- 
ward through the New England and 
other states in winter. Small flocks 
are to be seen occasionally ; they 
spend much of their time in conifer- 
ous forests, feeding upon the buds 
of pine and spruce. They also eat 
the seeds and buds of white ash, 
basswood, alder, birch, apple, pear, 
and poplar, as well as the berries of 
the red cedar and the high bush 
cranberry. In winter they often 
subsist largely upon the pulp and 
seeds of frozen apples. Sometimes, 
though rarely, they have been known 
to injure fruit orchards by feeding 
upon the buds. 

The purple finch is a handsome 
and somewhat familiar bird, found 
throughout nearly all the United 
vStates. It is migratory and usually 
goes in flocks, except during the 
breeding season. Unfortunately the 
feeding habits of- this species are not 
all that could be desired. Years ago 
Wilson wrote of it: ''This is a 
winter bird of passage, coming to us 
in large flocks from the north in 
September and October-; great num- 
bers remaining with us in Pennsyl- 
vania during the whole winter, feed- 
ing on the seeds of the poplar, 
buttonwood, juniper, cedar, and on 
those of many rank weeds that 
flourish in rich bottoms and along 
the margins of creeks. In April 
they frequent the elm trees, feeding 
on the slender but sweet covering of 



the flowers ; and as soon as the 
cherries put out their blossoms they 
feed almost exclusively upon the 
stamens of the flowers ; afterwards the 
apple blossoms are attacked in the 
same manner; and their depredations 
on these continue until they disap- 
pear which is usually about the tenth 
or middle of May." Main- later ob- 
servers have seen the purple finches 
eating the tender portions of the buds 
and blossoms of apple, cherry, plum, 
and peach, but as a partial offset it is 

Head cf Great Northern SnnVe. 

also known to devour plant-lice and 
various caterpillars. 

The snowbird or snow bunting is 
one of the most characteristic winter 
birds. It is a seed-eater, coming to 
us from the north with the winter 

The junco or black snowbird is a 
common winter resident or migrant 
in most of the eastern states, breed- 
ing iti the northern tier of states and 
in Canada. Its principal food con- 
sists of the seeds of weeds, though in 
summer many insects are eaten. 

The great northern shrike is one of 
the most picturesque of our winter 

birds. "Appropriating to himself 
sufficient territory where no other 
bird may safely intrude, he becomes 
the terror of the neighborhood," 
writes Dr. Coues. '.' Woe to the 
unlucky finch or warbler that ven- 
tures to trespass on these hunting 
grounds. Like a veritable sentinel 
on guard, the shrike stands in wait 
upon his chosen spot, ready to 
pounce with unerring aim upon the 
first little bird that may dare to rustle 
in the nearest bush." Besides the 
small native birds that are thus "de- 
stroyed, this shrike is known to 
attack the English sparrows, as well 
as shrews, mice, and many kinds of 
insects. This bird breeds in New 
England and northward, building a 
bulky nest in a tree or shrub, not far 
from the ground, in which it rears 
four to six young. 

The titmice or chickadees which 
form the family ParidcE are repre- 
sented in North America by nearly a 
score of species and varieties, the 
great majority of which, however, 
are rare or only locally distributed. 
The common chickadee or black- 
capped titmouse is much the most 
familiar species in the eastern states, 
remaining with us throughout the 
year. It takes a great variety of 
food, gleaning through the winter 
from the bark and twigs of many 
sorts of trees, and in summer devour- 
ing insects of many kinds. In a 
cankerworm infested orchard sixty- 
one per cent, of the food of two speci- 
mens consisted of these caterpillars, 
while injurious beetles constituted 
the remainder. 

In a recent investigation of the 
winter food of the chickadee the 
present writer studied the stomach 
contents of forty-one specimens taken 




during November, Decem- 
ber, January, February, and 
March. The results as a 
whole show that more than 
half of the food of the chick- • 
adee during the winter 
months consists of insects, 
a very large proportion of 
these being taken in the 
form of eggs. About five* 
per cent, of the stomach 
contents consisted of spiders 
or their eggs. Vegetation 
of various sorts made up a 
little less than a quarter of 
the food, two thirds of which, 
however, consisted of buds 

and bud scales that were 
$0 believed to have been acci- 
Y|f dentally introduced along 
a with plant-lice eggs. These 
| eggs made up more than 
W\ one ^h °f ^ ie en tire food, 
and formed the most re- 
markable element of the 
bill of fare. It seems to 
me evident that a large pro- 
portion of the bud scales 
are accidentally introduced 
into the stomachs of the 
*Sj birds, because most of the 

aphid eggs are taken from 
the crevices beside the buds 
of deciduous trees and 
shrubs; and so it must 
commonly happen that bud. 
scales are pecked away and 
swallowed with the eggs. 
This destruction of the 
myriad eggs of plant-lice 
that infest fruit, shade, and 
forest trees is probably the 
most important service 
which the chickadee ren- 
ders during its winter resi- 
dence. More than 450 eggs 


'% hm 


The Chickadee or B'ack-Capped Titmouse. 

sometimes occur as the food of one 
bird in a single day. On the supposi- 
tion that one hundred were eaten daily 
by each of a flock of ten chickadees, 
there would be destroyed 1,000 a day 
or 100,000 during the days of winter, 
a number which I believe to be far 
below the real condition, could we 
determine it precisely. 

Insect eggs of many other kinds 
were found in the food of the chicka- 
dees. Man)- of these it was impossi- 
ble to recognize, but there was no 
difficulty in identifying the eggs of 
the common American Tent Cater- 
pillar and the h'alj Canker worm. 
There were also present the eggs 
and egg sacs of many spiders of 
kinds commonly occurring under 
loose bark. While spiders as a class 
are doubtless beneficial creatures, 
the destruction of some of them is 
not, in my opinion, to be considered 
as detrimental to the usefulness of 
the chickadee. The larvae of seve- 
ral different kinds of moths were 
also found. One of the most abun- 
dant species was believed to be the 
common apple worm, the larva of 



the codling moth. The bar 1 .' beetles 
of the family Scohtidce, which are 
destructive to forests all over our 
country, were also freely eaten by 
the chickadee, while the skins of 
sumac berries were eaten to a con- 
siderable extent. (A fuller record 
of the results will be found in Bulle- 
tin 54 of the New Hampshire College 
Experiment Station.) 

■ The Nuthatches ( Sitiidcc ) comprise 
a small family of creeping birds which 
inhabit woodlands chiefly, although 
they often visit trees in orchards and 
groves, or along the highway. Most 
of their food consists of insects gath- 
ered from the bark of trees, but part 
of it is composed of nuts of various 
kinds. They are compact, flattened 
birds, with plumage of modest col- 
ors and hard, barbed, and pointed 
tongues. Four species and one va- 
riety occur in the United States, the 
commonest foim in New Kngland 
being the White-breasted Nuthatch, 
which in the Middle and Western 
states is replaced by a variety with 
a more slender bill. This bird is fre- 
quently abundant in woodlands and 
moves actively about over trunks and 
branches in search of food. Profes- 
sor King examined the stomach con- 
tents of twenty-five Wisconsin speci- 
mens, finding tliat fourteen of them 
had eaten beetles, including rlaters 
and longicorns, while others con- 
tained ants, c :l -ci pillars, and beetle 
grubs, a spider and chrysalid, a few 
small fungi, some acorns, and a little 
corn. Four Illinois specimens had 
eaten beetles of various kinds, some 
of them being lady-beetles. The 
nest of this bird is built in a hole 
in a tree, the cavity being some- 
times excavated by the Nuthatch, 
and sometimes by another bird or a 

falling limb. The rapid destruction 
of forests and the thinning out of 
dead trees in orchards and wood- 
lands must reduce the available nest- 
ing sites and thus tend to lessen the 
numbers of Nuthatches. There is 
some reason for supposing that if 
suitable nesting sites were provided 
in orchards, these birds would breed 
in them. It is an experiment well 
worth trying. 

The Brown Creeper is the common 
American representative of the small 
family of creepers (CertJiiidcr), • of 
which only about a dozen species 
are known in the entire world. In 
habits and outward appearance these 
birds are suggestive of woodpeckers. 
They have rigid tail-feathers and a 
slender, decurved bill, with toes fitted 
for running up the sides of trees. 
The American species is a small 
bird, restless and active ; it may 
often be seen running up tree trunks 
in a spiral direction, or hanging head 
downwards after the manner of nut- 
hatches. It nests in holes in trees, 
and in most of the Northern states 
may be found throughout the year. 
Very few precise determinations of 
its food have been recorded; three 
stomachs examined by King con- 
tained small beetles and other in- 
sects, and Nelson reports that he 
Mas seen several of these creepers 
on the sides of a house searching 
'for spiders. It seems probable that 
the}' take a great variety of such 
insects as they can find on the bark 
of trees. 

The most abundant of our winter 
woodpeckers are the Hairy and the 
Downy species. The Hairy Wood- 
pecker is a particularly useful bird, 
searching persistently for the wood- 
boring grubs that live beneath the 


bark of trees. These birds visit 
freely the kings of the forest as well 
as the fruit trees of the orchard and 
the shade and ornamental trees of 
the home grounds, the park, and 
the public highway. During their 
meanderings over the trunk and 
larger branches, they often startle 
moths and other nocturnal insects, 
which they devour whenever possi- 
ble. A good idea of the general 

them. Thej' also do good service 
in penetrating the cocoons of the 
Cecropia Emperor Moth, shown in 
the accompanying illustration, the 
larvae of which devour the foliage of 
fruit and shade trees. A number of 
observers have reported that these 
birds push their beaks through the 
tough cocoon until the pupa" inside 
is reached ; the juices of the latter 
are extracted by the bird. 

The Cecropia Moth ar.d its Cocoon. (Reduced.) 

diet of this species may be ob- 
tained from Professor King's state- 
ment that of twenty-one specimens 
examined, "Eleven had eaten fifty- 
two wood- boring larvae ; five, thir- 
teen geometric caterpillars; ten, one 
hundred and five ants ; six, ten bee- 
tles; two, two cockroaches ; two, nine 
ootheca of cockroaches ; two, two 
moths; one, a small snail ; one, green 
corn ; one, a wild cherry ; and one, 
red elderberries." In the presence 
of an unusual abundance of grass- 
hoppers, these birds feed freely upon 

Mr. F. E. L. Beal of the United 
States department of agriculture has 
made a special study of the food of 
the hairy and downy woodpeckers. 
*His results show that from two thirds 
to three fourths of their food consists 
of insects. Wood-boring larvae and 
ants are the most important elements 
of their food. 

The downy woodpecker may well 
be considered a miniature edition of 
his hairy cousin. It is more com- 
mon than the latter in orchards and 
is often called the ' ' sapsucker, ' ' but 



this is a misnomer, as that name is 
only properly applied to the yellow- 
bellied woodpecker. Although the 
downy species bores holes in the 
bark of trees it does not revisit them 
to suck the sap according to the 
habit of the last-named bird, and the 
holes seem, not usually, to injure the 
tree. Seventeen Wisconsin speci- 
mens examined to determine their 
food, had eaten forty insect larvae, 
including twenty wood-boring grubs, 
three caterpillars, seven ants, four 
beetles, a chrysalid, one hundred and 
ten small bugs, and a spider, together 
with a few acorns and small seeds, 
and a little woody fibre apparently 
taken by accident along with the 
grubs. Audubon states that in au- 
tumn these birds eat poke-berries 

and wild 


The ruffed grouse or "partridge" 
is one of the most interesting of the 
birds that remain with us through- 
out the winter. Of its general food 
habits Dr. A. K. Fisher says: "The 
ruffed grouse is very fond of grass- 
hoppers and ciickets as an article of 

diet, and when these insects are 
abundant it is rare to find a stomach 
or crop that does not contain their 
remains. One specimen, shot late 
in October, had the crop and stom- 
ach distended with the larva? of 
Edema albi/rons, a. caterpillar which 
feeds extensively on the leaves of the 
oak. Beechnuts, chestnuts, and 
acorns, are also common articles of 
food. Among berries, early in the 
season, the blackberries, blueberries, 
raspberries, and elderberries are eaten 
with relish, while later in the year the 
wintergreen and partridge berry, with 
their foliage, sumach berries (includ- 
ing those of the poisonous species), 
cranberries, black alder, dogwood, 
nannyberries, and wild grapes form 
their chief diet. In the fall the foli- 
age of plants often forms a large part 
of their food, that of clover, straw- 
berry, buttercup, wintergreen, and 
( partridge-berry predominating. In 
the winter these birds feed on the 
buds of trees, preferring those of 
the apple tree, iron-wood, black and 
white birch, and poplar." 

- ' ' -■..""'.•'., 

• -» 

V v; 

- . A 

\ " I If 

A Family o' Ruffed Grouse. 
Photographed by F. H. Webster. 

By Ida G. -Ida vis. 

from the duty before us 
That the finger of God hath made plain? 
Have we rescued these hordes from oppression 
Just to place them in bondage again ? 

Can we not show this turbulent people, 
Long ground under tyranny's heel, 

That our stars and our stripes mean protection, 
That some rulers have hearts that can feel ? 

Shall we. leave them to prey on each other, 
Till the weak are subdued by the strong ? 

Shall we tacitly give our approval 
Of a government founded on wrong ? 

Or shall we with schools and with churches 

Invade these fair isles of the sea, 
And teach to this long-suffering people 

The only true war tt» fce free ? 

The blow that was struck by our Dewey, 
On that memorable morning in May, 

Was the blow that turned slaves into freemen 
And blackness of night into day. 

'Twas a sign from the Ruler of Nations 
That our destiny pointed that way, 

That straight and unswerving before us 
Our path of humanity lay. 

So let us not shrink from a duty 
So wondrously great and so plain, 

Nor cower at " Imperialistic'' ! 
That cry cannot lower our aim. 

We will prove to a suffering people 
That our flag only floats o'er the free, 

That republican governments differ 
From the mildest of all monarchy. 

So let no emperor dare to oppose us ; 

No country containing a throne 
Must ever claim these our dominions, 

By right and by might all our own. 

^•--: § 






i^fc"*^*!*-^^- . - . _ 



By Rev. Daniel C. Roberts* D. D. 


:iLAXDHR CHASE a mauto be counted 
f&fll ft 
[ Xl[\'~ r <lyJA among the "makers of 

^t^^^l the United States." It 
is true that his work 
was done along special lines, and in 
the development of one idea. But it 
was done at a formative period in the 
history of what is now called the 
"middle West," and it was done at 
a time when every vigorous man's 
work told greatly in the general re- 
sult and counted for as much in ef- 
fecting the result as the corresponding 
work of a great corporation in these 
days of syndicates and corporate 

It was, in a certain very true sense, 
the "day of small things," but it 
was more truly the day of the de- 
velopment of great things out of 
small. It was the heroic age of our 
history. The heroic age is the time 
when the character and genius of the 
leaders among men give frame and 
form to a future of larger things. I 
do not say greater things, for it 
seems to me that the quality rather 
than the quantity is the test of great- 

The pioneer concentrates in him- 
self functions, powers, and purposes of 
a wider scope than he is like to im- 
agine, and his deeds have an influ- 
ence more far-reaching than any esti- 

1 Read before the N. 

mates can determine. "It is the 
first step that costs," says the prov- 
erb, and however heavy the cost, the 
pioneer is the man who meets it. 

The great bishop was, first of all 
things, a pioneer, and he came of a 
race of pioneers. These were the 
men, these energetic and resourceful 
pioneers, to whom New Hampshire, 
in common with the other states of 
the Union, and the country at large, 
is most profoundly indebted. And 
when the observer and student of 
human affairs finds, or fancies that 
he finds, characteristics which differ- 
entiate the citizens of the various 
states or sections of the country, 
these may generally be traced in a 
direct and ascertainable heredity 
from the strong and positive charac- 
ters and qualities of ancestors who 
conquered and peopled the wilder- 
ness. Doubtless, human nature was 
strong in them, and they had the 
"defects of their" own "virtues," 
their own characteristic abatements 
as well as excellencies, their own 
personal equation of limitation as 
well as the value and force of their 

It is well to keep this in mind be- 
cause in the popular apotheosis of 
heroes it is sometimes lost to sight, 
and when a too expanded idealization 
comes to be punctured by the prosaic 

H . Historical Society. 



facts the collapse is fatal to the fame 
which they deserve. Men are too 
foud of pulling down the monuments 
of heroes, and a mere outbreak of 
undisciplined and unrestrained feel- 
ing may destroy memorials which are 
worthy to remain, and which do, in- 
deed, punctuate the history of our 

The men who make epochs to date 
irom, and eras which shape destinies 
are brought out by circumstances 
and developed by conditions, and 
those are fortunate whose achieve- 
ments find appreciation in their own 
lifetime. And even then they are 
not always understood. Perhaps they 
could not interpret themselves. 

The men who penetrated the north- 
ern wilderness of New England were, 
we are told, men of iron mould, of 
heroic virtues, and of stern and strik- 
ing qualities. If they were, 1 don't 
think they knew it, and the atten- 
tive student will find them very much 
like other folk, but the men of mark 
and power are more easily recognized 
and counted among a sparse popula- 
tion, in the midst of strenuous cir- 

In 1640 Aquila Chase came from 
Cornwall and settled at Hampton, 
N. H. I do not find that he was 
cither a " Pilgrim "or a" Puritan." 
He came to better his condition. In 
this same year the first civil organiza- 
tion was formed at Portsmouth. 

Of that community there is an 
anecdote to the effect that once upon 
a time a preacher, in scolding mood, 
said to his congregation, " You have 
forsaken the pious habits of your 
forefathers who left ease and comfort, 
which they possessed in their native 
land, and came to this howling wil- 
nerness to enjoy, without molestation, 

the exercise of their pure principles 
of religion;" whereupon one of his 
hearers interrupted him with the re- 
mark, " Sir, you entirely mistake the 
matter ; our ancestors did not come 
here on account of their religion, but 
to fish and trade.". Hampton, where 
this retort was made, is not far from 
the " Christian Shore." 

Aquila Chase, on account of his 
skill in navigation, was invited to 
settle in Newbury, Mass., and in- 
ducements being offered in the shape 
of sundry lots of land, he removed 
thither, and there he was gathered 
to his fathers in 1670. He had 
eleven children, and of these the sub- 
ject of this sketch remarks in his 
" Reminiscences," as he names them 
one after another, " they had many 
children." A sturdy and numerous 

The fifth in direct descent was 
Dudley Chase, who married Alice 
Corbett of Sutton, Mass., in 1753, 
and these were the parents of Phil- 

This Dudley Chase was the leader 
of a family party who obtained the 
grant of a township of land on the 
Connecticut river and named it Cor- 
nish, in honor of their ancestry. 
AVhither Dudley removed with his 
wife and seven children about 1763, 
and took possession of his land in the 
unbroken forest. There were then 
no settlements north of " Fort Num- 
ber Four," now Charlestown, on the 
river, and the w 7 ife and children were 
left at the fort. But Alice Chase was 
not of a sort to abide such an arrange- 
ment as that, and seizing the first op- 
portunity she made hef^way up the 
river with the children, in a canoe, 
and surprised her husband by ap- 
pearing to him before any shelter 



"had been built. The little company 
of woodsmen soon had a bark wig- 
wam put up for temporary shelter, 
and then followed the building of a 
cabin, where they dwelt, the first 
family to be established north of Fort 
X umber Four. 

To this resolute pair were born 
fourteen children, nine boys and five 
girls. It is an astonishing fact that 
five of the boys received a college 

Of these remarkable brothers Sal- 
mon was a barrister in Portland, Me., 
of whom, says my authority, the late 
Judge Dawes of Boston was heard to 
say that he -never saw him enter the 
court but with feelings of respect. 

Ithamar was for many years a 
member of the council of the sta.te 
of New Hampshire. Baruch was 
solicitor for Hillsborough county, 
and president of the Merrimack 
County bank. Dudley was a mem- 
ber and speaker of the Vermont 
legislature, afterwards chief justice 
of that state and United States sena- 
tor. Philander, the youngest of the 
family, was born in 1775. He had 
set his heart upon being a farmer and 
cultivating the paternal acres. But 
his father had different ideas about 
his future and wished him to become 
a minister of the gospel. He was 
severely cut with an axe on one oc- 
casion, and hardly had the wound 
healed when his leg was broken. 
His pious father improved the occa- 
sion to convince him that Providence 
did not favor his plan, and was evi- 
dently calling him to the sacred 
ministry. In strict logic one might 
call this a non sequttur^ but upon his 
recovery Philander commenced his 
studies, and in a year's time was 
prepared for college. 

In 1 79 1 he became a member of 
Dart uibu th college. He was gradu- 
ated with the degree of A. B. in 
1795. In 1796, the year after his 
graduation, he married Mary Fa}' at 
Bethel, Vt. That early marriage, in 
the midst of his earl}- struggles, and 
in the independence of poverty, was 
characteristic of a hardihood which 
seems again and again to take the 
form of rashness. 

During his student days his atten- 
tion had been called to the Episcopal 
church, and with just one crown in 
his pocket he found his way to Al- 
bany, seeking the counsel of the 
clergyman of that faith. He was 
directed to the residence of the 
"English Dominie" and found the 
rector of the parish, the Rev. Mr. 
Ellison, to whom he made known his 
errand. " I have come from New 
Hampshire," said the youth, ''the 
place of my nativity, and being very 
desirous of becoming a candidate for 
Holy Orders I will be much obliged 
for your advice." "God bless you, 
come in," said Mr. Ellison. 

Bishop Chase was wont to say that 
that greeting was the crisis of his 
life. If it had been less cordial his 
face would have been turned another 

The following week the trustees of 
the City school in Albany appointed 
him upon the staff of teachers, at a 
salary of four hundred dollars a year, 
and Philander Chase had fairly be- 
gun his battle for a place in the 

He was ordained deacon by Bishop 
Provoost of New York in 1798. 
There were at the time but four 
clergymen of the Episcopal church 
in New York state north of the 



On one of his missionary journeys 
he was entertained by Shenandoah, 
the chief of the Mohawks, and de- 
scribes with quaint enthusiasm the 
" Queen" by whom he means Shen- 
andoah's squaw. "The queen, the 
queen mother, and the princess, in a 
little, but neatly kept, home, sitting 
around a fire on a clean-swept hearth, 
the smoke issuing through an aper- 
ture in the roof, without a chimney. 
All around were stored bags of grain, 
while pieces of meat, hung up for 
drying, were pendent from every peg 
and pin and pole." This was in the 
valley of the Mohawk at the end of 
the last century. 

The pioneer missionary found Utica 
a small hamlet with stumps of the for- 
est trees standing "thick and sturdy-" 
in the prospective streets. At Syra- 
cuse, in the midst of a dreary salt 
marsh, the only evidences of occu- 
pation were two or three unsightly 
cabins for boiling salt. 

He was ordained priest on the ioth 
of November, 1799, and settled as a 
pastor at Pougbkeepsie. Here he 
had charge of the parishes of Pough- 
keepsie and Fishkill, but for want of 
adequate salary had to eke out the 
support of his family by serving as 
principal of the Poughkeepsie acad- 
emy. But his wife's health failed, 
and partly on that account, partly 
to escape from crushing burdens, he 
went to New Orleans to organize a 
church in the then newly -ceded 
territory of Louisiana. He arrived 
November 13, 1S05, after a tedious 
voyage of a month. He was soon at 
w 7 ork with church and school, and 
was successful and prosperous. 

An episode of his life in Louisiana 
is interesting because it was charac- 
teristic. He accompanied an explor- 

ing expedition into the interior, di- 
rected by a man who proved to be 
ignorant of the country and very ob- 
stinate besides. They were soon lost 
in the woods and caue-brakes, and 
their situation was extremely peril- 
ous. The guide refused to be con- 
vinced by the compass and by Mr. 
Chase's topographical deductions, 
until the good and stalwart mission- 
ary took off his coat and proposed to 
convince him by force. As he ex- 
presses it in his "Reminiscences,"" 
"Happily no blows were necessary, 
though an expectation of immediate 
chastisement only brought him to 
reason." After many and various 
adventures the party found its way 
to safety. 

When the really pioneer work in 
Louisiana was done, Mr. Chase's 
work was done in that region. His 
vocation was so distinctly a call to 
the front line, that whether he was 
conscious of the cause or not the feel- 
ing of duty lost its power with the 
abatement of the emergency. And 
with the disappearance of the pioneer 
features of the work and the coming 
of prosperity and establishment, his 
mind was set free from the fascina- 
tion of stress, and his heart turned 
again to his old home and his distant 
family. He began to feel the neces- 
sity of educating his children, who 
were left in New England, so he 
bade farewell to New Orleans. 

His ideas on the subject of educa- 
tion are expressed in a paragraph of 
his valedictory address to the school 
which he had founded, in these 
words, "Remember the sum and 
substance of your instructions that 
religion is the chief thing ; that to 
this the acquisition of every branch 
of science should aim, and that with- 



out this the wisest man in the eye of 
his Maker is but a fool." 

There are striking features of his 
sojourn ill New Orleans which ex- 
hibit the genius and thrift of this re- 
markable man. He had. according 
to all the evidence, laid, solid and 
deep, the foundations, not only of 
the Episcopal church, but of any 
religion at all, not papal, in the 
newly-acquired territory, in which he 
was the first Protestant missionary. 
In addition to this he had securely 
founded educational institutions. 
And what was more remarkable he 
had not only made this educational 
work pay his way, but had besides 
secured from it a sufficient capital to 
enable him to carry on his subse- 
quent, self-denying labors of the 
same kind as he expressed it, " In 
seeking the sheep of His flock in the 

He returned to the north and re- 
joined his family in Vermont in 1S11. 
In the fall of that year he was settled 
as rector of Christ church, Hartford, 
Conn., where he remained until 1S17. 
This part of his robust and eventful 
career seems to me Co resemble that 
central point in a cyclone where calm 
is said to reign. Of these years one 
has said that they form "the most 
peaceful psrt in the history of his 

The bishop himself says of that 
halcyon period, " It is to my remem- 
brance as a dream of more than 
terrestrial delight. Of its sweets I 
tasted for a while and thought my- 
self happy, but God, who would train 
His servants more by the reality of 
suffering than by ideal and transitory 
bliss, saw fit to direct my thoughts 
to other and more perilous duties." 
It is sufficient to say of these days of 

refreshment to his spirit that they 
were not days of idleness, but "fruit- 
ful in every good work." 

His departure from Hartford closes 
a distinct period in his life. He now 
enters upon an entirely new scene 
in which the great work was ac- 
complished, for which all that went 
before would seem to have been a 

I do not find an}' intimation of 
circumstances or of counsels which 
started Mr. Chase upon his striking 
career as a missionary to what was 
then the "far West." Evidently he 
had made up his own mind about it 
and entered upon his undertaking. 
I quote, ". . . under the patron- 
age of no missionary society or other 
associated bod}' of men, for then 
there was no such in being, but I 
was going, depending on my own 
limited means under Providence." 
Certainly he did not go on account 
of any lack of fidelity and attach- 
ment on the part of the church peo- 
ple of Hartford, who were profoundly 
grieved at his departure. 

It would be interesting to dwell 
upon the story of the long and diffi- 
cult journey, full of peril and priva- 
tion. But two or three incidents 
must suffice as illustrating the hin- 
drances and the man and his methods. 
At Buffalo, then a frontier village, 
there was small hope of getting on. 
" There was no coach or other means 
of conveyance on the lake shore," 
and it might be a month before the 
ice in the lake would give way. 
There was some travel on the ice, but 
it was growing very dangerous. But 
ventures of faith were familiar to the 
mind and practice of this resolute 
pioneer. Seeing a man standing on 
a sled with his horses' heads towards 



the lake, and ascertaining that he 
was going over the ice twelve miles 
westward, he engaged passage, load- 
ed his luggage and set out. There 
was in this a mixture of the man of 
determination and the artless faith 
and unconscious audacity which have 

and they could not ford the stream. 
The only hope of shelter was on t;he 
further side. At first the driver 
refused to go any further 1 , and de- 
manded his pay. But our missionary 
had no notion either of going back 
or of being left in the wilderness. So 

.- . 







I . 



Cr.urcn of ihe t J .^.y Spirit, from tne Northwest. 

a great part in making up the por- 
traiture of Philander Chase. At the 
end of the twelve miles he found -a 
teamster willing to drive him and a 
companion traveler twenty-five miles 
further, to Catteraugus creek. That 
was easy ; but 1,he creek was running 
at full flood and overflowing the ice, 

he promised an addition to the con- 
tract price, and actually persuaded 
this man to drive out onto the lake 
beyond the ice softened by the water 
of the creek, and return on the fur- 
ther side. 

After a night at the tavern, they 
got another lift of a # few miles; and 



so this journey was made, one so full 
of picturesque peril that when Mr. 
Chase decided to leave the ice and 
try his fortune on shore, his com- 
panion coufessed that his " heart had 
been in his mouth all the way." Mr. 
Chase asked why he had not objected, 
and his -reply was that " He was 
ashamed not to have as much courage 
as a minister." Of this the good 
Bishop says, writing about it long 
after, "How little did he know ot 
the writer, who had no courage aside 
from his trust in God." 

People have a way of being sur- 
prised if a parson isn't a coward, but 
really, this missionary had a way of 
trusting in God when he must, and 
using his muscle when he had to, in 
a very edifying way. 

Arrived in Ohio, his missionary 
activities were constant and laborious 
and widely extended. I cannot re- 
sist the description of a little bit of 
sample journeying. His family went 
to Cleveland to join him, *and he 
transported them in what they called 
a "Navigation Wagon/' since called 
a " Prairie Schooner," to his distant 
abode. The scene which takes my 
fancy is the crossing of a swollen 
stream somewhere between Canton 
and Columbus. The horses are made 
to swim ; the wagon is taken apart 
and carried over piece-meal, on a log- 
canoe, and then the individuals, one 
at a time, in this primitive craft, 
which he not inaptly likens to a 
"pig's trough." The wagon is put 
together on the further side and .the 
journey continued. Clearly, this in- 
defatigable evangelist was not in the 
habit of stopping for trifles. 

He was soon settled at Worthing- 
ton, Franklin count}', nine miles 
north- of Columbus, a frontier village, 

with a curious mixture of the wild- 
ness and civilization about it which it 
retained for many years. There 
were log cabins and brick houses, 
and an "Academy" built of brick, 
waiting for master and scholars. Of 
this Mr. Chase was made principal. 
He bought a small farm and built a 
house. A letter from his wife at this 
time bears unconscious witness to his 
industry and determination. Of this 
building and the farming and the 
other duties, she writes, " This to-" 
gether with five parishes and occa- 
sional parochial duties during the 
week, so completely fills up his time 
that his face is seldom seen at home 
except at meal times." 

On January 5th, 18 18, a convention 
was held at Columbus for the organi- 
zation of the first diocese of the Epis- 
copal church west of the Alleghauies. 
It consisted of two priests, a few dea- 
cons, and nine lay delegates. 

On the fifth of May, the faithful 
wife who had cheered him during all 
these years of stress and endeavor, 
whose faith and devotion seemed to 
equal his own, died, and was buried 
under the chancel of the church, 
where a mural tablet still testifies to 
her worth. 

On the third of June the adjourned 
convention met at Worthington to 
complete the diocesan organization 
and elect a bishop. 

The choice fell upon Philander 
Chase. Going to Philadelphia for 
consecration, he found objections 
raised which seemed to reflect upon 
his moral character. He sought in- 
vestigation and was told that there 
was no proper tribunal. He insisted 
that if there was anything which 
could be a sufficient objection to his 
consecration as bishop, it w r as suffi- 



cient to bar him from the ministry 
altogether,- and demanded a meeting 
of the General Convention. A board 
of investigation was at length secured, 
and of its result the venerable Bishop 
White remarked that, "The gentle- 
men who had opposed the consecra- 
tion of the bishop-el ?ct of Ohio would 
do well to consider if on a similar 
trial their own lives would bear like 
investigation." The bishop, having 
received consecration returned, as 
he w T ent, on horseback the whole way. 

The labors of the bishop as chief 
of a diocese which his own endeavors 
were building, as missionary, as 
parish priest, as fanner and builder, 
were many and great, and as pic 
turesque as they were formidable. 

But the slender offerings of the 
pioneer churchmen living in that then 
remote land of almost unbroken 
forest, and the fruit of his own farm 
labors were insufficient for the sup- 
port of his household, and he was 
obliged to accept the post of presi- 
dent of a college at Cincinnati. 
Meantime he had married a^ain. 
His wife was Sophia May Ingraham. 
Her father was of Boston, and her 
mother one of the Greenleaf family 
of Ouincy, Massachusetts. 

The difficulty of providing properly 
equipped priests for the work of the 
church in Ohio suggested to his mind 
the enterprise of founding a theologi- 
cal school with attendant preparatory 
and academic departments. And to 
this he' addressed himself with the 
high resolution which characterized 
all his proceedings. The history of 
Bishop Chase for the rest of the time 
of his sojourn in Ohio is largely the 
history of Kenyon college. It is so 
full of romance, of fiery energy, of 
difficulties which seemed insuperable, 

overcome by industry, patience, self- 
sacrifice and faith, that there is a 
fascination about it all, tempting one 
to exceed the reasonable limits of 
such a paper as this. There is in 
this heroic and saintly pioneer bishop 
a certain intense human quality of a 
very masterful sort. In the midst of 
his abounding self-sacrifice, his un- 
faltering faith in God and devotion to 
His service in which he dared great 
things, and achieved great things', 
there is a very human pride of opin- 
ion, and an unmistakably bellicose 
spirit. These were, so to say, what 
have been called in regard to other 
great men, as I quoted at the begin- 
ning, " the vices of his virtues." 

" What a wonderful man," sa3 r s an 
admiring writer, "was that same 
Bishop Chase ! embracing in that 
immense ' corporosity ' two separate 
and distinct individualities : that of 
the full grown man, stern, imperi- 
ous, invincible, and that of a child, 
mild, amiable, condescending, and 
tractable. And you never could tell, 
at any particular time, which charac- 
ter was about to appear." 

Another writes of him . in these 
words: "Whether he were in the 
log cabin of Ohio, where the whole 
family slept, ate, cooked, received 
guests and lodged them in the same 
apartment, or in the magnificent halls 
of Lord Kenyon, surrounded with 
the refinement of the Old World, 
Bishop Chase was equally at home, 
and capable of winning golden opin- 
ions. Add to this an energy that 
never flagged, a will that never suc- 
cumbed, and a physical system that 
never tired, and we have such a 
character as is seldom produced, but 
which was precisely adapted to the 
great work which he accomplished. 



Bishop Chase was equally remark- 
able for industry and endurance. 
Daylight seldom found him in bed, 
and he seemed as fond of working or 
traveling in the rain as though water 
were his native element. He would 
preach at Perry [fifteen miles from 
Gambier] and as soon as daylight 
peeped in the east on Monday morn- 
ing, take his bridle himself* go to the 
field, catch ' Cinciunatus,' and be 
off to set his head men at work in 
Gambier. Bishop Chase began a 
work for the Church in Ohio, and in 
truth for the whole West, such as no 
other man then living could have 
attempted, or probably could have 
accomplished." A lawyer of Ohio 
was wont to say that Bishop Chase 
was an '"almighty" man. 

That which Philander Chase 
achieved against seemingly over- 
whelming odds, would probably not 
have been imagined, undertaken, or 
persevered in, but for just that 
robust quality, that virile intensity 
which made him a leader when there 
were men to be led, and an At/ia- 
nasiits Contra munduni when that was 
what his occasions required. A rev- 
erend and revered friend in Ohio 
writing to me concerning the Bishop 
says: "I have thought of writing a 
life of Bishop Chase myself, but 
have abandoned the' project. He 
was not a perfect man, and to shew 
him as he was would wound the feel- 
ings of his surviving relatives. He 
w r as a man in whom the self-centre 
was very strong. He was impatient 
of contradiction and was not able to 
appreciate the position of those who 
differed with him. A true, living, 
and readable history of the man 
could not pass over these features of 
his character." 

My distinguished friend is undoubt- 
edly right in that last sentence. But 
I do not think that a candid biogra- 
phy, written by a man with a sym- 
pathetic heart and discriminating 
mind, who could enter into the condi- 
tions and problems which confronted 
this eager and insistent warrior, need 
take the form of an indictment. 

As in the case of Mr. Gladstone, 
one might differ toio ar/o with this 
strenuous pioneer, the indefatigable 
bishop, the man both of ideas and* 
action, and yet credit him w r ith 
purity of purpose, personal integrity, 
and a certain ascertainable element 
of genuine humility shining through 
even his belligerency. He was going 
to found a diocese, and he did it ; to- 
day it is two. He was going to 
found a college, and he did it, a col- 
lege which graduated Edwin M. Stan- 
ton, Henry Winter Davis, Judge Da- 
vid Davis, Stanley Matthews, Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes. General LeDuc, the 
Bishop of Arizona, and the Bishop of 
Oklahoma, and gave a large measure 
of his training to Salmon P. Chase. 

There must have been a strain of 
this same strenuous quality running 
through that remarkable family ; a 
quality illustrated in the character of 
Judge Chase, the great financial min- 
ister, who issued a currency in the 
dark days of the Civil War, which 
afterwards, as Chief Justice, he had 
the nerve and honesty to pronounce 
unconstitutional. A brace of anec- 
dotes will illustrate this. One is told 
by himself, speaking of his mates in 
his uncle's school at Worthiugton : 
"Every now and then they called 
me 4 Yankee ' in tones not altogether 
respectful. At length I could n't bear 
it any longer, and said to Tom 
James, ' Tom, if you call me a Yan- 



s- i • 


t^",J:.^-ii--J .. • • • ! - .... 

Old Kunyon i.onn tne Nirtheast. 



kee, again, I'll kick you.' 'Well,' 
said he, 'You're a Yankee.' As 
good as my word.I kicked him, aiid_ 
made the kick just as severe and just 
as disagreeable as I could. He was 
older than I, and I expected a right. 
But instead of attacking he went 
after the Bishop and complained. I 
was at once summoned into his pres- 
ence. 'Salmon,' said the Bishop very 
gravely, ' Tom James says you have 
been kicking him. Is it true ? ' ' Yes, 
sir.' 'What did you kick him for?' 
'Because he called me a Yankee.' 
' Well,' said the Bishop, ' are you 
not a Yankee? Your father was, and 
I am, and we were never ashamed 
of the name.' 'Yes sir,' said I, 'I 
don't just mind being called a Yan- 
kee, but I won't be called a Yankee 
so,' with a pretty decided emphasis 
on the last word. The Bishop could 
not help smiling, and dismissed me 
with a reprima?id which I did not 
mind much. I was not called a Yan- 
kee so after that, and had no occa- 
sion to kick Tom James again." So 
much for the militant quality. 

The other anecdote illustrates the 
resolution and ingenuity which over- 
came unexpected difficulties. This 
anecdote I have heard related by my 
late venerable father-in-law, who was 
not far from Judge Chase's age, and 
lived in Worthiugton, and probably 
attended the school. But I give it in 
the Judge's own words in a letter. 
"The Bishop and most of the elder 
members went away one morning, — 
he having ordered me to kill and 
dress a pig while they were gone 
I had* no great trouble in 
catching and slaughtering a fat 
young porker.' And I had the tub 
of «hot water all ready for plunging 
him in preparatory to taking off his 
bristles. Unfortunately, however, the 
water was too hot, or otherwise in 
wrong condition, or perhaps when I 
soused the pig into it I kept him 
in too long. At any rate, when I 
undertook to take off the bristles, 
expecting they would almost come 
off of themselves, to my dismay I 
could not start one of them. The 
bristles were set, in pig-killing 



phrase. What should I do. The 
pig must be dressed. In that there 
must be no failure. I bethought 
me of my cousin's razors, a nice, 
new pair, just suited to a spruce 
young clergyman, as he was. No 
sooner imagined than done. I got 
the razors and shaved the pig from 
toe to snout." 

After some moralizing upon the 
effect on the cousin's morning shave, 
the judge finishes by saying " where 
'there's a will there 's a way," and 
"there are more ways than one of 
doing a thing." 

The uncle and the lad didn't get 
on together. The bishop thought 
the future chief justice contuma- 
cious, and he in turn thought the 
bishop tyrannical, and so it came 
about that Salmon P. Chase gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth instead of Kenyou. 

The bishop had set his heart on 
having an institution of learning in 
his new diocese to provide him with 
a native ministry, "to the manner 
born," "sons of the soil," and set 
about it. His first difficulty was the 
vigorous opposition of the bishop of 
New York, Dr. Hobart, who objected 
to a western seminary on the ground 
of a possible division of the church in 
the United States. The "imperial 
policy" had not then been imagined. 
And perhaps there was something of 
odium tJieolo^ieu,^ and party feeling 
in the opposition. This opposition 
followed him to the end, and many 
trials came of it. 

The next difficulty was financial. 
He determined to go to England to 
solicit funds, and this measure was 
contrary to the wishes of Eastern men 
who found something particularly ob- 
noxious in the idea of money from 
England being sent to the West. 

The details of this opposition and of 
the bishop's firmness are interesting 
and characteristic. The bishop 
pledged all his earthly belongings to 
raise the means for going abroad. 
A dissertation of his on the subject 
of the reasonableness of England's 
giving such aid to the western nation 
contains an article entitled, "God's 
way of binding nations and conti- 
nents together, or America necessary 
to England," which might be read 
to-day apropos of the entente cordialc 
developed between the nations by the 
conditions of the Spanish war. 

In this visit to England "the great 
apostle of the wilderness," who coped 
successfully with the rough and stern 
conditions of the border, displayed to 
singular advantage his marvelous 
versatility. He was immediately a 
social success, and was a welcome 
guest among that most exclusive 

In spite of curious and what seems 
in some phases of it, vindictive oppo- 
sition and abuse as unmeasured as 
unmerited, he succeeded in gather- 
ing thirty thousand dollars in Eng- 
land. And he secured the patronage 
and friendship of Lord Kenyon, Ad- 
miral Lord Gambier, Lady Harcourt, 
Lord Bexley, and Eady Ross, all of 
whose names appear in the names of 
the place, the college, its halls, and 

With this not overwhelming sum 
of money he returned. But his dif- 
ficulties were not over. The matter 
of a location for the institution gave 
him no little perplexity. He visited 
Washington in hope of securing 
from the congress a grant of land. 
In this he was not successful, not- 
withstanding the powerful advocacy 
of Henry Clay. A bill did, indeed, 

9 6 


pass the senate, bestowing twenty- 
three thousand and forty acres of 
land to be located in Ohio in tracts 
not less than a quarter section in a 
place, and to be sold for the benefit 
of the college within fifteen years of 
the time of granting. The bill was 
killed in the house. A point against 
it was some dubitation as to the 
constitutionality of the proceeding, a 
question which had been already 
closed in the senate. The most de- 
termined opposition, however, arose 
from the jealousy of the numerous 
colleges projected in Ohio, whose 
friends demanded that like appropri- 
ations for them should be included 
in the bill. It strikes the philoso- 
phical onlooker that if these rivals 
wished to defeat such a measure as 
a matter of general policy for the 
nation and to make it impossible for 
any corporation except railroads to 
secure any such benefaction, their 
tactics were well chosen ; but if they 
really desired like endowment they 
defeated themselves by ruining what 
might have been a very valuable 

The bishop returned from Wash- 
ington disappointed and perhaps as 
nearly despondent as he ever allowed 
himself to be, but still strong in the 
faith expressed in his chosen motto, 
"Jehovah Jireh " — "The Lord will 
provide." He felt that defeat had 
come largely through the unwilling- 
ness of members to give attention to 
anything other than the noisy turbu- 
lence of party strife then prevalent. 

On his way home the stage-coach 
was overturned in the darkness and 
fell over an embankment. The bish- 
op's elbow was put out of joint and 
two ribs were fractured. 

That he had a very human feeling 

in his disappointment and distress 
appears from a letter to his brother, 
then a member of the United States 
senate. A passage in that letter 
runs as follows : "I could not sleep. 
How long the night was! How 
much I thought of you and of my 
good friends in the great congress 
of the United States. Oh ! that they 
would cease their strife and think on 
things that make for peace. If God 
should break their ribs and dislocate 
their joints, as he has mine, perhaps' 
they would think and speak more to 
the purpose than they have done of 
late, and this you may in welcome 
tell them from me." 

I think it is Piato who describes 
the progress of history as a spiral in 
which the world comes around to the 
same place only a little further along. 

The bishop's idea of a location 
was not only in the country but 
positively in the wilderness, and this 
with a double motive. He would 
have the institution possessed of a 
large tract of territory which, in 
time, would so greatly increase in 
value as to constitute a large and 
sure endowment. As he put it, 
in the quaint diction of his time, 
"Should the seminary, by gift or 
otherwise, be certain of being the 
possessor of some thousands of acres 
of the surrounding country, how 
surely and how innocentl)', yea, 
how justly, might it share in the 
gains of which it would thus be the 

The other purpose is expressed 
thus, "Put your seminary on your 
own domain ; be owners of the soil 
on which you dwell, and let the 
tenure of every- lease and deed 
depend on the expressed condition 
that nothing detrimental to the mor- 



als and studies of youth be allowed 
on the premises." . Everybody else 
thought it ought to be near a town, 
and every considerable town in Ohio 
had some sort of an offer to make. 
But the bishop in the midst of what 

to silence opposition for the time, 
and he went valorously into the wil- 
derness to lay foundations. 

Knox count}* was then most truly 
in primitive wildness. " Two crotched 
sticks were driven into the ground 


1 ■ 









-- - TA 

'■<.'" - ' : 

. .... 

The Kokoiing, from the Southeast. Near the site of Kenyon College. 

for most men would be overwhelm- 
ing duties in his vast missionary 
diocese, succeeded in overcoming all 
opposition and establishing his col- 
lege upon a domain of eight thou- 
sand acres, for which he paid about 
eighteen thousand dollars. 

The magnificence of this seemed 

and on them a transverse pole was 
placed. Against this pole boards 
were inclined, one end resting on the 
ground on each side. The ends of 
this shelter were but slightly closed 
by some clapboards rived on the spot 
from a fallen oak tree. This was the 
first habitation on Gambier Hill, and 

9 s 


it stood very nearly on the site where 
now rises the noble edifice of Kenyon 
college." This was the "Episcopal 

He had to build his own mill-data 
and his own flouring and sawmills, 
and work bis own quarries, besides 
stocking and conducting a "general 
store." And it is a notable thing 
that in 1827, contrary to the counsel 
.of everybody interested, at a time 
when nobody imagined it possible 
to raise a barn without whisky, the 
bishop met the united demand of his 
workmen for spirits with denial, and 
at the risk of mutiny and strike and 
consequent ruin, allowed no liquor 
on the premises. It was a stand 
characteristically bold and also char- 
acteristically ahead of his time. 

It would take toe long to tell how 
the bishop built his own dam, and 
how when a freshet dug his mill race 
for him instead of carrying away his 
dam he found new emphasis for his 
motto, "Jehovah Jireh ? ' — " The Lord 
will provide"; how he toiled on 
through the midst of privations, sac- 
rifices, and oppositions which would 
have broken the heart of the average 
man, even among pioneers, and how, 
in the wilderness he built a college 
edifice of stone with walls four feet 
thick, which loses nothing in dignity 
and im^rcssiveness as later years 
have -gathered modern buildings 
round it. 

The bishop, at this time, had no 
salary from the diocese and paid his 
own traveling expenses. The insti- 
tution had no credit. "All its cor- 
porate powers could not borrow a 
shilling without his personal respon- 
sibility." Never exceeding his per- 
sonal ability he made all his obliga- 
tions, and entered into all his con- 

tracts in his own name." "The 
school went on at Worthington in his 
own house and farmhouse and other 
buildings erected at his own expense 
on his farm," long afterwards con- 
tinuing to be called Cottage farm, on 
account of these buildings, mostly of 
logs, in which the students lived. 

He "appointed his own teachers 
and paid them from his own funds 
and such as he collected from the 
students themselves. His wife was 
his secretary, his housekeeper, his 
adviser and treasurer." Most of this 
last paragraph is in his own lan- 
guage, and, he continues, " Such a 
commencement of a great institution 
of religion and learning on so econo- 
mical a plan was never elsewhere 

The board of trustees, in 1825, 
when the circumstances were as 
described above, passed a resolution 
empowering and authorizing him to 
do these necessary things ; upon 
which action he somewhat bitterly 
commented, — "thus was the writer 
invested with power to do that which 
he had already done, and to cany on 
an institution to which neither the 
convention nor the trustees had per- 
sonally or officially contributed a dol- 
lar. . . . The bishop saw all this 
and the guarded care by w T hich even 
this power was extended to him. 
But these circumstances did not dis- 
turb his peace ; he went steadily on 
as if the world were at his command 
and the gold and silver thereof were 
all at his disposal." 

It may be true, in a certain pro- 
found sense that these things did not 
disturb his peace, but, 

" It is the little rift within the lute 
That by and by will make the music mute, 
And ever widening slowly silence all." 
— Tennyson, The Idyls, Merlin and Vivien. 


.. , ... . ... . 

,*«*■- vo 


f K 


■' ■ 

5^ z 
-- v» 

_ - 



Bexley Hail, from the South. 

The feeling cm the part of the 
trustees that the bishop presumed 
upon both his services and his official 
authority and, on his part, that the 
trustees and the diocesan convention 
encroached upon his prerogative and 
his acquired right, grew with the 
•growth of the institution until their 
mutual attitude became positively 

To pro^de students for the contem- 
plated theological seminary it was 
necessary to have, as a feeder, a pre- 
paratory collegiate department. The 
two schools, the theological seminary 
and the academy of arts, soon grew 
into such proportions, and developed 
such individual interests that conten- 
tion arose between the representatives 
of two distinct and yet cognate ideas. 
It is a philosophical maxim that peo- 
ple must have something in common 
before they can cordially hate each 

xxvi— 7 

other, and that was demonstrated in 
the case of these common interests 
held by men having a common wish 
and purpose but differing in many 
details and some essentials. To him 
the whole group of schools was one 
theological institution, and as such, 
by virtue of his office and of his 
efforts and sacrifices, he felt himself 
to be the head, and possibly his idea 
of headship carried more of authority 
than appeared to the view of others - , 
and possibly this strenuous man 
having the feeling that authority is'a 
trust, manifested it, more suo some- 
what resolutely. 

Matters of finance, matters of ad- 
ministration, the theory of authority, 
matters diocesan, matters academical, 
became involved in a wondrous tan- 
gle, and the actors in the drama 
appear moved by a mixture of very 
human feeling and sense of religious 



CHASE, £>. D. 

duty. The documents bearing upon 
the subject exhibit, even in their 
carefully drawn and diplomatic ex- 
pressions, a certain intensity of feel- 
ing, and the more private entries and 
communications in diaries and letters 
are in some cases decidedly less 

In September, 1S31, the bishop 
sent to the diocesan convention his 
resignation as bishop of Ohio and 
president of Kenyon college, from 
which I make extract as follows : 
" We must live in peace or we can- 
not be Christians ; and to • secure 
peace, especially that of God's church 
great sacrifices must sometimes be 
made. Influenced by, these princi- 
ples, I am willing, in order to secure 
the peace of God's cliurcli, and that of 
our beloved seminar}-, in addition to 
the sacrifices which by the grace of 
God have been already made, to 
resign ; and I do hereby resign the 
episcopate of this diocese and with it 
what I consider constitutionally iden- 
tified (with it), the presidency of the 
theological seminary of the Protestant 
Episcopal church of the diocese of 

The impression as to the bishop's 
attitude which prevailed at the time 
appears from the report of a committee 
of the convention to which the resig- 
nation was referred. After stating 
in extenso the occasions of difference 
as discussed by them in a visit paid 
to the bishop with a view to induce 
him to withdraw his resignation they 
say, " That to all these inducements 
and reasons the Right Reverend P. 
Chase gave but one answer, that it 
was a matter of conscience and prin- 
ciple with him to assert his Episco- 
pal authority in his character of pres- 
ident ; and that he ought not and 
would not yield the position that he, 
as such, had the right to assert and 
exercise his discretionary authority 
and will in the contravention of, and 
in opposition to, any limitation of the 
same by the board of trustees. Your 
committee, therefore, wij.h pain an- 
nounce to their constituent body that 
they believe the matter of dispute 
being considered by both sides a mat- 
ter of conscience and fundamental 
principle, is irreconcilable ; and there- 
fore recommend the adoption, etc." 

The resolution declared the Epis- 
copate of Ohio 



summary pro- 
ceeding would 
not be possible 
on either side 
under existing 
laws, but it 
sufficed then, 
and the resig- 
nation was ef- 

This report 
was not sub- 
mitted to the 
bishop and 





- i-r • • 


?! 8 ^ v.-.v-/ 

: Wv v' ..-■ 


\ T. 

*\"if~ : - '-,■•-'-■■■ ' 

Ascension Ha!:. 

reached his eye only upon the pub- 
lication of the journal. Whereupon 
he published a general denial of the 
allegations of the report, pronounc- 
ing it ' 4 false in fact, and evidently 
malignant in design as well as sub- 
versive of the laws of justice." He 
declared that he "never did say or 
maintain that the will of one indi- 
vidual should be the rule of con- 
duct for all others connected with the 
college," that he "never did say or 
maintain that the president of the 
seminary as such had a right to 
assert his discretionary authority and 
will in contravention of. and in oppo- 
sition to, any limitations of the same 
by the board of trustees."' In the 
arrangement of these sentences the 
"as such" of the committee means 
"as bishop," the "as such" of the 
bishop's criticism of the report means 
"as president;'" and like confusion 
of ideas muddles the unhappy quar- 
rel in other places. 

It is clear to every one, except 
each other, that these were earnest 

and true men, feeling profoundly the 
responsibilities which rose before 

The seminary and college with 
their unusual but altogether neces- 
sary equipment of farms, mills, stores, 
and other accessions of a civilized , 
community, loomed into greater bulk 
and significance, and the bishop and 
trustees were constantly looking at 
things from very dissimilar points of 
view. There were some, perhaps, un- 
realized theological differences ; there 
were varying notions about adminis- 
tration ; but principally they were at 
cross- purposes in their counsels in 
regard to the two characters in which 
Dr. Chase stood, as related to the 
enterprise and to the diocese, to the 
board of trustees and to the conven- 
tion. x\dd to this the singular 
urgency of temperament in the domi- 
nating personality of this mighty 
man, who felt that under God, for he 
was superlatively religious, he had 
called both diocese and college into 
existence and had not yet rounded 



out his achievement, and we may 
ha*ve some glimmer of the causes of 
this heart-breaking separation. 

The bishop retired with his family 
to a cabin built upon a tract of- land 
of some two hundred acres belonging 
to his niece by virtue of a " land 
warrant" issued to her grandfather, 
a soldier in the Revolutionary War. 
It had been occupied by a squatter 
who had departed. " The timbers of 
the cabin had given way, and the 
floor rendered unsafe to walk on. 
The roof was out of order, the win- 
dows gone and the fences prostrate." 
Through the doughty pioneer's be- 
wailing of this desolation one ma}* 
positively feel the quickening of the 
pulse of his enthusiasm over having 
something to conquer. The floor is 
relaid with puncheons, the chimney 
rebuilt with new sticks and clay, the 
hearth made over with rough stones, 
a fire is built, and the bishop makes 
himself at home. Going to the next 
town to make necessary purchases he 
was asked where he lived. "I live 
at the end of the road," said he, " in 
the valley of peace." 

But this restless soul was* not yet 
at peace. In 1832 he moved to 
Michigan where he had discovered 
what he calls the " Laud of Gilead." 
The story of his pioneering there 
reads like a chapter from the " Swiss 
Family Robinson." 

From this • bucolic retirement he 
was suddenly invited to assume the 
episcopate of the diocese of Illinois. 
This appointment had the kind of 
attraction which he always found 
irresistible. There was no salary, 
no dwelling, no parish, no school. 
The clergy of the diocese consisted 
of the bishop, four presbyters, and 
two deacons. He struck again the 

keynote of his faith. ■'Jehovah Jireh," 
" The Lord will provide." and though 
now grown old and unwieldy set out 
again for England, leaving his fam- 
ily at Gilead with the comforting as- 
surance "God will provide for you 
all." In 1837 he returned, having 
secured something like ten thou- 
sand dollars toward the founding of 
another "school of the prophets" 
in the prairie wilderness. 

The story of his adventures going 
and coming is full of the romance of 
difficulty, peril, and triumph. His 
new institution was endowed with 
something over three thousand acres 
of land in Peoria and Lasalle counties. 
In reply to the question why he 
named it "Jubilee" college, he 
replies, "In September, 1831, I left 
those dear places by me named 
' Gambier Hill ' and ' Kenyon Col- 
lege,' — in 1S38 precisely in the same 
month and the same day of the 
month, to blow the trumpet in Zion 
for joy that another school of the 
prophets, more than five hundred 
miles still further towards the setting 
sun, is founded to the glory of the 
great Redeemer." 

He found that the charters of insti- 
tutions of learning in Illinois had a 
clause forbidding the inculcation of 
the creed of any sect or denomination 
whatever! So he proceeded to get on 
without a charter, and to secure his 
college property by deeds of trust. 
A charter to his mind was procured, 
however, in 1S47. He had succeeded 
in the design nearest his heart. He 
had also succeeded in burying his 
college so deep in the wilderness that 
it^has never emerged, and the real 
seminary of the diocese of Chicago, a 
thriving and well -equipped modern 
institution, is built in the heart of 



that city, which gave no sign of its 
coming greatness in 1S32. 

Bishop Philander Chase was a 
mighty man, a devout Christian, a 
picturesque character; original, self- 
willed, of iron determination, his 
extraordinary genius, enterprise, 
courage, and industry, lost power 
through his inability to combine with 
other men. Where the combination 
was already effected by constitutions 
and laws, his powers had their full 
effect. The diocese of Ohio, founded 
by him when there were two priests, 
has become two dioceses, populous, 
powerful, and wealthy. The diocese 
of Illinois, of which he was also the 
founder, has become three. The 
impulse of his genius and energy, 
directed through constitutional lines 
already laid down for him, has been 
a power in organizing the inflowing 

Kenyon college, rescued from its 
remoteness by the growth of the state 
and the increase of populations and 
civilized appliauces, is secure in the 

prospect of a great future. Jubilee 
college is still in swaddling clothes. 

I have but touched upon the fasci- 
nating subject of his journeys, suffer- 
ings, sacrifices, and successes in 
behalf of this college, this child of his 
old age. 

In any other vocation in life, as 
soldier or statesman, Philander Chase 
would have achieved the kind of dis- 
tinction which makes the names of 
men of genius household words. As 
missionary, pioneer, builder of foun- 
dations, his name is in a measure 
shadowed by the superstructure, as 
the foundations which sustain the 
monuments of the world are buried 
out of sight beneath the ground. But 
the greatness of the man and the 
majesty of his character remain, in 
spite of his humanness, and, perhaps, 
in some respects, because of it. And 
he is assuredly entitled to a place of 
honor among the "Builders of the 
Republic," as well as upon the 
diptychs whereon are emblazoned the 
names of apostles and apostolic men. 

- ' 

'- - 

i - 

, :« -. ... 

: m 

B:ihop and Mrs. Chase. 



By Laura D. Nichols. 

sHE six o'clock afternoon 
stage came creaking and 
rattling up the hill to the 
Granite Ledge House, 
and was heard from afar 
by the young people playing tennis 
on the lawn, the matrons reading and 
embroidering on the piazza, and the 
maids peeping through the dining- 
room blinds. 

" New boarders coming? " 

"Yes: two." 

"Both ladies?" 

"Of course!" 

And before the travelers alighted, 
they had been as distinctly classified 
as an}- specimens in a museum. 

The elderly woman in black, with 
the long face and tired eyes, was 
"no good" to the tennis set, and 
one of the waitresses expressed the 
opinion of all when she whispered, 

"That one will fault the food an' 
want her room swep' up every day." 

Even* little Myrtie Jackson who had 
just sold a pailful of wild raspberries 
at the kitchen door, and had waited 
to see the arrivals, did not look twice 
at her, but gazed rapturously at the 
pretty girl in gray dexterously col- 
lectiug wraps and bundles. 

A very different verdict had been 
passed upon her by the onlookers. 

"Charming!" "Who is she?" 
and quickly came the answer, for a 
young matron, descending the stairs, 
sprang forward, exclaiming, 

"Sophy Rosebrook ! What a de- 
lightful surprise ! " 

There was a rush, a hug, a coo- 
ing, and then the elder lady was pre- 
sented, — " My aunt, Mrs. Paul." 

Supper was over and almost every- 
one came out again to enjoy the de- 
licious evening coolness. *Mrs. Ware 
and Miss Rosebrook were among 
them. Mrs. Paul had gone to her 

" If you are not too tired, Sophy, I 
want to show you the sunset view 
from my favorite hill." 

" Do ; I am tired only of the train 
and so many people." 

" Come this way then, through the 
barn, and we shall have the pasture 
to ourselves. To tell the truth I am 
afraid of the cows, but now they are 
safely shut in the yard, and the peo- 
ple have gone down to the lake." 

She led the way up a steep hillside 
of well-cropped turf, sprinkled with 
granite boulders and small spruce 
trees, till they reached the bare ledge 
of the top. There they sat down to 
enjoy the wide mountain view. 

"Cows or no cows, I shall come 
here every day ! " cried Sophy. 

A crunching of the gray moss be- 
hind her made Mrs. Ware jump in 
feaf of a belated heifer, but it was 
only the little berry-girl, and the lady 
sighed with^ relief. "Oh, is it you, 
Myrtie? This is my friend, Miss 
Rosebrook ; ' ' and as the child came 
bashfully forward to take the offered 
hand, she added, 

"If you and Mrs. Paul want your 



washing well dcme, Myrtle's aimt will 
be glad to take it." 

"That will be very nice," said 
Sophy, holding the plump, berry- 
stained hand; "and do you help 
her, Myrtie? " 

11 No 'm ; I only get the clo'es and 
take 'em home; I 'in pickin' berries 
most of the time. I sold twenty 
cents worth this afternoon, an' I 
guess I can pick two more quarts 
'fore dark if I 'm spry." 

"Then I must not keep you, but 
be sure and come for a bag to-mor- 

11 Earning money for a new dress I 


she added, as the child 

left them. 

"No," said Mrs. Ware, "she 
wants enough to go to Boston next 
winter, when her mother's eyes are 
to be operated upon, there, for cata- 
ract. They are nice hard-working 
people, but Mr. Jackson is feeble and 
his wife almost blind. The aunt and 
Myrtie are well and enterprising and 
hope to board near the hospital as 
long as Mrs. Jackson is there. You 
and your aunt will be a help to them. 
What a sad face Mrs. Paul has ! Is 
it from ill health or sorrow ? ' ' 

"Both," said Sophy, sighing. "She 
lost an only daughter and then her 
husband, and her health in caring for 
them, but I really think it was some- 
thing longer ago than all that, which 
wears upon her most." 

"And what was that, if I may 

" Oh, yes, it is no secret. She had 
a handsome, reckless brother, the 
pride and torment of the family all 
his boyhood. He finally ran away 
and went to sea. Several years after 
they read in a newspaper that he had 
died on board a merchant vessel just 

returned from Rio. Aunty went to 
see the captain and learned that 
uncle Harry had made two voyages 
with him, but had been on a lumber 
schooner before that. In the deli- 
rium of his last, sickness he had 
talked of his w*ife and child, but no 
questioning could make him say who 
or where they were, 'it was only 
1 Poor little Cape Cod girl ! Poor 
little baby ! Better off without me ! ' 
He left no papers or valuables, and 
had evidently been the same reckless 
but lovable boy to the end." 

"What a sad story! I suppose 
she advertised? " 

" Oh, yes, but in vain, and I think 
she has boarded in almost every 
town on the Cape, hoping to find 
some trace. You see, she came into 
some property, half of which would 
have been her brother's, and she 
wants it to go «to his widow. This 
summer her doctor forbade her going 
to the seashore, and I only hope she 
will be contented here. Her great- 
est comfort is in helping poor people. 
I will tell her about these Jacksons. 
Then she has her collections. I shall 
forever bless the doctor who advised 
me to get her interested in collecting 
something, no matter what." 

" I 've seen the good of that, my- 
self," said Mrs. Ware. "My hus- 
band will forget his business- worry 
for hours, in a new moth. What is 
your aunt's fad ? ' ' 

"Oh, she began with stamps, and 
then it was photographs of celebri- 
ties. I wish you could see her 
albums ! Just now it is old daguerre- 

" Daguerreotypes? " 

"Yes, the older the better. She 
wants to get a few of each year, from 
somewhere in the forties, — down. 



She gave five dollars the other day 
for one that looked like Sally Brass, 
just because it was the first she was 
sure was taken in 1849. Look ! 
There is the first star. I must go 
and help aunty unpack." 

Leaving the ledge, « they came 
again upon Myrtle, and noticed, but 
soon forgot, how wild and wistful her 
eyes looked. The child had over- 
heard their last words and as she 
scurried homeward through darken- 
ing fields, was repeating "Five dol- 
lars for an old daguerreotype ! Oh, I 
wonder, I wonder ! " 

Reaching home, she eagerly told 
her mother and aunt about the pretty 
your.g lady and the new washing, 
but not a word of what had most 
excited her. When she was alone, 
undressing for bed, she confided it to 
her favorite cat who scrambled up 
the cherry tree at her call. 

"Oh, Kitty Gray! What do you 
think ? You know we were wishing 
we could meet a fairy with a magic 
ring or something, — and somebody 
has come, pretty enough to be the 
queen of the fairies, and, perhaps, 
Kitty, perhaps she '11 touch some- 
thing old and black, and turn it into 
gold! And then I'll go to Boston, 
and buy you the beautifulest col- 
lar ,'' but here Kitty's interest 

failed ; she mad/ a sudden spring out 
of the window, and was half way up 
the well-sweep before a new thought 
struck her mistress. 

"I mean to slip down now, an' see 
if there 's a year on any of 'em. 
Aunty has set down to read the 
paper to the others by this time ; " 
and the little white-gowned figure 
tiptoed down the squeaky front stairs 
into the best room. Softly she rolled 
up one of the green paper shades, 

letting in a path of moonlight straight 
to the mantel-shelf. 

In the middle, Aunt Harmony's 
red morocco work-box with a gilt 
rose on top held in place a fan-shaped 
branch of purple coral. On each side 
stood a half-opened daguerreotype;" 
then a pink conch shell ; then more 
daguerreotypes, then china vases, 
one on each side, and at each end of 
the shelf, completing the solemn row, 
a tall, brass candlestick. This sym- 
metrical arrangement was never 
changed, and seemed to all the family 
as permanent and as admirable as the 
colors in the rainbow. 

Trembling with guilty excitement, 
Myrtie carried the two middle por- 
traits to the window. 

"This is my gram'pa," she said; 
studying a mild-faced old man, his 
hands clasped on his cane head. 
" He brought home the coral and the 
shells. I mustn't sell him, but" — 
taking up a stony-eyed woman w T ho 
grasped her knitting as grimly as 
Jael her hammer, — "this is his sec- 
ond wife, an' she \s no relation to me, 
^au' I don't believe mother liked her, 
either. If I only knew what year 
she was taken ! " Sighing, she left 
the stern dame on the window ledge, 
restored gran'sir to the shelf, and 
brought back the remaining pictures. 

The first was of a youth and 
maiden, side by side ; he, saucily 
defiant, — she clutching his arm in an 
agony of bashful pride. 

1 ' How pretty mother was ! ' ' whis- 
pered Myrtie, " but this is the sweet- 
est ; " fondly kissing the likeness of a 
t child whose radiant beauty even the 
unskilled artist had not been able to 

" Nobody shall have you,, my darl- 
ing-dear, but I'll show that sweet 



Miss Sophy what a lovely little sister 
I had ! " She laid the red ease beside 
the black one on the window, and 
hurried to replace the loving couple 
beside the conch shells. 

But the moon went behind a cloud 
as she stood on tiptoe ; she hit one of 
the candlesticks and down it fell, a 
sharp corner striking her bare foot 
with cruel force before it clattered on 
the hearth-stone. 

A cry of pain added to the noise, 
and in ran Aunt Harmony, poker in 
hand, prepared to brain at least a rat. 

"Land o' Canaan!" she cried. 
" Are you walkin' in your sleep, 
Myrtie Jackson ? " 

She gathered the sobbing child in 
her arms, and carried her into the 
lighted kitchen. 

Half an hour later, her foot bathed 
and bandaged, her story all told, 
Myrtie cuddled happily into bed with 
her sympathizing aunt beside her. 
"Now you go right to sleep, child, 
an' tomorrer you can ^o for the 
washiu', and take your step-gran'- 
marm's picture along. It belongs to 
me, and I don't set much by it, an' 
if that city woman 's crazy 'nougli*to 
give five or three or even one dollar 
for it, it '11 be more satisfaction than 
ever — but'there, she's dead an' gone, 
an' she was n't a bad woman after all, 
but somehow when she said ' Haw,' I 
always wanted to Gee." But Myrtie 
was asleep. 

The next afternoon a timid knock 
announced Myrtie at Mrs. Paul's 
door, in her best brick-pink calico. 

It was a propitious moment. Mrs. 
Ware had come in for a friendly chat, 
— Miss Sophy was there, too, and Mrs. 
Paul had been induced to display her 
collection. The bed was quite cover- 
ed with black cases, and green ; red 

morocco and flowered papier mache ; 
men, women, and children frowning, 
staring, or simpering, in garments of 
long ago. 

f * Why here is somebody else to 
see our show ! " said pretty Soph}'. 
The child shook hands with them all 
with stiff politeness, then, half breath- 
less with the excitement of her errand, 
she began, " I heard what, you were 
savin' las' night, an' my aunt gave 
me an old picture to do what I 
pleased with, — an' here 'tis ! " 

"Why how nice of you!" biting 
her lip as she opened the case. " See, 
Aunty ! It is quite unlike any that 
you have." 

" Do you know when it was 
taken?" asked Mrs. Paul in a busi- 
ness-like tone, nothing dismayed by 
the grim face. 

" Yes 'm. Aunty said I could tell 
you we was certain sure it was 1847, 
'cause she died of a- stroke three 
months after, 'count of her son bein' 
killed in the Mexico War." 

" Oh, poor woman ! " said Mrs. 

"I have none of that date," said 
Mrs. Paul, complacently. "I will 
gladly give you five dollars, my child, 
especially as my niece has told me 
why you wish to earn money." 

"Oh, thank you! thank you!" 
stammered Myrtie, and as Mrs. Paul 
went to the bureau for her purse, 
Sophy stooped and kissed the happy 
little face. 

The child eagerly returned the 
caress, and drawing her friend aside, 
pulled a red case from her pocket, 
adding, " I brought another just to 
show you. I wouldn't sell it for any- 
thing, but I wanted you to see what 
a dear little sister I had, only she 
died before I was born. She had a 



lovely name, too," she continued, as 
Miss Rosebrook exclaimed at the 
child's beauty. 

" Prettier than yours ? " 

"Oh, yes'm, and longer. It was 
Camilla Alderbie." 

"What are you saying! " cried a 
trembling voice, and Mrs. Paul darted 
towards them, snatched the picture, 
and was gazing at it with eyes so 
wild and face so pale that all stood 
silent and frightened. 

"Oh, tell me quickly! " she cried, 
sinking into a chair. " Whose child 
is this, and who gave her niy name ? " 

"It is my little sister who died," 
said Myrtie, encouraged by Sophy's 
arm around her. ' ' Her father named 
her, but he was n't m} r father ; he was 
mother's first husband when she lived 
in Nantucket." 

"Oh, my brother! At last, at last! 
Thank God! " and still clasping the 
picture, she .burst into such wild 
weeping that Mrs. Wa^e hurried 
Myrtie from the room, leaving 
Sophy to care for her aunt. 

" Why does she cr\ so ? And is n't 
she going to give me back my pic- 
ture?" asked the bewildered child, 
half crying to herself. 

Before Mrs. Ware decided how 
much she ought to explain, they 
reached a window and saw Aunt 
Harmony driving up to the door. 
"She 's come for me an' the washin'. 
She said she would," cried Myrtie, 
running down -stairs. 

Then Mrs. Ware had an inspira- 
tion. In five minutes the child was 
in the wagon holding the horse 
(though nothing less than a wasp in 
his ear would have induced him to 
start unbidden), and Miss Harmony, 
ostensibly to get the clothes, was led 
up to Mrs. Paul's room. There the 

mystery of nearly thirty years was 

Harold Anderson, recorded in the 
lumber schooner's books as Henry 
Anso)i (by a natural mistake which 
it suited him not to correct, as it also 
suited him on the South American 
voyage to resume his real name), had 
first met the young Nantucket girl at 
a picnic "on the main," as Miss 
Harmon}' called Cape Cod. 

"They took a fancy to each other 
right off, and no wonder, for she was 
as pretty as a pink, and he — well, 
you know what winnin' ways he 

"Yes, yes ! " and the soft, invalid 
hand and the work-hardened one 
grasped each other sympathetically. 

" Perhaps nothin' would have come 
of it, though, if he hadn't quarreled 
with his captain and knocked him 
down, and so had to sly over to Nan- 
tucket, an' hide awhile. He hung 
round on the island all winter; was 
everybody's friend, and by spring he 
an' Phoebe were married, and he 
seemed contented to settle down an' 
fish an' farm for life, with father. 

11 But the roving fit came back by 
another spring, an' away he went, 
' just for the summer,' he told her, 
an' she had the baby to ta*ke up her 
mind, and never mistrusted." 

" And he had named it for me? " 
interrupted Mrs. Paul. 

" Yes 'in. He said 'twas his only 
sister's name, an' he wrote it down 
himself the day she was christened in 

"Then he must have forgiven 
me," said the listener, with the hap- 
piest smile Sophy had ever seen on 
her face. 

* ' He went away from home angry 
because I would lend him no more 



money, — but surely he loved me 
when he named his child." 

"I'm sure he did, maim. With 
all his rovin' an' recklessness, he 
never could keep up a quarrel." 

" But when did you hear from 

"Never again. My poor sister 
watched an' waited, and wondered 
for ten years, an' then her child 
died, an' she took a horror of the 
shore, an 1 agreed to many her 
cousin, Silas Jackson, who 'd set 
store by her all his life, an' come 
up here to live. Some think 'twas 
cry in' hurt her eyes, but I dun no 
about that ; but I do know that if 

you feel as if you could call, it will 
be a comfort to her to see one of his 
folks." ' 

"I will come to-morrow," was the 
fervent answer, and she did, and the 
two middle-aged women wept to- 
gether over the old daguerreotype 
of the selfish rover who had shad- 
owed both their lives. 


So Myrtie went to Boston, and a 
happy winter she had with her Aunt 

The following summer, she and 
her mother, no longer blind, and 
Mrs. Paul, no longer sad, came back 
to Jackson Farm. 

By Belle C. Greene. 

N traveling over the .main 
roads of our New Eng- 
land towns, we occasion- 
sjli ally come across quaint 
and curious old houses 
which we are told were built for inns 
or taverns beforethe railroads came ; 
and we know that in those days, the 
now almost deserted highways pre- 
sented an altogether different appear- 

Heavy teams of merchandise, going 
to and coming from the city, were 
constantly passing, the gaily painted 
stage-coach rattled along at least 
once or twice a week, and these with 
the private equipages of the rich, the 
more humble carriages of the poor, 
and foot passengers as well, were all 
accustomed to put up at the taverns, 
and find "refreshment for man and 

And what rare, fascination there 
must have been about these places ! 
Tne great door, flung hospitably 
wide, the jovial landlord bustling 
out bareheaded to greet his guests, 
the spacious hall with its nicely 
sanded floor, the bar-room, where in 
winter a rousing fire always burned 
in the broad, open fire-place, and 
where the red-hot pokers gleamed in 
a row among the coals, ready to heat 
the flip at a moment's notice. 

Over the fire-place, within easy 
reach, hung the leather slippers, 
rudely made, but comfortable, and 
free to the tired feet of traveler or 
teamster, and the great arm-chairs 
scattered about the room invited to 
rest or a possible nap before the 

In the dining-room beyond, one 
could see the long tables neatly laid 

1 IO 


for dinner, while appetizing odors 
came in from the great haunches of 
beef, mutton, or venison roasting be- 
fore the kitchen fire. 

On the kitchen door, a placard 
might often be found, bearing a 
warning somewhat to this intent : 

"Clear out of this kitchen/ No 
loafers allowed here!" which natu- 
rally gave one to understand that 
the cook or kitchen maids, perhaps 
both, were uncommonly attractive. 

* *■ c- *- * * 

Hidden away among the green 
hills of northern Vermont, is an ob- 
scure little town, which we will call 
Brookvale. It consists for the most 
part of a strip of fertile meadow- 
land, watered by numerous trout 
brooks, and shut in on both sides 
by hills, some of which are densely 
wooded, while others are cultivated 
to their tops, or left as pasturage 
for the flocks. The mountains are 
beyond, and the . summits of the 
highest are covered with snow the 
year around. 

Just the other side of these moun- 
tains, great cities have grown up, 
but no traces of their activity and 
advancement have as yet reached 
this spot. No whistle of locomotive, 
no sound of machinery or rush of 
business here, and the people seem 
still content to work out their peace- 
ful lives in humble, primitive ways. 

To-day the stage-coach lumbers 
along through the valley just as it 
did, say ninety or a hundred years 
ago, and its one tavern serves practi- 
cally the same purposes it did then. 
A very odd iQokiug structure is this 
tavern, bearing a very odd name, 
and both never fail to excite the curi- 
osity of strangers passing that way. 
• From a tall post in front, swings a 

sign-board on which we read in star- 
ing blue letters, 

" Fixntgax's Chateau." 

The main bod} T of the house is 
three stories high, and it is sur- 
mounted by a square, ugly-looking 
cupola , so large as to be out of all 
proportion to the rest of the house. 

The upper windows are curiously 
peaked and gabled, and are placed at 
irregular intervals. In their midst, 
is a great outer door, ornamented 
with elaborate carving overhead ; but 
there are no stairs leading from it to 
the ground, — in fact, there is no 
appearance of utility about It. 

The front door is broad but low, so 
low that a tali man must stoop to 
enter, and here again we have more 
carving. Over the top in a row T , are 
shield-shaped objects, designed, uo 
doubt, to represent a coat of arms of 
some sort, and the two large pillars 
of the porch are surmounted by gro- 
tesque figures, one of a cock, the 
other of a lion, rampant. 

Extending from the main body of 
the house east and west, are wings 
evidently added as an afterthought of 
the builder, and utilized by the pres- 
ent owner as post-office and wood- 

We are told, and we can readily 
believe, that the exterior remains 
to the present day, unaltered ; but 
inside we find changes. There is 
no nicely sanded floor ; stoves have 
superseded the great fire-places; the 
red-hot pokers, the flip, and the 
comfortable slippers wait only in 
the imagination of the tired trav- 
eller ; but there is no lack of good 
cheer and comfort still, and mine 
host is as heartily hospitable and 
friendly as of yore. He is coinmu- 


1 ii 

nicative also, and in answer to in- 
quiries about the place will give in 
substance the following history of his 
house and of its name, " Finnigan's 
Chateau : '' 

Not far from the year 1790, Larry 
Finnigan, an Irish emigrant, came 
and settled with his family in Brook- 
vale. The family consisted of him- 
self, a man, say forty years of age, 
Kathleen, his wife, Kitty, a grown-up 
daughter of sixteen or seventeen, 
and Tooly, the baby boy. 

When they first came they were 
looked upon with suspicion and gen- 
eral disfavor by the inhabitants of 
Brookvale, many of whom had never 
before seen an Irishman or foreigner 
of any sort, but took for granted 
that they were all little better than 
heathen or barbarians. 

In a short time, however, this feel- 
ing changed, radical lv, and the new- 
comers became very popular. Their 
hearty friendliness, their rollicking 
ways, their wit, and above all, the 
beauty and goodness of the two 
women, won the hearts of the simple 
country folk, almost before they were 

The Finnigan s were very poor. 
Their shanty, rudely constructed of 
logs and boards, 'was set down in a 
miserable tract of land where almost 
nothing would grow, and where the 
hot' suns of summer and the cold 
storms of winter beat mercilessly 
upon it. It was small and low, and 
hardly large enough to accommodate 
their only possession of any Value, 
an old loom, upon which Larry and 
his wife worked (when they were so 
fortunate as to get work to do), 
weaving the homespun cloth then in 
universal use. 

Almost everybody in town kept 

sheep, and did their own carding and 
spinning, but few people owned 
looms, and those who did not were 
obliged to hire their weaving done. 
Upon the patronage of such, the Fin-' 
nigans depended largely for their 
meager support, and, in the fall of 
the year especially, Larry's lusty 
voice might be heard afar throughout 
the little settlement, bawling some 
Irish ditty, as he worked cheerfully 
at his loom. 

The Brookvale farmers were not 
rich, and money was a scarce com- 
modity among them the year around. 
It was only by the toilsome transpor- 
tation of such produce as the)' could 
spare, fifteen miles over the mountain 
to the nearest market, that they got 
what little they had ; very little 
money they brought back as a general 
thing, the frugal supplies of groceries 
and household necessities being 
taken in exchange for nearly the full 
value of their produce. 

Thus poor Larry found his earn- 
ings scanty, and the pay very slow 
and uncertain. But no one ever 
heard a word of complaint from him 
or from any member of his family. 
They were always cheerful if not 
actually hilarious. They had good 
health and contented minds, and if 
they had but "a bite and a sup" 
they were ready to share it with 
another any time. 

Kathleen and her pretty daughter 
tripping lightly across the fields of a 
Sunday morning to the little school- 
house where ■' meeting" w T as wont to 
be held, tucked a buttercup or two in 
the bosoms of their gowns, and cared 
not that they were shabby. Larry, 
loitering carelessly behind with Looly 
clinging to one of his big fingers, 
smoked his pipe and looked about 



over the fresh, green fields whh, a 
feeling of peace and satisfaction that 
a king might have envied. 

After the Finnigans had lived sev- 
eral years in Brookvale, the stage, that 
passed through the, town only at 
irregular intervals, stopped at his 
door one morning and delivered to 
Larry an imposing looking docu- 
ment, the address of which was 
" Mister Lawre?ice Fiiuiigan, Brook- 
vale, Vermont." 

It was seldom Larry had a letter, 
and he turned this one over and over 
in his hands, staring blankly at it, 
and finally took it in to Kitty to read 
(she being the only one in the family 
that could ''read writin' "). 

The letter informed him that by 
the death of a distant relative in Kil- 
kenny, County Cork, Ireland, he had 
fallen heir to the sum of four thou- 
sand pounds or about twenty thou- 
sand dollars, and it further instructed 
him how to gain immediate possession 
of the same. 

It is said that when Larry fairly 
comprehended the good news he was 
half crazed with excitement. The 
first thing he did was to seize an axe 
and aim a mighty blow at the old 
loom, splintering and nearly demol- 
ishing one of its great beams ; but 
his wife sprang forward in time to 
save it from utter destruction. 

"Spare it, spare it!" she cried, 
" it has tjeen our best friend ! " 

44 But we'll uade it no more foriver, 
now," shouted Larry. " No more 
w r eavin' for you and me, no more 
work for us! Do ye moind, Kath- 

Kathleen looked at her husband 
with a troubled expression in her 
beautiful eyes. 

" No, no," she said, " I suppose 
it 's rich folks we *re goin' to be now 
— though I cannot rightly sinse it. 
But what '11 we iver be doin' w T ith so 
much money, at all, I wonder? How 
will ye iver spind it, Larry, dear? " 

" Don't ax me, alanna ! that is, not 
jist at this prisint," laughed Larry, 
now quite himself again. "To be 
poor is aisy enough," he added 
quaintly. " but to be rich ! — ah, well! 
I doubt me not we '11 learn that too in 
toime! " 

The news of the good luck of the 
Finnigans spread quickly through 
the town and caused a great commo- 
tion. On the afternoon of the day 
following, the family held quite a 
reception in the little dooryard sur- 
rounding the shanty. The men 
leaned against the log railing that 
served as fence, whittling, smoking, 
and talking ; the women, fewer in 
number, crowded round Kathleen 
and Kitty, filling the doorsteps and 
one window. 

Squire " Fostick" (Fosdick) hon- 
ored with the title because of his sup- 
posed knowledge of law, and his 
" gineral book larnin','' naturally took 
the lead, and stepping forward with 
ponderous dignity, solemnly tendered 
to Larry his own personal services ; 
and Larry as solemnly thanked him. 

"And now, Larry," began the 
squire, but Larry stopped him. 

M Misiker FinuigcDi, as ye plaise," 
he corrected, straightening himself 
with an air of comical importance. 

The squire begged pardon, and 
went on to ask if Larry had any plans 
as to the employment or investment 
of his large fortune. 

"Me fn'nds," answered Larry 
grandly, in reply, " av course a for- 
tune like the one that has come to 



the Fiiitiigaa family is not to be dish- 
persed of in a minute, but I have 
made up me moind to do with a part 
of it, what in fact has been the 
dhrame of me loife — that is, to build 
me a shattow." " Shattow " he kind- 
ly explained, as they looked blankly 
into each others' faces, "is the Frinch 
for a grand house, ye know. Yes, I 
have made up me moind to build 
a shatto-c house as shall be an honor 
and a pride to the town as has adopt- 
ed the Finnigans ! " 

At this point h^ was interrupted by 
loud cheers from the younger men. 

Waving his hand to enjoin silence 
he continued : 

"I've seen 'em in the ould coun- 
thry — thim shattows — with a cupilOw 
on top, and as full o' dures and win- 
dies as they could stick, an' kiveied 
with trimmin's and images ivery- 
wheres. Me frinds, that ! s the kind 
of a house we 're goin' to have in 
Brookvale, — a shattow — Fin nig an' s 
shattow^ as ye plaise ! " 

Larry's first step towards building 
the chateau was to engage Squire 
Fosdick as adviser and general agent. 
Then he bought a tract of woodland, 
and as was the custom in Brookvale 
set to work felling trees and digging 
trenches down the steep side hills 
through which to slide, them to the 
plains below. There the}' were 
hitched to great ox teams and hauled 
to the nearest sawmills to be con- 
verted into timber and boards.- 

It was slow work building a house 
in a place so remote from supplies, 
but money could accomplish wonders 
even in those days. 

A celebrated builder came from 
o^er the mountain to do the work, 
but greatly to his dismay he found 
that Larry had very decided ideas of 

his own, and insisted on carrying 
them ail out. 

The result was the curious house 
which we have described as the old 
tavern. But whatever its faults of 
architecture may be, it must at least 
have been strongly and honestly 
built to withstand the wear and tear 
of a century and be in such good con- 
dition as we find it to-day. 

It is said that all the neighboring 
towns were invited to "the raising 1 " 
of the chateau, and that several 
barrels of New England rum were 
furnished, and a whole ox w r as 
roasted, for the entertainment. 

When the house was finished, 
Larry proceeded to fit it up in what 
he considered " iligant style;" but 
his ideas of furnishing were as pecu- 
liar as they had been in the matter of 
building, and when it was at last 
read)* for occupancy, the city builder 
was heard to remark that "Larry 
Finnigan had no more taste than a 
teakettle, and was about as fit to 
occupy a grand house as a pig was to 
live in a parlor." 

But though Larry's taste may have 
been questionable, no doubt there 
was plenty of fine furniture in Finni- 
gan's "chateau," and his tall old 
clock, rich in carving and with a 
revolving moon on top, is still treas- 
ured by a descendant of Squire Fos- 
dick. Also a spinnet, said to have 
been Kitty Finnigan's, is preserved 
in a museum "over the mountain." 

And now comes the pathetic part 
of the story. We are told that the 
Finnigans were not happy in their 
new home ; that they did not take 
kindly to the grand house nor to the 
w r ays of rich people. 

The chateau stood not far away 
from the old shanty, which they 



intended to pull down but always 
delayed doing, and it was not long 
before Larry began to spend more 
time in the shanty than in the cha- 
teau. He had a few tools there, and 
made excuse of some sort of tinker- 
ing to ^o over almost every morning, 
and the rest of the family were sure 
to follow soon. 

The little place was loved and 
cherished by them as it had never 
been before. With great care and 
painstaking a few scarlet-runners 
and morning-glories were coaxed to 
grow and scramble up the rough 
sides of the shanty ; also, one at a 
time, such articles of furniture and 
ornament as could be best accommo- 
dated within its narrow limits, were 
transferred from the chateau, until 
finally, as Larry expressed it, they 
really lived " betwixt and betune " 
the two houses. 

But with all his efforts to kill 
the time as a rich man should, it 
appeared to hang heavily on Larry's 
hands, and at last, as if for very 
lack of other occupation, he took to 
drinking and carousing. It is said 
that many a drunken orgie, with a 
crowd of boon companions, noisy 
fellows like himself, was held in the 
great dining-room of the chateau, 
and many a night the family would 
creep out to the little shanty, there 
to stay till morning should end it. 

lii his sober hours, even at his 
best, Larry was not the man he once 
was. He grew surly and irritable, 
and was often heard to loudly curse 
the day that brought him the Finni- 

gau fortune and Fiunigan's chateau. 
The troubled look seemed to have 
come into Kathleen's sweet eyes to 
stay ; and as for Kitty, we can imag- 
ine her, seated at the spinnet, per- 
haps, in the twilight, touching the 
keys timidly (since it is not likely 
that she ever learned properly to 
play)? and feeling sad and fearful and 
different altogether from the light- 
hearted Kitty of old. . . . But 
when things seemed to be at the worst 
with the family, Providence gave 
an unexpected turn to their affairs. 
A stranger, another Lawrence Finni- 
gan, suddenly appeared in Biookvale 
claiming to be the rightful heir to the 
fortune appropriated by Larry, and 
he readily proved himself to be such. 

Larry bore the loss of the money 
with a calmness and equanimity that 
astonished' everybody ; also, his wife 
and daughter were far from being 
overcome at the prospect of their 
altered circumstances. 

They moved back into the shanty, 
which the bounty of the new heir 
enabled them to enlarge aud improve, 
so that it was quite comfortable. 
The old loom was repaired, and 
Larry, sober and industrious as of 
old, was heard again singing at his 

The chateau was sold to a man 
who converted it into a tavern, and 
swung out the sign bearing the name 
by which the house was then known 
to all the country round about, and 
by which it has been known for a 
hundred years, even to the present 

@u^c ■ ; m§ ^m>m «^P 

fO : T^m 





By Henry B. Colby. 

Introductory Note by the Editor.— The Granite Monthly has in preparation a num- 
ber of papers upon the more prominent industries of the state, and while it is not planned that 
any story shall be an advertisement of any particular firm engaged in the business treated there- 
in, it was deemed advisable, in connection with the Monthly's very liberal offer of a piano for 
the longest list of new subscribers, to make the "first paper of the series a direct advertisement, 
*andgive such publicity as we can to the very complete equipment for the manufacture of high 
class pianos possessed by Our Only Piano Factory. 

pr /- '■. 

; ' - "'"■"""" - ■■■— ■ •■■■. • " r ^ ; 







■ K. 7 

■,r : l - ... i 

1 J 


2 ■ ' 

Ore S'de of the Rerjlatt 



lUplN the early years of the 

present century there 

lived in the town ot 

Deerfield, a young man 

named Abraham Pres- 

He was born there in 1790, 
xxvi— s 

and lived, a farmer's boy, in his 
native town during his early life. 
While but a lad he played around 
the cabinet shop of his uncle, and as 
he grew older developed a taste for 
music ; he saved his small money, 



and presently was able to buy a fid- 
dle, upon which he played such 
music as was available in the coun- 
tr}* village. In one of his old music 
books there was a crude wood cut of 
a man playing upon a bass viol. 
Now our youngster had never seen 
nor heard such an instrument, and, 
as he became more proficient in fid- 



This one was made in 1826 

dling, he began to wonder what sort 
of tones would be given out by so 
tremendous a fiddle as that bass viol 
appeared to be. The more he won- 
dered, the more the wonder grew, 
until he could stand it no longer. 
He resolved that he would make a 
viol himself — he could do it — he had 
been using his uncle's tools to good 
advantage, as he grew up, making 
many things for household use or 

So, one day, he retired to the se- 
clusion of his father's attic, took his 
old fiddle apart to find out how it 
was made, and set out to fashion for 
himself a larger one like that in the 
picture. He worked in secret, fear- 
ing ridicule, and made but slow prog- 
ress, for his tools were few and ill- 
adapted to the purpose, and he was 
obliged to hunt for the proper, well- 
seasoned wood for the front and back 
of the instrument. But after many 
trials and delays it was finally glued 
up and ready for a trial. How his 
heart swelled with pride and delight 
as he first drew a bow across the 
strings, and filled the dusty attic 
with the heavy vibrating bass, which 
he then heard for the first time. 

Naturally this viol created a sen- 
sation in the village, and was quickly 
purchased by one of the young musi- 
cians of the town, who played it in 
church for many years afterward. 

Of course young Prescott made an- 
other, this time in the shop, openly, 
and it was better than the first. 
Then he made a 'cello to help out 
the church choir, and so, easily and 
by degrees, he drifted along for years, 
devising his own tools as he needed 
them, and hiring mechanics to help 
him, until he had an established 
trade and reputation as a maker of 
bass viols and 'cellos. These early 
viols had the relatively short neck of 
the violin, a small bridge, and but 
three strings. The strings were of 
gut and were hard to get as they 
were all imported. 

In 1830 he opened a music store in 
Concord, on Main street, near the 
Free Bridge road. The venture 
proved so successful that three years 
later he moved his family and shop 
to the capital of the state, and be- 



came firmly established in business 

During one of his periodic visits to 
Boston he saw and purchased an " el- 
bow melodeon ? ' of primitive construc- 
tion, which he improved upon and 
developed, and, in 1S36, the manu- 
facture of reed instruments was added 

out so successfully from the old bass 
viol made in the Deerfield attic. 

In 1S5S, Mr. Geo. D. B. Prescott, 
the youngest son, joined his eldest 
brother, Abraham J., as partner, 
under the firm name of Prescott 
Brothers, assuming control of the 
manufacturing department, which he 



■rv-cvniu.'' " ''•-' - , 

6 • 

i ■ - 




In trie Mill-Room 

to the list of trades followed in Con- 
cord. The reed instruments with 
piano keys and stationary cases, and 
improvements in the shape and con- 
struction of reeds and stops, mark 
the intermediate steps by Abraham 
Prescott in the evolution of modern 
church, cabinet, and parlor organs. 

In 1850, Mr. Prescott retired, leav- 
ing his three oldest sons to continue 
the business which he had worked 

retains to the present time, covering 
a period of over forty years. His 
two sons are now connected with him 
in the business. 

In 18S0, the Prescott Organ Com- 
pany was incorporated, but in 18S6, 
a change was decided upon. The 
manufacture of organs was discon- 
tinued, the Prescott Piano Company 
was formed, and the making of 
pianos was begun. The . business 



» '■ .", ' - ■ i 


. ■ 



. ■ 



•»~n wesnA tMMSti 



The Skeleton, 

The Frame 

**' 1 


grew and prospered; the pianos were 
of good quality and sold well, and 
the value of the plant was increased 
accordingly, from 56, coo in 1S60 to 
$50,000 to-day. 

In February, 1896, the entire plant, 
including one hundred finished pianos 
and nearly four hundred more in 

ill h m M\ 

\ . rim* -'■' v * i-.- ^'Im 

-'Vi: ! . . ■ 

f 'I 


v «k, i|5 m^^m 

Gluing Bars on the Sourdrig-8ja r d. 

process of construction, was de- 
stroyed by fire, involving a loss of 
over ^50,000, which was but partially 
covered by insurance. 

By the immediate purchase of the 
vacant factor}- of the Haley Manufac- 
turing Company, and refitting it with 
new and improved machinery, trie 
company found itself 
;>" better equipped than 

ever before to carry on 
its yearly increasing 
business, and it is 
most peculiar business. 
too, for its product 
must withstand the 
changes of temperature 
and humidity common 
to our New England 
climate, and be ever 
ready to respond to the 
touch of skilled, artistic, 
or loving fingers. 

It is surprising to a 
layman' to see the ex- 
tent to which wood' is 
used in a piano. There 
are over nine thousand 
separate pieces in a fin- 
ished piano, not count- 




**fc . >> 


9: ■ ?' ' -- ^ 

ing the case. Of course all 

of this wood must be abso- 
lutely seasoned in order that 

it may retain its shape, and 

fit its particular place in the 

mechanism. To attain this 

end the hard wood lumber 

is stacked in the open air in 

the mill yard for a period of 

from one to three years or 

more before being put into 

the dry kilns at the factory. 

where it is kept at a con- 
tinuous temperature of one 

hundred and forty degrees, 

more er less, for three 

months. At the expiration 

of this time it has become 

thoroughly dry and fit for 

use, and is then taken to the 

mill-room, where it is sawed 

to the various sizes and patterns to is to be seen at the back of the in- 
strument, and its heavy cross-beams 
give it the appearance of a giant 
gridiron. It is made of the very 
fiuest quality of straight - grained 
Canada elm, and it serves as a sup- 
port, or base, for the sound-board 
and iron frame. 

The sound-board is next fastened 

to the skeleton, and this sound-board 

is of great importance in 

a piano, as it carries the 

vibration of the strings 


Placing Plate on the Fcrrr.. 

make up the skeleton and case. 

The skeleton of an upright piano 

1 t 



«i#*» t * 

Putting on the Strings. 



exactly the same as in a violin, gui- 
tar, or bass viol. It is about 3-8 X4-10, 
and is made of several strips of fine, 
clear-grained spruce, one quarter of 
an inch thick, carefully glued to- 
gether into a large sheet. Its slightly 
convex surtace is obtained by gluing 
to its back a number of ribs, which, 
'in shrinking on, pull the board to an 
even curve, which it needs to help it 
sustain its share of the strain of the 

fifteen tons, which represents the 
combined pull of all the strings when 
in tune. When you consider that 
the lowest bass string is four feet, 
eleven inches long, and the highest 
treble one but a trifle over two in- 
ches, and that their pitch depends, in 
a great degree, upon their length, it 
becomes evident that the frame must 
be planned upon lines of mathemati- 
cal accuracy. 

5 t 



* J 


. 3^ 

. . 





«== ■ 

■ s % 


A Corner of the Ver.eenr.g- Room. 

g£ t I 

strings. The bridges of rock maple 
are now placed upon the board in 
such positions as will give correct 
string lengths, and the bridge pins 
put in their places. 

The sounding-board being now 
firmly glued and screwed by its 
edges to the skeleton, the frame is 
next put in its position upon it. 
This frame is an iron casting which 
supports the strings in their proper 
places, and in so doing, withstands a 
continuous strain of something over 

Then comes the wrest-plank which 
is attached to the upper part of the 
upright skeleton, in front, and is put 
there to carry the tuning pins, which 
must never move or turn a hair's 
breadth unless under the pressure of 
the tuner's hammer. It is built up 
to a thickness of two inches of many 
veneers of the finest rock maple, with 
the grains alternately crossing each 
other, and solidly pressed together 
while drying. Much thought and 
study have been expended upon 


wrest-planks in years gone by, but 
the present method of putting them 
together has added long years to the 
life of^a piano. 

The plank being bored for the tun- 
ing pins, and the hitch pins fixed 
properly in the frame, the eombina- 
tiou^of skeleton, sounding-board and 
frame Js placed upon a rolling table 
and trundled to the next department, 
where it is supplied with its eomple- 

now go to meet the case in the next 

Case-making is an important branch 
of the labor in a piano factory. Great 
care and judgment must be used in 
selecting the lumber so that it will 
not warp or crack. If a case were 
made of solid mahogany planks, for 
instance, it would be utterly impossi- 
ble to keep it together ; it would twist 
and split apart in no end of different 



A Sectioi of the Vai 


ni..' l :r?-r,L.,rii, 


ment of strings. These are made b> r 
specialists from the very finest stock. 
Ordinary wire would be about as use- 
ful as india-rubber under the tremen- 
dous strain that a piano string con- 
stantly sustains. Piano wire stretches 
so little that it is used in making 
deep sea soundings, where a depth of 
several miles is accurately measured 
with no appreciable stretch of the 

After the strings are in the tuning 
begins, and the strings and action 

ways under the varying, conditions o 
weather to which it would be sub- 
jected. But build a case of chestnut 
that is perfectly dry, and then double 
veneer it on both sides, and it will 
forever stay where it is put; and that 
is just what they do in this case shop. 
After the stock is sawed for the va- 
rious parts of the case it is veneered 
first with what they call " cross-band- 
ing," that is, a thin veneer w T ith its 
grain running at right angles to the 
grain of the plank; These cross- 



Y ■ 



\ ' 



A Robbi 

bands are put upon both sides of the 
plank, front as well as back, and 
dried under pressure ; then the final 
veneer is glued to both sides and 
again press dried. The beautiful 
sheets of figured walnut upon the 
ends of the upright case are very 
carefully butted together at the cen- 
tre, giving the design of the grain 
more symmetrical arrangement by its 
reversed duplicate from the centre 
each way. 

After the several parts have been 
through the veneering room, they 
meet at the assembling benches and 
are carefully fitted together and 
smoothed with sandpaper,, and the 
case is then delivered to the varnish- 
ers and polishers. Here the separate 
pieces of the cases are varnished aud 
rubbed down with pumice-stone, and 
the labor repeated over and over, not 
quite seven times seven, but until 
the grain of the wood is evenly and 
solidly filled with a body of the very 

finest varnish the market affords, 
rubbed to a perfectly smooth surface, 
to which the final "flowing" coat 
gives a mirror-like polish. A case 
is in the varnish room several months 
before it is sent to the regulators 
to receive the frame, strings, and 

Next is a photograph of the com- 
plex collection of wood, felt, and 
leather which they call the "action " ; 
it looks more like a handful of jack- 
straws than anything else, but it is 
planned with the utmost care, and is 
duplicated for every key, white and 
black, upon the keyboard. It trans- 
mits the blow of the finger from the 
key to the hammer, and does it in- 
stantly without a particle of lost mo- 
tion or rattle, and is immediately 
ready for another stroke, so that the 
note may be repeated almost with the 
speed of an alarm clock. This action 
is less than half an inch thick, and 
eighty-eight of them are set side by 



inside a metal frame, each adjusted 
to strike its blow at the particular 
place upon its string to produce the 
full volume of tone. 

And now, for months, the piano is 
adjusted and tuned, and tuned and 
regulated, and then they do it over 
again and again i until the mind tires 
at the thought of the countless little 
things that are done by one man and 
another upon ever)- piano before it is 
considered in proper condition to send 
along. . - 

After the regulators have finished 
their work, the piano goes to the 
man, who, in the vernacular of the 
trade, "voices" or tone regulates it ; 
that is, he shapes and scrapes, files 
and picks, burnishes and rubs, and 
even pricks into the faces of the dif- 
ferent hammers until there is no break 
in the scale, and the piano gives a 
perfectly even quality of tone from 
every one of its eighty-eight keys. 
Then the tuner comes along and 
tries it again, and if he is not satis- 
fied with what he finds, the instru- 
ment is side-tracked in his depart- 
ment until he is. Then it is in- 
spected by another man who is look- 
ing for an}- trouble or possible faults, 
and is by him finally passed along 
to have its case cleaned and rubbed 
down for its last and final' hand 
polish. The box is ready to receive 
it, the polisher's work is done, and 
here comes the tuner again for final 
inspection before the piano is per- 
mitted to go out into the world. 

Some two years have passed be- 
tween the arrival of the lumber at 
the factory and the shipping of the 
finished piano, and it represents a 
great amount of painstaking care to 
bring out the piano in its present per- 
fected forms. A dozen piano fac- 

tories will buy their stock from the 
same dealers, and the good product 
of one of them will be the result of 
taking pains. In this factor}' the 
greatest of pains is taken to secure 
to every operation the most perfect 
results. The workmen are all men 
of proved ability, who not only know 
how to do good work, but do it every 
time. Many of them have seen lone: 



■ . 


j I ( ■ \ 

I 1 

• W 

1 P**~\: 



The Action 



- <q 

Tuning and Regulating. 

ser\ T ice with the Prescotts, in some 
instances twenty-eight and thirty 
years — a record quite as remarkable 
for efficient and faithful performance 
of duty, as it is for length of 

The work in the various depart- 
ments is subdivided and specialized, 
scTthat perfection of result is nearer 

realization than in some more preten- 
tious factories, and it is a safe pre- 
sumption that every one of the fifteen 
pianos turned out each week from 
this factory has received the utmost 
of painstaking care and attention to 
small details that it is possible for 
conscientious and skilled workmen to 
eive it. 

■ '■- ~^:% - 1 )\ :- ; 




|L ^l^g^ jp> 


Hon. Broughton Davis Harris died suddenly January 19, at Brattleboro, 
Vt. He was born in Chesterfield, August 16, 1S22, aud was graduated 
from Dartmouth in 1S45 with high honors. He studied law, and becoming 
interested in newspaper work, edited, for a year, the Vermont Phoenix. He 
founded the Eagle in 1S47. In the fall of 1S50 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Filmore as first secretary of the new territory of Utah. The first gover- 
nor of Utah was Erigham Young, and the ideas of the two men were so 
antagonistic that finally there was an open rupture between them. So defi- 
antly did Governor Young disregard the provisions of the enabling act of 
congress that Mr. Harris finally refused to disburse the money committed to 
his care for the benefit of the territory, by the United States government, 
aud amid threats of assassination returned to ^VashingtOIl and restored the 
money to the United States treasury. The administration endorsed his 
action and afterward offered him the office of secretary and acting governor 
of the territory of New Mexico, which he declined. Mr. Harris was register 
of probate for the Marlboro district in 1S47, aud a member of the state senate 
in 1S60 and 1861. As a member of the firm of Harris Bros. & Co., he was 
engaged for many years in the construction of railroads. He was one of the 
corporate members of the Brattleboro Savings bank, and for many years was 
president of that institution, a position he held at the time of his death. 


R. J. Folsom died in Boston, January 25. His age was seventy-one years. 
Born in Strathaim he spent his youth in his native town, and. at the out- 
break of the gold fever in 1S49 ne went to California, where he spent the fol- 
lowing fifteen years. On his return to Stratham, he entered upon a shipping 
business with his brothers, Peter and Benjamin. Of late years the seat of 
his operations had been in Boston, where he was the semi-partner in the firm 
of B. F. Folsom & Co., importers of guano and phosphates from South 


George Lawrence Brown was born in Dunbarton, May 28, 1852, and died 
in Concord, January 24. He was educated in the common schools of his 
native town, and New London, and at Colby academy. At the age of 


eighteen Mr. Brown entered the employ of C. H. Martin & Co., wholesale 
druggists in Concord, and became thoroughly familiar with every branch of 
the business. In 1S7S he was admitted, to the firm, the name, howevef, con- 
tinuing the same as before, and this relation he maintained down to the time 
of his death. Mr. Brown was an ardent Democrat, and in 1SS1 served with 
■prominence as a member of the legislature from the town of Sutton. He 
was a member of the First Baptist church and of numerous societies. 


The Rev. Nareesse Cournoyer was born in Isle Madam, P. 0., December 
i, 1S54, and died at Berlin, January 22. He lived with his parents and 
attended school until thirteen years of age, and then entered the college at 
Sorelle. He was ordained at the Christinas ordination in 1S79. His theolo- 
gical studies were made with the Sulpicians in Montreal. After leaving 
Montreal he went to Portland, Me., under Bishop Healey. He was 
appointed pastor in North Wa]pole in 1881. He had charge of that pastor- 
ate until his appointment as pastor of St. Anne's church in Berlin in 1SS5, 
being the first resident Catholic pastor in that city, which became during his 
ministrations one of the largest in the state. 


William Leviston, a prominent business man of Enfield, died suddenly 
January 21. He was born in Sherbrooke, P. O., March 15, 1S30, and there 
his boyhood days were spent. In 184S, he went to Bradford, Yt., with his 
brother, Robert Leviston, where they engaged in the business of tanning 
hides. Since then they had constantly been associated. In 1869 they pur- 
chased the tanner}- industry in Enfield of Hiram W. Erench, which they 
continued until about ten years ago, since which time the plant had been 


Charles Nutting, a pioneer in the Concord granite trade, died in that city, 
January 15. He was born in Charleston, Yt., November 3, 1S24, and 
removed to Concord over fifty years ago, forming a partnership in the stone 
business with the late Benjamin T. Putney of West Concord. He furnished 
stone for a large number of the early buildings of Concord, and was greatly 
interested in the development of the city. 


Rufus E. Yirgin, an aged and respected citizen of P^ast Concord, died 
January 26, aged 81 years. He was a farmer by occupation, throughout a 
long and useful life. He was a staunch Democrat, and his party honored him 
by electing him representative in 1881, and member of the common council 
in i8S3-'S4. 



David Butler Ramsey, who died January 10, iu Milwaukee, Wis., was 
boru September 13. 1S29. at Greenfield, and educated in the common schools 
of his state. He was a teacher of district schools in Kentucky and Ohio ; 
deputy bank comptroller of Wisconsin from 1862-67 ; manager of the 
abstract office of Chase Brothers, Chicago," from 1S67-71. and chief examiner 
of titles for the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance company from iS7i-'99- 


Benjamin H. Piper, who died in Manchester, January 22, aged 89 years, 
3 mouths, and 25 days, was born in Wolfeborough and went to Manchester 
in 1847. Early in the '6os he entered upon the manufacture of ax handles 
and spokes and continued at the head of the business until his death. He 
was the oldest official member of St. Paul's M. E. church. 


Rev. Charles Francis Trussell died at Wilmot, January 17, as the result 
of being hooked by a cow. He was born in New London, November 18, 
1831, and was licensed as an M. E. x>reacher in 1859, being ordained in 1871. 
He was for many years pastor of the church at Wilmot. 


Hiram F. Gerrish died January 24, at the hospital of the state prison 
where he was serviug a two years' sentence for embezzlement of state funds 
while acting as deputy state treasurer, having been sentenced in October, 
1898. He was born in Boscawen, September 27, 1839, and received his edu- 
cation in the public schools of Concord. He followed clerical employment 
from early manhood, having been connected with several large business 
houses in Concord as book-keeper, cashier, etc., until his appointment as 
deputy state treasurer in June, 1S91. He was in the military service of the 
Union five years, enlisting May 11, 1861, and rising to the rank of major. 


Thomas R. Holt, member of the legislature from Pembroke, dropped dead 
in the railroad station at Epsom, January 11. He was a native of Pembroke, 
7 1- years of age, and had filled the offices of selectman and supervisor besides 
that of representative. 


William M. Hunnewell, who died in Exeter, January 17, was born in 
that town October 28, 1822. He attended the public schools, and on gradu- 
ating from the high school learned the blacksmith's trade. He established a 


factory for the manufacture of wheel spokes, ax handles, and the like, and 
during the gold fever of 1849 did a thriving business, shipping his goods to 
California. In politics, he was a Democrat, and in 1S75 he was elected 
register of deeds. He also held several other influential positions, and was 
at one time the Democratic leader in Rockingham county. In 18S5 he was 
appointed postmaster by President Cleveland and served one term. 

DR. E. F. HALE. 

Dr. Edward F. Hale, one of the. best known homeopathic physicians in 

the country, and author of a number of medical works, died at Chicago, 

January 15, after a short illness. He was born in Newport in 1S29. 



John A. Moore, deputy internal revenue collector, died in a hotel at Ber- 
lin, January 9. He was born in Lyman 52 years ago, and was engaged in 
the management of the Willey House, Crawford Notch, for some years. 
Later he was in the livery and carriage and sleigh business at Whitefield for 
a long time. He represented Wiiitefield in the legislature of 1895. 


Capt. George A. Walker of police division 12, South Boston, died Janu- 
ary 20. He was born at Strafford, December 24, 1S42, and was educated in 
the schools of West Roxbury, Mass. During the war he was connected w 7 ith 
the quartermaster-general's department at Washington, under General 
Brown, acting as inspector of forage. After the war he went to Chicago, 
engaging in the hotel business there, and afterward at Minneapolis. He 
returned to Boston, and January 5, 1S71, was appointed a member of the 
police force, being assigned to division 13 as patrolman. His career in the 
police department was a meritorious one, and rewards in the shape of pro- 
motions came to him. 


Benjamin J. Cole, who died in Lakeport, January 14, was born in 
Franconia, Sept. 2S, 18 14. When seven years of age his parents moved to 
Salisbury, where he attended the public schools and the Noyes academy, 
later attending the academy at Sanbornton. 

In 1827 he went with his father to Batchelder's Mills, now Lakeport, and 
had ever since made his home there. It was at Lakeport that his father 
established a small iron foundry, and from that came the widely-known Cole 
Manufacturing company. In 1836 Mr. Cole commenced his business career 
with his elder brothers, Isaac and John A., under the name of Cole & Co., 
and finally, in 1856, he became the sole owner, continuing as such until 
1873, when the present stock company was formed, being incorporated with 


a capital of $60,000. This business continued to increase as years went on, 
and has been one of the main stays of Lakeport. Mr. Cole was its treasurer 
for sixty-two years. He was. one of the incorporators of the Winnipiseogee 
Steamboat Company, and the Lady of the Lake was built under his direc- 
tion in 1S49. He was an incorporator, also, of the Lake Village Savings 
bank, and for many years its president. 

In politics he was a Democrat, until the breaking out of the Civil War. 
In iS62-'64 he was the Republican candidate for senator in the sixth New 
Hampshire district. He served as a member of the governor's council in 
i866-'67 and was a delegate to the National Republican convention at Balti- 
more in 1S64, which renominated President Lincoln. He was also a member 
of the constitutional convention in 1S76, and represented Gilford in the leg- 
islature in iS49-'50. 


Hon. Robert Smith Webster died at his home in Barnstead, January 17, 
aged 78 years, 2 months. He was born in Gilmanton, the son of Hon. Sam- 
uel Webster, an old time merchant and lumberman. When four years old 
his father moved to North Barnstead, where young Webster attended the 
common schools and later fitted for college at Gilmanton academy. His 
maternal grandfather, Robert Smith, Esq., of Kingston, offered to send him 
to Dartmouth college and have him study law ; but after his graduation at 
Gilmanton academy he entered his father's store and was associated with 
him in business until his father's death in 1855, when he became sole man- 
ager of their extensive business. Afterward he removed his family to Con- 
cord, while he engaged in business at Ellenburg, N. Y., where he owned 
large tracts of timber lauds, with a store, starch, and lumber mills. Later he 
moved to Massachusetts. Some ten years ago Air. Webster returned to 
Barnstead to spend the evening of his life among his old friends and neigh- 

He was a Congregatioualist in religious belief and a Democrat in politics. 
He was representative from Barnstead in i849-'5o, senator in i856-'57, and 
member of the constitutional convention in 1S50. He was a delegate to the 
Democratic national convention at Charleston, N. C, in i860. 


Dr. Frank J. Aiken died January 23, in Belmont, after a long illness of 
consumption. Dr. Aiken was a native of Barnstead. PVom Barnstead he 
removed to Pittsfield, where he practised for several years. About ten years 
ago he removed to Pitehburg, Mass., remaining two years, and from 
there lie went to Cambridge, Mass., where he conducted a drug store 
for a short time. He then removed to Everett and resumed practice, 
which he continued until last August, when failing health obliged him 
to retire. 

I30— OAf 



Solomon H. Brock died January 15, at Cambridge. Mass. He was in his 
S^d } T ear, having been born in Barrington, Feb. 14, 1S16. Mr. Brock was 
prominent in public affairs during his residence in New Hampshire. He 
was a selectman in Gorham, and was also a member of the legislature from 
that place. He was also interested in the militia, where he gained the rank 
of major. During the civil war he was recruiting officer in Portsmouth. 
He was a builder, but retired from business many years ago. He had lived 
in Cambridge for twenty-five years. He was married fifty-ei^ht vears ago. 


Dr. Leonard W. Peabody was born in Newport, Sept. 13, 1S17, and was 
educated at Kimball Union academy and the Concord Literary Institute. 
He studied medicine with Drs. Haynes of Concord and Swett of Newport 
and attended lectures at Castleton and Woodstock, Vt'., graduating in June, 
1S44. Dartmouth gave him an honorary degree in 1S67. He commenced 
practice in Henniker but removed to Epsom, where he remained until 1S71, 
when he returned to Henniker. He died in the latter town January 13. He 
was postmaster at Epsom from 1S61 to 1S71, and represented Henniker in the 
legislature in 1SS5. 

>•■ li 




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Mun>ber 3 

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NEW 1898-1899 STYLES, 

© © 

Ai^eii: >:o"i*Kr> for 



Yoo ^wlll JL«iI£«3 ci .Pre.^eott 

Because the tone is both sweet and brilliant. 

You can Afford a'.jPrescott 

Because the terms are easy and prices are reasonable. 

You will Btty a Prescotf 

As soon as you are fully aware of its merits. 
Our new Catalogue gives you further information. Write for one, or ca!f at factory, 

Ifil Xortli JVfoiix Street, 




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Tnc Granite Aontiikl 

Vol. XXVI 

MARCH, 1S99. 

No. 3, 



- * 
X ' '' 

View on trie Main R~a 



Dy R. M. Scam man. 


^qjS^jCTRQM the compact part of 
?i) fi :£']/'.; tlie cil >' of Portsmouth 
§^J SpSivcJ there is a broad high- 
0J±£^ /^. way leading directly in- 
' land. At Portsmouth 
plains it crosses .a spacious common, 
the scene of many an old time train- 
ing, and shadowed with the memory 
of the Indian massacre of 1696. It 
passes through Greenland with its 
attractive village, and entering 

of the town. Continuing to Exeter 
it connects there with a widely radi- 
ating system of highways. It is still 
distinguished in local geograph}' as 
the "main road," but in the early 
records of the colonial government it 
appears under the far more resound- 
ing title of "the king's great high- 
way." That part of the road in 
Stratham was laid out in its present 






1 --■ - ■ -.-•-•-'. 

S.vamscot River. 

form by order of the provincial gov- 
ernment in 16S1. The lower part 
was of earlier date. 

Stratham, the community on the 
"king's highway" with which this 
article has especially to do, borders 
at its northmost point on Great bay 
and looks across its waters to the 
sister towns of Newmarket, Durham. 
Greenland, and Xewington. On the 
west it follows the windings of the 
Swamscot from its entrance to the 
bay up to the mouth of Wheel- 
wright's creek where it meets the 
Kxeter line. The bay is connected 
by the Piscataqua with the Atlantic 
and both river and bay are in effect 
little more than arms of the sea, 
flowing in and out with the rise 
and fall of its tides. 

Scattered beside the river, and as 
level as its surface, are numerous 
tracts of the meadow peculiar to tide- 
waters and known as salt marshes. 
These tracts are of all sizes from an 
insignificant patch to thirty acres or 
more in extent. The river bank is 

nowhere abrupt, grassy or wooded 
slopes extending to the water's edge. 
The river itself is navigable for 
vessels of a few hundred tons, and 
is the thoroughfare of an active 
trade in coal and some other bulky 

It was much improved in 1881 
through the kindness of Uncle Sam, 
who deepened the channel, removed 
obstructions, and cut through the 
neck of land at a particularly bad 
bend, known as the roundabout, 
where the river left to its own de- 
vices traveled nearly a mile to ac- 
complish a gain of a hundred yards. 
From the river the surface of the 
town gradually rises toward the east 
and from some of the more ambitious 
elevations one can look away to the 
ocean, and oftentimes hear the roar 
of the breakers at Hampton and Rye. 
Several brooks have their sources in 
this higher ground and wind west- 
ward through field and pasture to 
the river. The largest passes 
through the center of the town, and 



having furnished motive power for 
one or two lumber mills for two 
hundred years and more, has been 
named from its occupation, the Saw- 
mill brook. 

A stream flowing across the east 
corner of the town of somewhat 
greater volume has been dignified 
with the name of Wiunicult river, 
and if, as is said, its Indian title 
signifies "pretty river," it has not 
been inaptly named. 

On the south the town is bounded 
by Exeter, on the east and north- 
east by North Hampton and Green- 

For the origin of these meets and 
bounds we must go back to March 
12, 1630, when Kdward Hilton and 
his associates received from the 
Plymouth council a grant known 
subsequently as ' the Swamscot Pat- 
ent. (This word Swamscot is vari- 
ously spelled, — a hotel at Exeter has 
it Squamscott, a map maker has it 
Squamscot, a corporation at New- 

fields writes it Swamscot. There is 
good precedent also for Ouamscott, 
Ouamescuk, and many other spell- 
ings. Experts in Indian lore claim 
to trace the word to the Indian 
phrase Wanash qui omfiskut, mean- 
ing "at the point of rock," possibly 
an allusion to the ledge at the head 
of the river.) 

The patent included territory in 
Dover and vicinity, and a strip on 
the east side of Great bay and the 
Swamscot, three miles wide and ex- 
tending as far south as the falls at 
Exeter. Associated with Hilton as 
shareholders in this enterprise but 
not as emigrants, were merchants 
of Bristol, Shrewsbury, and perhaps 
some other places. Subsequently a 
division of the grant was made 
among different groups of the share- 
holders. As a part of Bristol men's 
share there was set off a portion of 
the three mile strip referred to, be- 
ginning at Sandy point on Great 
bay and extending up the river three 

- ':RF*. ' 




^i$3r*<* '- ■■'- 

:— *• .■_... . ■ ■ . 

Mill on the Wmr.icutt Riv*i 

1 3 6 


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View on Main Road. 

Capt. Samuei S. Chase. 

miles to the mouth of Moore's creek, 
and inland the full width of the 
strip. This tract, three miles square, 
was a part of the Swamscot patent, 
but was commonly called, par excel- 
lence, "Swamscot." 

The tract from Moore's creek to 
Wheelwright's creek and extending 
inland three miles was awarded to 
Shrewsbury men, and was known 
as Shrewsbury patent. These two 
tracts, Swampscot and Shrewsbury 
patent, made up the territory that 




1 716 was chartered as Strat- 

Bristol men Swamscot was 


'-"•■'■■ ,% * - iff" ' J '~ >r^ : 


■ -v. * 


Residence of John Emery, formerly Chase's Tavern. 

The Jenness Elm. 

transferred to Capt. Thomas Wig- 
gin, an active figure in the early 
settlements, and of special interest 
to the people of Stratham. He had 
come to New England in 1631, and 
had done much to build up the 


settlement at Dover. He was sev- 
eral years in charge of the affairs 
of the Swamscot patent as agent of 
the proprietors, and was five times 
elected governor of the settlement. 
After he was succeeded by Burdet 
he gave his attention to Swamscot, 








t f. .: 

The Foss Et 

and had built a house there in 1639. 
His is the distinction of being the 
first settler of the town. A feu- 

years before his death, in 1667, he 
deeded his entire tract to his son, 
Andrew. Andrew deeded a portion 
to his brother, Thomas, and both 
made their homes here. Another 
early settler on the Wiggin tract 
was William Moore, who located 
near its southwest corner, near where 
the late Elwyn Jewell lived. 

Shrewsbury patent was held by six 
shareholders, Richard I .rcivall and 
five others, a part or all of whom 
were of Shrewsbury, England. 

Richard Scammon became part 

■ - 


Judge John Scarr.mor.. 

■A / 


John W. Chase. 





owner of the patent by virtue of a 
deed of PercivaH's share given in 
1642 and acquired the entire owner- 
ship in 1666. He settled on the 
tract in 1665, locating on the north 
side of Thompson's brook about half 
way between the main :oad and the 
river. For some years ihese four 
families made up the population of 
what is now the town. 

All were defendants in 16S4 in 

ized settlement. Our people were for 
a time rated with Kxeter. But by 
an order of the general court, in 
1657, Swamscot was taxed with 
Hampton, and continued so until 
1692, when it was again rated with 
Exeter. The connection of Shrews- 
bury patent with Exeter was without 
interruption. Its people were taxed 
there and held office there. 

When thev had reached the num- 

■ ■ . 




Amon? the Apple-Biossoms. 

..-• _-.•>■ -_-.: -~ --*■'.■ 

the suits brought by Robert Mason 
to recover possession of the province, 
and,, in common with other land- 
holders, suffered more or less from 
consequent impairment of their titles. 
Toward the close of the century 
settlers came in quite rapidly, and 
though they had no town govern- 
ment of their own they were indis- 
posed to hurry about setting one up. 
It was a custom of the time to reckon 
the inhabitants of unorganized terri- 
tory with the most convenient organ- 

ber of thirty-five families, there was 
a movement to establish a town. 
But it was not without opposition. 
Some were content to remain with 
Exeter. Quite a number believed 
the expense would be too great for 
their small number to bear. A few- 
wished to join Greenland. There 
were prayers and remonstrances, 
petitions and counter-petitions. 

It was not until March 20, 17 16, 
and they had come to number sixty 
or more families, that it was "ordered 



and appointed that Swamseot patent 
land be a township by the name of 
Stratham, and that there be a meet- 
ing house built for the public wor- 
ship of God, with all convenient 
speed . . . and that a learned 
and orthodox minister be obtained 
to preach in the same h}~ the 14th of 
March next." 

There is a tradition, and possibly 

roads were laid out, bridges con- 
structed, and all the unoccupied 
land was taken up. Gradually, in 
response to local demand, numer- 
ous little manufacturing enterprises 
sprang up. There were several tan- 
neries, notably among them, that of 
Samuel Lane, who came here from 
Hampton in 1741 and was for many 
vears one of the foremost men of 


'A. •' 5 


. . - : . 

Residence o c C. VV. VVhitcomb. 

r - - 


Residence of John L. Jeweil. 

it is true, that the name is a modi- 
fied form of the English Strcatham , 
but as adopted it is peculiar to the 
town and has never been applied 
elsewhere. Moreover, its probable 
derivation from the G relic Strath, 
signifying a vale, is most appropri- 
ate to its location in the valley of 
the Swamseot. It is uniformly pro- 
nounced Strattum. 

From the time of the charter a 
period of development began. New 

Residence of O. B. French. 

the town. This was the Deacon 
Samuel Lane whose faithfully kept 
journal, covering a period of over 
sixty years, is not only the source 
of much historical information, but 
possesses all the interest of a novel. 
There were cooper shops and tailor 
shops. William Pottle, Jr., had a 
brewery here at the time of the rev- 
olution, and Deacon Boardman tes- 
tified publicly that he made good 
ale, though he urged every patriot 



to refuse to drink it because the 
brewer was a tory. 

There were mills of various kinds. 
The Clarks, Deacon Moses and his 
son, Levi, had prosperous cloth mills 
on Winnicutt river until about 1S28. 

E. J. Foisorr.. 

The Jewells had a lumber and grist- 
mill on the same stream, and there 
was a second grist-mill owned by 
Thomas Piper. 

On Sawmill brook there was a 
sawmill and grist-mill. Major Bar- 
ker had a cloth mill, and lower down 
there was a tide mill. . There was 
also a sawmill on Thompson's brook. 
These are a few of the little enter- 
prises that existed here and were 
characteristic of the country towns 
in the days preceding the railroad 
and the large manufacturing plant. 

From the first the "king's great 
highway ' ' became a thoroughfare of 
much importance. It was the main 
artery of communication between the 
seaport and the interior. By its 
breadth and easy grade it was 

adapted to heavy traffic, and before 
the days of steam it was a busy 
road with travel of this kind. At 
certain seasons there was almost a 
continuous stream of produce-laden 
teams coining from the inland towns, 
some of them from a distance of a 
hundred miles. 

There were loads of grain, butter, 
cheese, flax products, cider, peltries, 
and sometimes of all combined. In 
times when ship-building flourished 
many a noble mast with eight or 
ten oxen attached passed on its way 
to the shipyards. 

Returning teams carried inland 
stocks of West India goods and 
store supplies of many descriptions. 

The old highway was frequented 
by the royal colonial governors from 
the time of the impecunious and 
unscrupulous C ran field to the days 
when the stately equipages of the 
Wentworths graced its course. It 
was familiar to the young Webster 
as he went from his home in Ports- 
mouth to the courts at Exeter. 


g*£C3 V A 


- / - - 

Residence of E. J. Fclsom. 

There were also scenes of a more 
stirring nature, as when the gather- 
ing troops marched down in 1745 
on their victorious way to Louis- 
burg; when the minute-men gath- 
ered for the defense of Portsmouth 



in 1775, and again when the militia 
responded to the alarm of 1814. But 
perhaps a more significant incident 
from a historical standpoint than any 
of these, took place on the morning 
of Nov. 4. 1789, when President 

Residence o r Miss Ida O. Foisom. 

Washington in drab surtout and mil- 
itary hat, and accompanied by two 
or three attendants, passed on his 
way through New Kngland. There 
may have been richer equipages and 
more imposing retinues, but none of 
greater import than this little com- 
pany whose presence was a visible 
proclamation of the dominant fact of 
the time that the new order of affairs 
in the nation was an accomplished 

That was the golden age of the 
country tavern, and they did a 
flourishing business down the "king's 
highway." The taverns themselves 
were modest establishments enough, 
often little more than a large farm 
dwelling with one front room ar- 
ranged for reception purposes. They 
were conducted without formality or 
pretense. The table was plain, sub- 
stantial, and abundant. They were 
generally orderly, well-managed 
houses and popular with their 

The tavern-keeper was a jolly pro- 
duct of the time and by no means the 

least interesting feature of his estab- 
lishment. His manners were demo- 
cratic. His rotund form proclaimed 
his good fare. His cheery welcome 
brought custom. It was money in his 
till if he had a fund of ready jokes 
and jolly stories to put his guest in a 
happy mood, and make his sta} r a 
pleasant one. And the jokes and 
stories were always forthcoming. The 
ideal tavern-keeper was less a polite 
landlord than a friend with a kindly 
interest for all. His relations with his 
guests were so intimate that his per- 
sonality more than any thing else 
made the reputation of his house. 
Xews then circulated largely through 
travelers and he became a repository 
of information about markets, current 




• v'r 



. ., $♦* 


Benlamin Franklin Foisom. 

events, etc. This made him a per- 
son of additional consideration in the 

The patrons were usually as demo- 
cratic as their host. Though stran- 
gers they fraternized like brothers. 



\ - r 

with gin, brandy, W. I. ruin, and 
whiskey. Rum punch was con- 
cocted for those who wished. Flip 
was a popular drink. It was " made 
of home brewed beer, sugar, and a 
liberal dash of Jamaica rum, and was 
mixed with a great iron stirring stick 
which was heated in the fire until 
red hot, and then thrust in the 
liquid." Cider was abundant as its 
manufacture was then the main use 
of the apple crop, but it was regarded 
rather as a domestic beverage, and 
was little sold. 

A curious thing about the old 
tavern liquors is the very compli- 

Each was expected to talk freely of 
himself, whence he came, his desti- 
nation and business. To be reserved 
or to give evasive replies was to be 
an object of suspicion. They made 
themselves at home like guests of the 
family, and were not expected to 
murmur overmuch at sharing a bed 
with one or even two fellow-travelers 
if the house was crowded. This 
accommodating spirit enabled the 
taverns to entertain a number of 
guests seemingly out of all propor- 
tion to their size. If there was room 
on the floor no comer was refused 
admission if he wished to stay. 
The tavern bar was equipped 



Residence of E. J. Ba 


p3y k/£* 

• ,.... 

Residence of John J. Scammon. 

mentary reputation they have left. 
Testimony is abundant that the 
pleasure of their acquaintance had 
no sequel of sorrow. Apparently 
they shared the tavern-keeper's own 
kindly disposition toward his fellows, 
and if in reality they ever were en- 
dowed with headaches and other 
nerve shattering propensities, it is a 
fact long since forgiven and for- 

One-armed Ben Leavitt probably 
set up the first tavern in town. This 
was some distance south of the Con- 
gregational church. On plea of his 
missing limb he secured permission 
from the government in 17 19 to sell 




•■' Bpaai 

liquor without a license. He occu- 
pied himself variously as tavern- 
keeper, selectman, schoolmaster, etc. 
But Chase's was by far the most 
noted of the old taverns. This was 
kept in the house now owned by 
John Emery, though the original 
house was considerably larger, an 
addition on the north end having 
been taken down many years ago. 
The successive proprietors, Thomas 
Chase, his widow, Love Chase, and 
their son, Maj. Dudley L. Chase, 
were all excellent entertainers, and 
built up a reputation for their house. 
It had almost an official character. 
Town meetings were occasionally 
held there. The selectmen made it 
their headquarters for the trans- 
action of town business, and gravely 
entered in the town accounts the 
number of mugs of flip they drank, 
not having learned the scope of that 
gentle euphemism "expenses." At 
election time, the house was a center 




Highland Cottage. 

of political activity, and did a rush- 
ing business. Would-be local states- 
men became unwontedly generous, 
and on election day the successful 
candidate for legislative honors was 
expected to "stand treat" for every- 

There was never a more genial 
landlord than Maj. Dudley Chase. 
He w T as fond of music and played 
the flute with skill. He had brought 
a fund of stories out of the variegated 
experiences into which his adven- 
turous spirit had led him, and was 
a most entertaining companion. He 
had roughed it about the world as a 




Residence of W. H. Lang. 

sailor. He had ardently embraced 
the cause of the revolution. He 
entered the sendee as a company 
fifer, aud had come out of the re- 
treat from Ticonderoga in a some- 
what dilapidated condition. His 
soldierly qualities had, however, at- 
tracted notice. He was commis- 
sioned in the continental service in 
October, 1776, and won thereafter 
repeated promotions. He resigned 
and left the army in 1780, bearing 
on his person the indelible badge of 
a soldier's honor. 

In after years he was the life of 
the company that gathered in the 
public room of his tavern. But 
with all his kindly qualities he never 
was widely celebrated for slowness of 



temper. Especially if any one ques- 
tioned the correctness of his poli- 
tical views there was sure to be 
a storm. Among those who fre- 
quented the tavern was Gapt, George 
March, a most stubborn Tory dur- 
ing the war, and unrepentant ever 
after, and hardly less excitable than 
Chase himself. Any chance allusion 
to politics was likely to bring on a 
wordy combat between the two old 
partisans. Both were so crippled as 

The late Capt. Samuel S. Chase of 
this town was a grandson of Major 
Dudley. He was for many years a 
resident of Boston, and was a noted 
tenor singer and musical conductor. 
For forty years or more he was con- 
nected with the Handel and Haydn 
society. He inherited all those rare 
qualities of heart that distinguished 
his family. 

Another grandson, John W. Chase 
of this town, served in the First Mas- 




.; --. 




James Scamm( 

to leave their chairs with difficulty 
but as the dispute grew hot they 
brandished their canes at each other 
and the epithets — Rebel and Tory — 
were furiously hurled back and forth 
to the great amusement of the com- 
pany that, knowing the rumpus 
would end in perfect good feeling, 
had quite likely started them at it in 
the first place. 

Both March and Chase died in the 
early part of the present century, 
March in 1812, Chase in 1815. 

sachusetts Artillery in the Civil War, 
and for meritorious service was suc- 
cessively promoted through various 
grades to a lieutenancy. After the 
war he served man}- years as captain 
on the Boston police force. 

Jonathan Wiggin set up a tavern 
at the lower ferry in 1721. There 
was another at D. C. Jewell's place. 
Ezra Corson kept in the present 
post-office building, and later in the 
house next south of the Congrega- 
tional church. There were at differ- 



ent tinies quite a number of others, 
the last beiug Kenniston's that was 
kept in the tenement house now be- 
longing to Mrs. Dorothy Veasey. 
Kenniston's was well liked, and the 
owner gathered a comfortable com- 

But the taverns and the little 
manufacturing enterprises were alike 
transitory. As long ago as the early 
fifties, two old ladies at the Kermis- 
ton place selling homemade currant 

the inland towns no longer passes 
over it, but its popularity is scarcely 
diminished. Its bioad and well-kept 
road-bed, the shade of its giant elms, 
the activity of the communities it 
links together, its surroundings that 
yearly grow more attractive, combine 
to make it a famous thoroughfare. 

But above all things it is as a 
farming town that the history of 
Stratham is to be written. Its water- 
power is insignificant. It has no es- 


Payson Merrill. 

wine, represented all that was left 
of the tavern business. Even that 
soon stopped. Public convenience 
no longer required the roadside tav- 
ern, adverse public sentiment sup- 
pressed the bar, and neither has 
since existed in the town. There 
are yet three of the old-time mills, — 
picturesque relics of other times and 
different conditions. 

The coming of the railroads 
brought some change of function to 
the " king's highway" ; the traffic of 



. 1 

Cha f 'es 'E. Merrill. 

pecial advantage of commercial loca- 
tion, but for agricultural purposes 
nature has dealt with it very gen- 
erously. Robert Mason paid it the 
compliment of selecting it as the 
place where he shonld set up his 
personal estate in the event of es- 
tablishing his claim to the province. 
Its land is of exceptional fertility. 
Situated in "rock-bound New Eng- 
land," it has no acre too stony for 
the plow. In "mountainous New 
Hampshire" it has no hillside too 


dance than any other town in the 
state," a pre-eminence that, area 
considered, it may still claim with 
reasonable assurance. Its apple crop 
| the present year found its market 
fc: | from London to Denver. Peaches, 

\ '"" . j formerly abundant, were later aban- 

doned on account of disease, but 
are again being grown with suc- 

The culture of the strawberry for 
market was taken up here as a busi- 
ness about forty years ago. As a 
crop it has steadily grown in popu- 
larit}-, and man}' are now cultivating 
it on an extensive scale. Already it 
is claimed the acreage exceeds that 
George a. wiggin. of potatoes. In the hands pf our 

skilful growers the Stratham berry 
steep for cultivation. Farm niachin- has been kept at a high standard, 
ery finds it adapted to its amplest and has acquired a distinctly favor- 
use. Every fruit and vegetable of able reputation of its own in the 
the latitude finds its soil congenial. market. 

Perhaps, too, the town has been Beef long ago became merely an 
no less fortunate in the thrift of its incidental product, and from that 
people and to the readiness with time the bulk of the hay and forage 
which they have conformed their crops have found their way to mar- 
farming to changing conditions, ket via the milk can. Daily five two- 
When the West halved the price of horse teams secure the whole or a 
beef and grain, they turned to the considerable part of their leads here, 
production of fruit, and of those One load goes to the New Hamp- 
bulky or perishable pro- 
ducts that are ill adapted 
to distant transportation 
Nowhere can an apple 
be raised more cheaply 
or that is superior, either 
in flavor or shipping and 
keeping qualities, and a 
portion of every farm is 
devoted to its culture. 
As long ago as 1856, 
Charlton' s Gazetteer 
credits this town with 
raising " fruit of all 

kinds in greater abun- Residence of George A. Wrgj 



I " -<w- 

Lettuce-House of Geoige E. Gowen. 

shire College creamer}', the others to 
the Boston market. 

J. G. Barnard, J. E. Chase, J. W. 
Berry, and W. G. Parkman are en- 
gaged in the retail milk trade. 

There are many that are engaged 
in general farming that have been 
influential in building up the town. 

Charles X. Healey has for many 
years made a specialty of pnre-bred 
Ayrshire stock and has built up a 
fine herd of pure bred animals. He 
has one of the largest farms in 
town, and has served as member of 
the constitutional convention and in 
various town offices. , George A. 
Wiggin has been a very successful 
handler of grade stock, is also in- 
terested in insurance business, is 
director of the Portsmouth Savings 
bank, and has served as representa- 
tive, etc. 

On the estate of the late Charles 
W. Jones attention is given to pure 
bred Holsteins, and they have a 
large herd of pedigree stock which 
the late owner bred with much care. 

As an expert in developing fancy 

xxvi— 10 

oxen, Isaac S. Wig- 
gin has few equals. 
His oxen have gone 
mostly to the Brigh- 
ton market, and 
dealers there have 
pronounced his Here- 
fords the finest they 
ever handled. Mr. 
Wiggin has taken 
an active interest in 
town affairs, and has 
had much influence 
in shaping town pol- 
icy. He has served 
many years as select- 
man and as a mem 
ber of the legislature 
in 1881-82. 

The venerable Ezra Barker, now 
in his 96th year, did much in his 
earlier years to popularize apple and 
peach culture, introducing new and 
improved varieties of fruit. Finan- 
cial ly he has been one of the most 








George E. Wiggin 




Alike entitled to mention are such 
men as Dewitt C. Jewell, John J. 
Scammon, George W. Chase, O. 

B. French., H. Gordon Martin, 
Henry S. Lane, E. J. Stockbridge, 

C. H. Thompson, James W. Rol- 
lins, Albert X. Rollins, A. E. Jewell, 



Ezra Ba.Kei 


successful farmers in the town or 
state. He has never meddled with 
public affairs, always living in the 
unpretentious manner of his early 
years, and cultivating his farm with 
the same care even when his annual 
income from its invested profits far 
exceeded the entire value of his 

John X. Thompson, representative- 
elect, director o[ the Union Savings 
bank of Exeter and of the Exeter 
Banking Co., is another excellent 
citizen who ha^ won success by 
careful and sagacious management. 



Residence of Mr;. VVrn. Les'er. 

Willie L. Barker. 

I. N. Stockbridge, J. P. Chase, Fred 
L. Jewell, S. M. Pearson, B. S. Jen- 
ness, E. M. C. Lane, E. B. Chase, 
Benaiah Wiggin, Henry L. Jewell, 
W. L. Barker, S. Dame, and others. 
Especially prominent as fruit farms 
are those of J. C. Piper, H. G. Mar- 
tin, J. J. Lane estate, Levi Barker 
estate, and H. V. Smith. 

No business in town has devel- 
oped more rapidly in recent years 
than market gardening. The work 
is exacting, and the products are 
as varied as the list in the seed cata- 
logue, but it is uniformly profitable. 
John Emery was the first in town to 
establish the business in its modern 
form, and he tantalizes the younger 



men with stories of the days when 
strawberries brought 40 cents and 
more per box, and the present 10 
cent melon sold for half a dollar. 
His son, J. Fred Emery, now con- 
ducts their business. He is a popu- 
lar citizen, is collector of taxes, and 
is prominent in the Order of Red 
Men, having occupied the highest 
chair in the state lodge of the order. 
George E. Gowen is one of our 
foremost market gardeners. In ad- 
dition to his field operations he has 
a large area under glass in his green- 
house and hot beds. He is a dili- 
gent student of the business, and is a 
recognized authority in every branch. 
He also employs fifteen or twenty 



Residence of Mrs. C. W. Jones 

ing and gardening 011 an extensive 
scale, and is winning deserved suc- 
cess. He is also a buyer and ship- 
per of fruit. In grange work he has 
been active, and is lecturer and past 
master of Winnieutt Grange. 

The market gardeners are among 
onr most active citizens, and include 
VV. II. Lang, M. G. Roberts, George 
W. Dixon, Chapman Brothers, John 
W. Marsh, John S. Scammon, F. H. 
Pearson, William Roby, and others. 
A. H. Cragg has several greenhouses 
devoted to raising cut flowers and 
budding plants. 


Cnarles W. Jones. 

hands evaporating apples, in the sea- 
son working up from ten to twenty 
thousand bushels. 

Among the younger men no one 
has evinced greater pluck and enter- 
prise than James C. Piper. He has 
taken up all branches of fruit grow- 

%LKtk-khj-^ J~.-> 

Dar.;e: W. J< 




SchooUHouse on Div. No. 

in Distance. 

Of our citizens engaged in other 
callings, C. W. Healey is a success- 
ful civil engineer, graduated from 
Dartmouth in 1SS1, and is now on 
the staff of the Atlantic & Danville 
railroad with headquarters at Nor- 
folk, Va. 

John Scammon, recently admitted 
to the bar, has an office at Exeter. 

George H. Odell, merchant, deals 
in hardware, groceries, and a large 
variety of miscellaneous goods. Ed- 
gar X. Smith, postmaster, does a 
general grocery business. E. B. 
Jewell deals in grain. J. T. Smart 
and M. G. Roberts buy and ship 
fruit, produce, etc. 

At the stock farm of Waldo T. 
Pierce (formerly the Caleb Wiggin 

place) attention is given wholly to 
producing the very best type of pure- 
bred trotting horse. There are now 
twent5' horses and colts here, and 
among them are some noted animals. 
This is the home of " Patronage/' 
sire of " Alix," whose record of 
2.03 3-4 is the world's best record 
by the trotting horse. Alix is now 
the property of Hon. F. C. Sayles 
of Pawtucket, R. I. Perhaps Mr. 
Pierce's favorite is " Alcidalia," an 




Rld^e School 

eight years old winner of twenty- 
three races and purses to the amount 
of $19,150. 

The Riverside stock farm, Charles 
W. Whitcomb, proprietor, has a still 
larger stock of horses. Among them 
" Woodbrino " is most noted. 

This sketch would not be com- 
plete without some account of our 
aged citizens who wear their years 
so gracefully. On no one does 
age sit more lightly than on Mrs. 
Thomas Tuttle, now nearing her 
io2d year. Ezra Barker has been 
already mentioned. Nathan Adams, 
son of Lieut. John Adams, an officer 
in the Revolution, is also in his 96th 
year. While such men as Dea. E. 
M. C. Lane, David P. Batchelder, 
and Maj. John O. Wiggin, being 
merely octogenarians, would very 
likely object to being classed as aged. 



Major Wiggin is especially active, 
and takes as loyal an interest in his 
native town as when, nearly sixty 
years ago, he entered on a long ser- 
vice as a town official. 


A leading reason urged by the 
people in their petition for a town 
charter was their desire for a school, 
and they promptl}- hired a teacher 
and started one even before they 
had a school-house. Probably it was 
kept in private houses. In 1733 two 
school-houses were erected, the first 
in town. Both were on the main 
road, one ''on the south side of 
Joshua Hills" corresponding to the 
present lower school, the other, "near 
the mouth of Jonathan Chase's lane.' ! 


Plains Schboi. 

This was over half a mile south of 
the present Ridge school. 

The new school-houses were neither 
extravagant nor luxurious. Richard 
Calley found material and built them 
for /?20 apiece. Evidently they had 
no fear of rounded shoulders or sym- 
pathy for feeble backs, for the seats 
were plain benches, backless and 
deskless. They did have what they 
called a "writing table," where the 
scholars learned to wield the goose 

"** y " • 

■•-■■■ of 


Comer of Libiary. 

quill pen. If there were blackboards 
they are unmentioned. Joshua Hill 
put in the whole equipment of furni- 
ture for £1, 1 os. 

In 1761 it was voted to build two 
more school-houses and have one in 
the center of each quarter of the 
town, but the next year they con- 
cluded to let each quarter build its 
own. The four school arrangement 
dates from that time. 

The first teacher mentioned is 
Samuel Goodhue. For some years 
he had a monopoly of the teaching, 
for the terms were short, and he 
taught different parts of the year 
in different districts. This was a 
frequent practice for many years. 
Among other early teachers or mas- 
ters, as they called them, were Dud- 
ley Leavitt, John Janvrin, Theoph- 
ilus Smith, and John Bass. But 
of all the old-time masters the 
most popular, judging from length 

• - 

■. ("■• • 



i . . **----,iihi.«.i.- — ~ . 

Residence of Mrs. Samuel S. Sm.clai 



of service, was Lawrence Dowling. 
He taught here almost continu- 
ously from 1756 to 17S5. Not much 
is known of his history, but every 
tradition speaks highly of him as a 
teacher. He is said to have been a 

1 gSSSr 




Residence of W.J. ParKman. 

Catholic in religion. If this be true, 
is an added compliment to him that 
he retained his position so long in a 
community almost exclusively Prot- 

There are many among the old- 
time masters whose services deserve 
commemoration, for though the work 
of him "who hath wrought on the 
mind" be more durable than "brass 
or marble," the fame of the school- 
master is, nevertheless, sadly ephem- 
eral. In the winter terms many 
large boys or young men attended 
that often were little given . to self- 
restraint, and a successful school- 
master was necessarily a man of no 
mean ability. Shortly after the Rev- 
lution' such sturdy spirits as Col. 
Mark Wiggin, Maj. Peter Coffin of 
Kxeter, and Capt. Nicholas P^ollins, 
all of whom had won their titles in 
the war, were employed here as 
teachers, and evidently regarded the 
subjugation of a district school as a 
task not unworthy of their mettle. 

There have been other men of 
note among our teachers, such as 

Phinehas Merrill, the surveyor and 
author, John Scammon, later Judge 
of Court of Common Pleas, Daniel 
Clark, afterward U. S. senator, and 
Daniel W. Jones, for many years 
principal of the Lowell School, Bos- 

The woman teacher first appeared 
in Strath-am schools in 17S0, in the 
person of Dea. Edward Taylor's wife. 
After that women generally taught 
the summer terms, and for the last 
twenty 3'ears their monopoly of the 
teacher's desk throughout the year 
has been scarcely disputed. 

Of the present teachers, Miss 
King, Miss Hayes and Miss Jame- 
son are non-residents. Miss Flor- 
ence M. Rollins, a recent graduate 
of Wellesley and a promising young- 
teacher, is of this town, as is Mrs. 
H. H. Leavitt, a talented soprano 
singer and musical instructor, who 
teaches music in all the schools. 

Stratham has uniformly put capa- 
ble men in charge of its public 
affairs, and they have been con- 


. . - z\ - 



Residence of George H Odei!. 

ducted with integrity and skill. Its 
expenditures have been liberal but 
not extravagant. It abhors debt and 
saddles the future with no bond issue 
to pay for present improvements. At 
the close of the Civil War the town's 



indebtedness amounted to something 
over $32,000. Since that time it has 
built new all its public buildings, en- 
larging or purchasing new lots for 
them, established a library, and in- 
curred numerous expenses for minor 



Residence of H. Gordon Martin. 

purposes. The war debt was wiped 
out seventeen years ago. and the town 
has ever since been uniformly with- 
out indebtedness. The total expense 
on account of the war and improve- 
ments amounted to nearly one hun- 
dred dollars per capita of the popula- 
tion. The state in its efforts to re- 
populate abandoned farms has found 
none of that kind within our limits. 
The number of houses has increased 
steadily, though population for a 
time diminished because the average 
size of families became less, and 
because farm machinery supplanted 
farm employes. Financially it does 
not suffer by comparison with com- 
munities elsewhere, or that are de- 
voted to different industries, its 
valuation per capita being equalled 
by few towns or cities in New Hamp- 
shire. Its wealth, moreover, is of its 
own creation without interposition of 
corporation or non-resident favor. 

The members of the present board 
of selectmen are Emmons B. Chase, 
Joseph T. Smart, and Benaiah Wig- 

Its library contains an excellent 
collection of works of history and 
general literature, as well as of books 
that are of more immediate interest 
to the townspeople, and the number of 
books read in proportion to the popu- 
lation compares favorably with most 
city libraries. George K. Gowen is 
chairman, and F. A. Caverly is sec- 
retary of the board of trustees. 

Its proximity to several noted acad- 
emies, seminaries, and high schools 
has led the town to avail itself of 
this convenience, and to settle upon 
the policy of expending its entire 
school fund for the development of 
its regular schools to the highest 
possible standard. They are of the 
best. Free text-books were fur- 
nished in advance of its require- 
ment by statute. The schoolhouses 
are all of modern type and recent 
construction, surrounded with spa- 
cious play-grounds, fully equipped 
with reference books and apparatus, 
and embody some of the latest and 

mm ■ 11 

■ ■' 

Residence of Charies N. Healey. 

best devices for heating, lighting, 
and ventilation. 

Schools are maintained three full 
terms per year, and the pupils enter 
advanced schools abreast of any of 
their age. 

The members of the school board 



Paine Wingate, U. S. senator, 
i7S9~'93. Member of congress, 
I 793~'94- Judge of superior court, 

Josiab Bartlett, meinber of congress, 
i8n- , i3. State senator, 1824-' 25. 

Noah Piper, county treasurer. 1833. 

James Foss, state senator, 1847—48. 

John Scammon, judge of court of 
common pleas, 1853-' 55. 


Albert C Li 

are George A. Wiggin, John J. 
Smart, and Mrs. A. K. Jewell. 

Albert C. Lane efficiently serves 
as clerk and treasurer of both town 
and school district, and his years of 
service attest his popularity. 

Strath am men who have held other 
than town offices include : 

Andrew Wiggin, speaker of pro- 
vincial assembly, 172S-1744. Judge 
of superior court, 1729— '30. 

Residence of J. T. Smart. 

Josiah B. Wiggin, register of deeds, 
1845, i850-'5i. 

B. D. Laighton, register of deeds, 

Joseph C. A. Wingate, U. S. con- 
sul to Swaton, 1863 to 1865, and at 
Foochow, iSSo-'Sg. 

R. M. Scammon, state senator, 



v .: 


. 1 

m 1 



Residence of Henry S. Lane. 

Lane Sawmnl. 



Among the more eminent clergy- 
men in the town's history have been 
Rev. James Miltimore, pastor of the 
Congregational church. 1785—1807. 
Dr. Samuel Shepard, who was set- 
tled as pastor of the Baptist church, 
1771, and preached man}- years after, 
and Rev. Xoah Piper, first pastor of 
the Christian church. 

Especially eminent among the phy- 
sicians are the names of Dr. Josiah 
Bartlett, Jr., who died in 1853, and 
Dr. George H. Odell, who died here 
April 24, 1S71. 

Even* New England town regards 
it as a part of its function to fur- 
nish men for the upbuilding of the 
rest of the nation. A part of Strat- 
ham's contribution has been such 
men as Daniel Clark, born here Oct. 
24, 1809, graduated from Dartmouth 
1834, admitted to the bar 1S37, 
practised in Manchester. Served as 

7*> ■«> !•-««• t-9^m^.---r~i 






Residence cf J C A Wingate. 

U. S. senator, 1856-' 66, afterwards 
Judge of U. S. circuit court until his 
death, Jan. 2, 1S91. 

Richard Upton Piper, born April 
3 V 1S1G, graduated at Dartmouth, 
1840. Studied medicine and was a 
resident of Chicago and other places. 
Was an expert microscopist, and an 
author of medical works. Published 
his "Operative Surgery," 1S52; ''Sur- 
gical Anatomy," 1855, and later sev- 
eral miscellaneous works. 


J. C. A. Wingate. 

Edmund J. Folsom. born 181 7, 
came to Stratham with his parents 
when about two years of age. In 
early life he learned the leather busi- 
ness, but abandoned it in 1849 to 


> I 


Joseph T. Sma^t. 



try his fortune in California. Some 
years later he came east and became 
a partner of his brother in the firm 
B. F. Folsom & Co. of Boston and 
Philadelphia. His subsequent his- 
tory is identified with the success of 
that firm. He died at his winter res- 
idence in Boston, Jan. 25, 1S99. 

Benjamin Franklin Folsom was 
born at Stratham, 1S25. Gradu- 
ated from Phillips Exeter Academy, 
He engaged in early life in vari- 
ous business enterprises, but finally 
formed with his brothers the firm B. 

building up the firm of Jas. R. Hill 
& Co., makers of the celebrated Con- 
cord harness. Mr. Emery is now 
general manager of the firm and has 
his home at Concord, N. H. 

Payson Merrill, born Dec. 7, 1842, 
graduated from Yale, 1S65, is senior 
member of the firm of Merrill, Rogers 
& Co., lawyers of New York. 

James Scammon, born June 10, 
1844, graduated Brown University, 

1568, Albany Law school, 1S70, is 
senior member of the firm Scam- 
mon, Mead & Stubenrauch, lawyers 
of Kansas City. 

Charles E. Merrill, born Feb. 26, 
1848, graduated from Dartmouth, 

1569. He and his brother, Edwin 
C, are members of the firm of pub- 

Residence of George W. Dixon. 

F. Folsom 6c Co., and embarked 
in gold mining in Yenezuela, and 
the importation of South American 
guano. The firm won brilliant finan- 
cial success, and its members were 
rated in the millions. Benjamin F. 
died at Stratham", March, 1894. He 
and his brothers, Edmund J. and 
Peter W., were actively interested 
in the town, and gladly took part 
in its development. They were fine 
types of sturdy, sagacious business 
men . 

John H. Home, of J. H. Home & 
Sons, manufacturers of paper mill 
machinery, of South Lawrence, Mass., 
is another successful Stratham boy. 

George H. Emery, born May 12, 
1836, engaged in harness manufac- 
turing, and was a leading spirit in 


« • •• 

Residence of H. H. Leavitt. 

lishers, Mayuard, Merrill & Co. of 
New York. 

John E. Young, born Jan. 26, 
1855, graduated from Dartmouth, 
187s. Studied law and was ap- 
pointed judge of supreme court, 
1898. He resides at Exeter. 


"The value of a library to the 
community was recognized by the 
people of Stratham long before its 
maintenance was regarded as prop- 
erly a function of the town. It is 
not easy to say when the first library 



was established. There is a tradi- 
tion that the town received one as a 
gift when it was chartered. This 
may have been the case, but if so 
it appears strange that there should 
be nowhere any allusion to it in the 
town records. The people did, how- 
ever, quite early establish associa- 
tion libraries, through which they 
secured most of the essential benefits 
of the modern public library. The 
first of these of which the records 
still exist, was organized Dec. 10, 
r 793> by Nathan Wiggin, Eiiphalet 

Residence of J. N. Thjrrpson. 

Merrill, John Dearborn, and seven- 
teen others. Each member paid six 
shillings entrance fee and two shil- 
lings each year thereafter. John 
Dearborn was chosen librarian, and 
the books were kept at his house. 
Apparently there was- then, "or had 
been recently, another library in 
town, as they called' theirs 4 The 
Stratham New Library.' Six years 
later they voted to have their library 
incorporated, and very likely at the 
same time united with some similar 
body, as they called it thereafter 
the ' Stratham Union Library.' This 
institution had a useful and prosper- 
ous career, and was running as late 
as 1822, but it was finally closed and 
the books divided among the various 
members. Many of the books are 

still to be found in private collections 
about the town. It is evident from 
the specimens that exist that very 
little light literature was tolerated 
in those early libraries. The books 
were uniformly of a substantial 
and useful character, and were well 
bound in the brown leather covering 
common in those days. 

" A similar association was formed 
Jan. 1, 1S63, under the name of the 
' Stratham Athenaeum. ' The leading 
spirits in this movement were Rev. 
Edward C. Miles, Mrs. Samuel J. 
Sinclair, Mrs. Charles N. Healey, 
Mrs. Eleanor Brewster, Annie M. 
Wiggin, Antoinette A. Bartlett, 
Sarah Yeaton, Nellie S. Thomp- 
son, Deborah L. Jewett, and Mark 

■ - - • - 

Residence of D. C. Jewel!. 

Young. The books were kept at 
the Congregational parsonage and 
the pastor acted as librarian. The 
Athemeum continued active about 
thirty years, its list of member- 
ship including sixty different names 
and its library grew to 600 volumes. 
The books are now stored at the 

11 The present town library was an 
outgrowth of an organization called 
the ' Literary and Social Union,' 
which was started in November, 
1876, through the efforts of the late 
James H. Diman. This society met 









£*&fc:£l . 

Congregational Church 

every week in the winter season 
during the following two years. A 
fair was held in the spring of 1S7S, 
from which a considerable sum was 

11 The money was expended in the 
purchase of books. Man}- volumes 
were donated by friends of the move- 
ment, and the library thus formed 
was placed in the charge of trustees, 
and located in the store of J. S. Staples. 
The number of books was increased 
from time to time by the net proceeds 
from entertainments and by gifts. 

P5I *v n 




fe&a. d>& 

■ _A ... 

Baptist Cnurcp. 

*' In 1891 the town voted to accept 
the Union Library, which had been 
tendered to it by the trustees, and ap- 
propriated one hundred dollars for its 
benefit. The library was continued 
in the same location until 1S97, when 
a room was fitted up for its use in the 
town hall, thus providing pleasant 
and commodious quarters. In 1S96 
the library was made free and re- 
ceived one hundred dollars worth of 
books from the state. The collec- 
tion now numbers 1,200 volumes." 




Interior of the Cong-egational Church. 

The town has three churches. 
They have an interesting history, 
but the limits of this article permit 
only a bare outline. The Congre- 
gational dates from the time of the 
charter, its first house of worship 
being built immediately thereafter. 
This was replaced by a new build- 
ing in 176S, and that in turn by the 
present one in 1837. All occupied 
substantially the same lot. 

The first Baptist church was 
erected June, 1771. Its location was 
15 or 20 rods west of the Wingate 
grist mill on a road since discon- 
tinued. This society became dor- 
mant early in the present century. 
The Christian society was organized 
in 1812. Many of the Baptists affil- 
iated with it and the Baptist house 



was moved to the lot of the present 
Christian church, and occupied by 
the new society. About 1S35 a 
Baptist society was again organized, 
and its' present church was erected. 
About 1S40 the original Baptist 
chinch was sold and moved away, 
and the Christian society built its 
present house. The interiors of both 
the Congregational and Christian 
houses have been remodelled within 
a few years. Rev. Geo. A. Foss is 
pastor of the Congregational, Rev. 
D. A. Boatright of the Christian. 
The Baptist at present has no reg- 
ular supply: 


In early days the quantity of fish 
in the Swamseot and neigh boring- 
rivers was something prodigious. If 


Interior of tfte Ghf Bti'an Crjrc-.. 

now equalled anywhere, it is by 
those rivers of the Pacific slope- 
where, at certain seasons, the fish 
are said to crowd one another from 
the water. Insignificant as was the 
province in 1678, Robert Mason 
claimed that it then exported 20,000 
quintals of fish per annum, and even 
this was but an item compared with 
the quantity used at home for other 
purposes. The settler copied the In- 
dian in using fish, and especially the 
alewive, to manure the land. The 


* ■ • 

Cnnstian Cnurcn. 

expression "fishing the land," met 
in early papers, refers to this prac- 
tice. Weedon's " Social and Kco- 
nomical History of New England," 
says fish speedily became the. plant- 
er's chief fertilizer, and that it was 
the practice to dress the land with 
them every three years to maintain 
its fertility. A condition of the con- 
tract with the minister in a neigh- 
boring town was, that each year so 
many acres of the parsonage land 
should be "fished." The leading 
varieties found were salmon, striped 
bass, perch, alewives, smelts, and 

Fishing still receives considerable 
attention on the Swamseot. The 
salmon long since disappeared. The 
striped bass is yet found (a forty- 

Property of the Christian Society. 





Fish-Weir on the Swamscot. 

.. _.._ •■ 

pounder was taken the past summer) 
but it is not plentiful. Perch are 
common ; the alewive, smelt, and 
eel are abundant. Though these 
have not a high reputation as game 
fish, they command a ready market, 
and those engaged in their pursuit 
find it no less fascinating and prob- 
ably more profitable than the pur- 
suit of the gamier fish, and the 
degree of skill required to handle 
successfully even the prosaic appear- 
ing eel spear is best realized by 
the novice after trial. Ale wives are 
taken in April, May, and June by 
means of seines and weirs. They 
are cured and sent to the West 
Indies and other southern markets. 
J. S. Brewster of this town and his 
partner shipped upward of seven 
hundred barrels the past season. 


The Swamscot was long an awk- 
ward barrier to travel between the 
seaport and portions of the interior. 
For man}' it was a long detour to 
reach the crossing at the head of the 
river. A ferry was established by 
Richard Hilton, near Newfields vil- 
lage, in 1700, and it was so great 
a public convenience that Jonathan 

Wiggin was authorized to have a 
second near the site of the present 
bridge in 1721. They were known 
respectively as the upper and lower 
ferries, but neither had boats large 
enough to carry loaded teams, and 
the inconvenience to travel was but 
partially overcome. 

In 1746 people in Portsmouth, 
Stratham, Xewmarket, and other 
interested places sought permission 
to build a bridge near the lower 
ferry. But though they proposed 
to raise the necessary funds by 
subscription, the project met with 
strenuous opposition. Exeter, see- 
ing in it a serious menace to her 
interests, held a town meeting and 
appointed a committee of three lea*d- 



A Catch of A'ewsves 



ing citizens to frame a remonstrance 
against it. The proposed bridge 
was to be provided with a draw, but 
they urged that it would still be 
such a hindrance to navigation that 
it would destroy their commerce and 
the ship-building industry, which 
was then considerable, that it would 
also deter the bass from coming 
up river. Others feared its support 
would become a province charge 
and would be an onerous burden. 
Kingston voted unanimously against 
it, and deputized Jedediah Philbrick 
to oppose the passage of the bill. 
Jeremiah Fogg and 63 others of Ken- 
sington petitioned against it. Amos 
Leavitt and 61 Hampton Falls men 
opposed it. Sixty Kpping men pro- 
tested. Fast Kingston voted its un- 
willingness, and 36 Stratham men 
were actively arrayed with the oppo- 
sition. But the legislative committee 
reported unanimously in its favor, 

river at that place was narrower, 
shallower, and less rapid than at the 
proposed location. The project con- 
tinued to languish until 176S, when 
the government authorized its friends 
to set up a lottery for its benefit. 


x m t ■ I 


, f ft 

J. Fred Er 

• x 

■<rv- ' 

Winter Fi 


and permission was granted in 1747. 
The actual bridge was, however, a 
long way off. The funds they ex- 
pected to raise by subscription were 
not forthcoming. What pledges they 
did secure were mostly made with the 
condition that they were not payable 
until the bridge was complete. In the 
meantime repeated efforts were made 
to have the location changed to New- 
fields, Newfields people claiming the 

With the funds thus obtained the 
bridge was built, and according to 
Deacon Lane's record was opened to 
public travel June 4, 1773. The 
"Lottery bridge," as it was called, 
was a free bridge, and no provision 
existing for its repair, it was soon 
in a bad way. It is described in 
17S5 as "impassable and in a ruin- 
ous condition." Attempts were again 
made to have it moved to Newfields. 
At one time it was proposed to have 
its support made a charge on five or 
six towns that were most interested. 
It had various other vicissitudes, but 
was finally rehabilitated under the 
present arrangement as a toll bridge 
in 1807, being incorporated in June 
of that year. 



- i 



Gr^at Bay, 

Strath itn Hi 


From the middle of tlie northern 
part of the town rises the shapely 
crest of Stratham hill, that like a 
lone sentinel watches over the valley 
of the Piscataqna. Standing near the 
middle of the quadrangle formed by 
the four pioneer settlements of Ports- 
mouth, Dover, Exeter, and Hampton, 
it includes them all within its horizon. 
It looks down on all that part of our 
state that was under dominion of 
the white people for a century after 
the first settlement, and the scene of 
that chapter in our history that was 
most trying in its experience and 
most significant in its results. 

The landscape contains little of the 
rugged grandeur of the mountains, 
though the mountains themselves are 
ranged thick in the background of 
the north and west, but it does pos- 
sess a combination of hill and valley, 
river and bay, ocean and islnnd, vil- 
lage, forest, and farm, that gives it a 
beauty that appeals to the eye as its 
historic scenes appeal to the imagina- 
tion. Its story has been enriched 
by the genius of Whittier, Aldrich, 
Laighton, and Thaxter. 

Just north of the hill is Great bay, 
first known to the English when 
Martin Pring visited it in 1603, and 
found it a 

" Wide, glittering: brooch 'mid Nature's green." 

McClintock likens the bay and 
its surroundings "with its islands, 
creeks, and sinuosities," to " a park 
in the domain of some mighty mon- 
arch." Farther north is that natural 
watch tower, Garrison Hill. Not far 
from it, by Dover Neck, lived Ed- 
ward Hilton, sometimes styled the 
'• father of Xew Hampshire." There, 
too, lived Capt. Thomas Wiggin 011 
his first coming to America. There 
he located the body of settlers he 
brought over. There, in 1634, dur- 
ing his administration as governor 
of the settlement, was erected the 
first church in the province. 

To ancient Cocheco, Squando 
brought his captives. 

" Wide apart his warriors swung 
And like Israel passing free 
Through the prophet-charmed sea, 
Captive mother, wife, and child 
Through the dusky terror filed." 

There is the gully where the In- 
dians lay concealed just before their 
terrible attack on Dover on that 
June morning, 1689, when they de- 
stroyed half the settlement, killing 
among others the famous Maj. Rich- 
ard Waldron. A little to the left is 
Durham, the scene of the Indian 
massacre of 1694. There lived Ma- 


Toll-Bridge, from Newfieids Side 



jor-General Sullivan of Revolution- 
ary fame. There, on the square, 
at the beginning oi the war, he 
publicly burned his commission in 
the royal stance. There, too, is 
the monument erected by the state 
to mark his grave. There, also, 
was the home of Scammel! of York- 
town. Across the river in Xew- 
fields is another home of the Hil- 
tous. There lived Col. Winthrop 
Hilton, who, after the death of Ma- 
jor Waldron, became the mili tan- 
leader of the province. He led re- 
peated expeditions against the In- 
dians, commanded the company 
sent against Xorridgwock and was 
at Port Royal. Farther west, near 
the Piscassic, is where he was am- 
bushed and killed, July 23, 17 10. 
There is, indeed, hardly a half 
mile from Dover to Exeter but 
has its tale of Indian vengeance. 

Across the river, also, is the high- 
way along which John Underbill 

"... Bearing: scars 
From Indian ambush and Flemish wars 
. . . Wandered down 
East by north to Cocheco town," 

as celebrated by the great Xew 
England poet. 

At the head of the valley, to the 
south, is where Wheelwright sought 
the liberty of conscience the Puritan 
denied. There was the early capital 
of the state. There Cass was born, 
Phillips lived, and Webster studied. 
There, in January, 1776, the Xew 
Hampshire provincial congress first 
clothed the Revolution in the garb of 
formal government. 

Partly concealed by the hills to the 
south are the meadows of Hampton, 
where the venerable Rev. Stephen 
Bachiler and his companions settled 
in 1638. There, too, are many of 

... * 




the scenes loved by Whittier and 
of which he wrote. There was the 
11 tent on the beach" and there with 
their tragic story the 

" Rivermouth Rocks are fair to see 
By dawn or sunset shone across 
When the ebb of the tide has left them free 
To dry their fringes of gold green moss.'' 

There lived Goody Cole, she of the 
bleary eyes and snaky locks, whose 
uncanny fame the poet has also 
preserved. Away on the eastern 
horizon are the Isles of Shoals that 
Capt. John Smith in the hope of mak- 
ing those storm-swept rocks a mouu- 
ment to his name called "Smith's 
Isles." Their many tinted story ap- 
pears in the prose and poetry of 
Mrs. Thaxter. Close by the shore 
lies Xewcastle, formerly "Great 
Island," the seat of the early courts 
and residence of colonial governors. 
There for a time lived Robert Mason, 



; I& 

U 'a 


&. : v i 





■" : -A 

; ' 

■ i 

. ; 

the would-be proprietor of the prov- 
ince, and Walter Barefoot, the deputj' 
governor. It was at Barefoot's house 
in 16S5 that he and Mason received 
their famous roasting. On the outer 
part of the island was Fort William 
and Mary, the Sumter of the Revo- 
lution. Farther toward the north is 


• J, 


r- r 


the Piscataqua, pictured by its poet 

" An azure vein from the heart of the main 
Pulsing with joy forever, 
By verduous isles with dimpled smiles 
Floweth my native river. 

" Singing a song as it flows along 
Hushed by the ice king never, 
For he strives in vain to clasp a chain 
O'er thy fetterless heart, brave liver." 

On the river's bank is the "city 
by the sea with its streets of leafy 
beaut}-," and a wealth of story in 
its "worn and dusty annals," that 
has been preserved in the pages 
of Adams, Brewster, and De Nor- 


.ir... . 


.[■■' ^ISjE j§ JJ, ,§£' 5| i$ i 

I'.li v>^*>. fjT? 1275' '- 

l M 1 i 

Cor,g(~j<i\\cr.a\ Church, I 7C6 I £37. 
(Drawn from recollections of aged citizens.) 


mandie. And if possibly there still history, its own immediate associa- 
linger some regrets for its ancient tions are all of peace and happy 
maritime consequence the}* are fast fortune. Many of the town's pleas- 
losing themselves in the modern im- autest traditions cluster about it. 
pulse of rejuvenation. To townspeople and visitors it has 
Of Stratham hill itself tradition an interest alike permaneut. Its 
says that in some of the earlier wars story is rich with memorable anni- 
it was one of the heights arranged versaries and the celebration of pat- 
for beacon fires in the event of an riotic achievement, and upon all it 
attack on the coast, but otherwise has conferred somewhat of its own 
though a close spectator of all the preeminent dignity as an ancient 
events, tragic and other, of our earlv witness. 

By J. B. Lawrence. 

The hurly-burly, ricochetting world 
Of common life, doth never sweetly dream. 
It catches but a glimpse of things that seem 
All helter-skelter tossed and whirled, 
And out into dark chaos hurled. 

A locomotive dashes down the street ; 

One drops, amidst his heavy-burdened sleep, 

Far down into unfathomable deep ; 

Or, o'er the breast secure, a driving sleet 

Seems cumbering the wean- feet. 

Alas ! the dreams of this unreal sphere ! 
We think to see and know the things that are ! 
We spurn the Great Unseen Artificer ! 
Adoring that which doth appear 
But briefly bright, then ever sere. 

We praise the art that paints the hue and form 
Of passing life, in syllable and oil, 
Whose flights o'er earth its mysteries e'er foil ; 
But, who may rise on wing of storm, — 
Vain dreamer he, beneath the norm ! 

Who in the rose a lasting glory sees, 
Who in a sunbeam day eternal views, 
Who from a dewdrop reads celestial news, — 
He finds therein what God may please 
To ope to prophets such as these. 



• « i - 


i "■ ' 


/ w 






By Converse J. Smith. 

U ANY persons who have that Puget Sound would have one of 

never visited Puget the three great cities of the United 

Sound have received States, and everything: today points 

^r<l wrong impressions as to to Seattle as becoming- that impor- 

the extent and grandeur tant city. It is claimed the city now 
of the region and especially as to the has a population of 90,000 and has 
cities and towns dotting the shores, gained 20,000 during the last year. 



. - . 

' • 1 ■ 1 , i -» - r • r * 

I - 




Water Front. Seattle. 

from whose ports go forth ships laden 
with products for every part of the 
globe. Less than fifty years ago, a 
vessel sailed from San Francisco to 
Puget Souud, to take a cargo of ice, 
supposing it to be a cold northern 
land. The steamer was provided 
with ice-picks, ice-saws, and tongs, 
and perhaps in these days it is need- 
less to state that the master was 
obliged to take other merchandise as 


It was John L,. Stoddard who said 

Everywhere is displayed enterprise, 
— fine business streets, handsome and 
commodious blocks, and the business 
men, largely from the East, appear 
to work together without the petty 
jealousies often seen, and thus ac- 
complish results. The harbor is one 
of the finest in the world and the 
sails of even* country are here found. 
Vast quantities of grain, lumber, fish, 
fruit, and other products are shipped 
to China, Japan, Africa, Australia, 
Russia, and many other countries. 
In Seattle the Great Northern rail- 



road has a terminus and is now build- 
ing immense docks and erecting large 
elevators that will have enormous 
capaeit}-, allowing a number of ships 
to load or discharge at the same time. 
This compauy has recently purchased 
the Pacific Coast Steamship Co., it 
is generally believed for the purpose 
of obtaining the control of the docks 
and water-front owned by that com- 
pany and which are valuable. 

The Canadian Pacific railway, with 

and will from time to time obtain her 
supplies in that city, it being a nat- 
ural base. 

San Francisco has strained every 
nerve to control or even to obtain 
some of the Alaskan trade, but has 
completely failed. A large mercan- 
tile firm in San Francisco recently 
said to a business man residing in 
Seattle, ''Can you not tell us how we 
can obtain some of the business in 
Alaska?" 4 '0h, yes," was the re- 



■. ; - 


B ■■'- 

- .- - - • 

Klondike Supplies, Seattle 


- : 

i ft '• 

a line stretching across the continent, 
is at Victoria, B. C, less than ioo 
miles away, and runs its cars into the 
city at the present time, and no 
doubt will own its track at no dis- 
tant clay. The shortest route from 
Atlantic to Asiatic seaboard is 
through Seattle, and from New York 
to Seattle it is 345 miles nearer than 
from New York to San Francisco. 
Distance tells in the world of com- 
merce, and transportation business 
naturally seeks the shortest route. 
Alaska finds in Seattle a storehouse, 

ply, "move your store to Seattle." 
No doubt the Klondike travel has 
benefited the city, it being the natural 
starting-point, and much money has 
been left there with hotels and board- 
ing-houses, outfitters, transportation 
companies, and others, and while the 
mad rush of Alaskan gold-seekers is 
a thing of the past, there is likely to 
be a steady emigration to that won- 
derful territory. There are few va- 
cant houses in the city and rents are 
high as well as wages. A house ser- 
vant, for instance, expects to receive 





:.. - 

Mount Rair.ler. 

$2$ per month. The largest saw- 
mills and fish canneries in the world 
are to be found in Seattle. The 
growth in shipping has been marvel- 
ous and is increasing each year. 
The delightful climate and beautiful 
scenery should not be overlooked. 
The Cascade mountains can be. 
plainly seen as well as Mount Rai- 
nier, one of the grandest mountains 
in the United States, more than 
15,000 feet high, covered with ice 
and snow and with beautiful parks 
and forests at its base. The city, 
certainly, has a bright future, and 
it is acknowledged everywhere on 
Puget Sound. 

One 01 the most popular, as well 
as successful, business men of Seattle 
is Charles K. Burnside, so many 
years a resident of Concord. Mr. 
Burnside is known in the city as a 
conservative man, and from the first 
declined to invest capital in Klon- 
dike schemes, and advised others as 
well, most of which have proved 
financial failures. He has given 
much attention to real estate, and is 
recognized as an authority in Seattle. 

He has recently become connected 
with the Dexter Horton bank, the 
largest banking establishment in the 
city, where his intimate knowledge 
of business methods and men will 
serve him to advantage. Mr. and 
Mrs. Burnside have a beautiful home 
overlooking the harbor, also com- 
manding a fine view of the Cascade 
mountains in the distance as well as 
Mount Rainier, and dispense hospi- 
tality with a generous hand. As 
late as Christmas day, when the 

_. > 


E ;*i 

J II 1 1 Eli! 4*?0 ! I 


Residence of Charles E. Burnsid( 





f »1"7 r - \ 





■' # 

Washington Timbei 

writer was a guest, roses picked from 
the grounds decorated the dining 
table, and green peas from the vines 
was one of the vegetables served. 


has a population of about 30.000. 
Some years ago the Great Northern 
railroad began booming this place; 
steamers were put on to run to China 
and Japan, and for a time the city 
prospered, but the boom could not 
be kept up. Residents of Concord 
and other places in the East sent 
their capital here for investment, 
lured by high rates of interest, and 
have now learned the mistake that 
was made. The city can well feel 
proud of the Tacoma hotel, but its 
great parlors, halls, and dining-room 
appear nearly deserted. The main 
street is handsome and every way 
attractive, but directly in the rear 
there are many business blocks va- 
cant, and the street is also nearly 
abandoned for business. The resi- 
dential section of the city extends 
over a large territory, and houses 

and house lots in nearly ever}' sec- 
tion can be purchased at almost any 
price. To illustrate: Two gentle- 
men temporarily stationed in Ta- 
coma, with whom the writer was 
associated, required homes. One 
purchased a new and a very con- 
venient house with modern improve- 
ments for $450. The other rented 
an elegant house, furnished, for $25 
per month. The first named house 
would sell quickly in Seattle for 
$3,000 and the latter rent for £75 or 
Sioo per month. It would be much 
more satisfactory to the investors of 
Eastern capital if they had security 
upon property of this class, but much 
of it is upon wood lots and property 
many miles distant, which is abso- 
lutely valueless. Possibly some have 
been deceived by reason of Ta coma's 
great foreign traffic, estimated for 
189S as $15,000,000, a gain of 
$5, 000,000 from the previous year, 
but the statement is deceiving, in- 
asmuch as steamers often largely 
load at Seattle, completing cargo 
at Tacoma, and the latter port has 



credit for the entire quantity when 
three fourths may have been taken 
on at Seattle. 


of Puget Sound are simply enormous. 
Of salmon alone the state of Wash- 
ington produced in 1S97 approxi- 
mately 60,000,000 pounds. Two 
and one half million dollars are in- 
vested in canneries and equipments, 
and some 7,000 men are employed in 
the industry, earning over Si ,500,000 
annually. The salmon are so num- 
erous that in the season the rivers 
and streams are actually clogged 
with them, and the immense quan- 

tity taken with nets for canning does 
not seem to diminish the number. 
Indians with forks throw from the 
streams what they require for winter 
food, preserving it by smoking, and 
the bears come down from the moun- 
tains and supply their needs. As 
the salmon in vast numbers force 
their way toward the headwaters, 
where the river becomes narrow and 
the water shallow, large numbers are 
crowded out of the water and die 
upon the banks. At one time re- 
cently there were 22,000 salmon on 
the docks of one cannery in Seattle 
and half the number may be seen 
anv dav. 


• - 


Salmon, Seattle Wnarf. 

By Herbert IV. Denio, A. M. 

?HE remarkable public 
interest in libraries to- 
day is frequently spoken 
of. To establish and 
endow a library in. one's 
native town, or to contribute largely 
to one already doing good work, is 
one of the most popular forms of 
public bequests. This interest is not 
the growth of a day, nor is there 
any reason to believe that it will 
diminish. While the desire to read 
and study remains, and fortunes ac- 
cumulate, we may expect libraries 
will multiply and flourish. This 
paper is an attempt to sketch the 
historical development of the various 
kinds of libraries in New Hampshire. 


Naturally the first public libraries 
in the state were those formed by as- 
sociations, and their use was usually 
restricted to the membership of the 
associations. Voluntary library asso- 
ciations received their sanction at 
the hands of the legislature in 1832, 
in the same act which recognized fire 
engine companies, singing and other 
musical societies. Many years be- 
fore this, however, the state had 
granted by special act charters to 
many associations. These were in 
no case free public libraries, but the 
terms on which any one could join 
and enjoy the advantages of the 
association usually were so low that 
very many became members. Such 

libraries accomplished much perma- 
nent good, and paved the way for 
something better. 

The act of 1S31 provided that 
two or more persons could agree to 
associate for library purposes and 
assume a corporate name. This 
agreement was to be posted in two 
public places, and recorded by the 
town clerk. The association could 
receive, hold, or sell property amount- 
ing to Si, 000. The following year 
an act provided by implication that 
non-dividend paying associations of 
any kind should not be taxed. 

The Revised Statutes of 1843 re- 
quired that the notice of an inten- 
tion to organize a library association 
and its name and object should be 
published three successive weeks in 
some county newspaper. Its annual 
income could not exceed $1,000. 
This limit was raised to $5,000 in 
1867. Since 1891, $500,000 may 
be held by an association, and five 
persons are required to organize. 
These libraries are entitled to re- 
ceive the laws, the legislative jour- 
nals, and the reports of the state 

From 1792 to 1897, 220 libraries 
have received special charters from 
the legislature. The earliest was the 
Social Library of Dover, in the year 
first mentioned. The Social Library 
of Tamworth and the Portsmouth 
Library were incorporated in 1796, 
twenty-four others in 1797, and a 



still larger number of others were 
chartered within the next fifteen 
years. Nine out of every ten of 
these libraries were called social 
libraries. Less than half a dozen of 
these 220 libraries exist to-day un- 
der their original names. 


From first to last, all legislation 
for public libraries has been based 
011 the principle that these institu- 
tions have an educative and a moral 
influence. Repeatedly in the pre- 
amble or in the whereas of an act 
incorporating a library association, 
this principle was plainly stated. 
When private funds began to be 
given for public or semi-public 
libraries, the donors often expressed 
the belief that they could not use 
their means for broadening and ele- 
vating the community in any other 
way so surely as in providing good 
reading for it. So, too, when the 
idea took root in the public mind 
that a community needed to supple- 
ment the public school instruction 
of the average citizen, the same 
reason was given for creating free 
libraries as had been given for es- 
tablishing free schools — the object 
of each was the same. In addition, 
it was recognized that it was not 
enough to create a taste for learn- 
ing by the free district and graded 
schools, and then to expect the youth 
to continue his reading from books 
purchased wholly from his earnings. 

Gradually it has become manifest 
that libraries established by associa- 
tions too frequently cease to exist 
after a few years. Municipal action 
and municipal support generally are 
necessary for the perpetuation of a 
free public library. 


Legislation respecting free public 
libraries may be divided into three 
progressive stages. 

(a) Permissive. 

The first stage is that of permis- 
sion. A general law is passed, the 
provisions of which affect only such 
towns as voluntarily assume its obli- 
gations. Such a law provides that 
a majority of the voters of a town 
may determine that each of its citi- 
zens shall assist in supporting a free 
public library for the welfare of all. 
Many of the states now have a law 
of this nature. 

(b) State Aid. 

The second stage is that of state 
aid. The usual form of this aid is 
for the state to grant to towns estab- 
lishing free public libraries a gift of 
Si 00 in books for the library. Fre- 
quently a state commission is ap- 
pointed which has the charge of the 
matter. Its duties are to disseminate 
information respecting the library 
laws and library statistics, to re- 
quire an annual report from all free 
libraries in the state, to distribute 
the state stipend, and to guard 
against immature attempts to estab- 
lish libraries with the chief object of 
getting the stipend. 

Another form which this stage 
assumes is that of traveling libraries. 
These libraries are a selection of 
books, usually about 100 in number, 
sent out by a state commission or 
by the state librarian to any com- 
munity or association agreeing to be 
responsible for them. The expense 
of carriage rests on the readers. The 
books may be retained six months, 



when, perhaps, another library is 
sent in its place. Study clubs or 
Chautauqua Circles in some states 
may receive libraries especially 
adapted to their needs. Where free 
libraries do not exist their establish- 
ment often follows the use of travel- 
ing libraries as a natural sequence. 
Traveling libraries, consisting of 
books on special subjects, may be 
sent to small free libraries as well 
as to localities having no libraries 
at all. It is a mistaken idea to sup- 
pose that traveling libraries militate 
against the system of free public 

A third form of this stage is seen 
when a state annually gives aid to 
the free libraries. There are three 
states that do this. In Maine a law- 
provides foi the usual Sioo worth of 
books to any town establishing a free 
public library. In addition munici- 
palities may receive annually 10 per 
cent, of what Uiey expend for books 
and for the running expenses of their 
libraries ; this sum is to be used in 
purchasing additional books. The 
state board of education of Rhode 
Island may give to any free public 
library, when established, S50 for the 
first 500 volumes included in such 
library ; and $25 for every addi- 
tional 500 volumes thereafter, but no 
library can receive more than ^500 
annually from thi^ source. The 
board shall determine for what pur- 
poses the funds so granted shall be 
used. Any Connecticut town estab- 
lishing a free library may receive a 
sum equal to that which it appro- 
priates for books, but not more than 
$200 ; and annually thereafter an 
amount equal to that which it ex- 
pends for the same purpose, or in 
case of a town whose grant list does 

not exceed $600,000, the amount 
expended from any source for the 
increase of the library, but not more 
than Sioo annually. This sum shall 
be used for books selected by the 
state. Several states annually aid 
with funds their district or school 

These methods of aiding yearly 
the free public libraries are among 
the best means of keeping up the 
library interest in the smaller com- 
munities, for if these communities 
are unaided the local appropriations 
must necessarily be small. They are 
better than the system once in vogue 
in some states of granting aid to 
district libraries without requiring 
local appropriations at the same time. 
An annual stipend to the libraries 
from the state serves as a perpetual 
incentive, and is the most generous 
treatment of any. 

(c) Compulsory Support. 

The most advanced step is that of 
compulsory support. A state arrives 
at this stage when it compels each 
town to appropriate a definite pro- 
portion of its public taxes to the 
establishment and support of a pub- 
lic library. This step is no more 
than the logical development of 
compulsory support of free schools. 
Historically the growth of library 
legislation has been along the same 
lines as school legislation. Among 
the earliest acts of all the states are 
those granting towns the right to tax 
themselves for free public schools. 
State aid for public schools, in one 
way and another, has been given 
nearly from the first, and the per- 
missive acts long ago became com- 
pulsory acts. The truant laws, free 
text-books, and laws against child 



labor, all have for their purpose the 
education of each child. 

As yet but two states have ad- 
vanced to this third stage. These 
are Xew Hampshire and Ohio. In 
the latter state an act was passed 
in 1S9S requiring boards of education 
in towns of 5,000 to 10,000 popula- 
tion, already having a free public 
library, to levy an annual tax for 
the support of their libraries. 


The earliest law granting to towns 
the opportunity to establish and 
maintain free public libraries was 
that of New Hampshire, enacted in 
1 8.] 9. This act enabled a town to 
raise money for books, for the pur- 
chase of land, and erection of build- 
ings, and for necessary expenses in 
the establishing and care of a 
public library. The library was to 
be free to every inhabitant of the 
town "for the general diffusion of 
intelligence among all classes." and 
subject to necessary rules for its 
well ordering and preservation. Any 
town could receive, hold, or dispose 
of any gifts, or proceeds from such 
gifts, for establishing and maintain- 
ing such a library. Copies of the 
laws and other works published by 
the state were to be furnished to 
such libraries from year to year by 
the state. 

A marked advance was made in 
1 89 1, when the state granted to 
each town establishing a library Sioo 
worth of books. The conditions are 
(1) that the town at a regularly 
called meeting shall vote to accept 
the provisions of the law; (2) the 
town shall provide in a satisfactory 

manner for the care and distribution 
of the books; and (3) the town shall 
appropriate annually a sum not less 
than S50 if its last assessed valuation 
is Si, 000, 000 or upwards, or a sum 
not less than S25 if its valuation is 
between $250,000 and Si.000,000, or 
a sum not less than Si 5 if its val- 
uation is less than $250,000. A 
large number of new libraries were 
organized at once. 

By another law of the same year, 
the librarian of every public library 
was required to report annually the 
name and post-office address of each 
officer of the library to his town 
clerk, and to the state library any 
further information as to its organi- 
zation, property, and condition, as 
might be required. The town clerks 
were to report annually their infor- 
mation to the state library. 

A modification, in 1893, required 
that the name of each public library 
in the town, the names and post-office 
addresses of the officers, the manner 
of their election or appointment, the 
ownership of the library, for whose 
use and the number of volumes, shall 
be reported by the town clerk within 
thirty days after town or ward elec- 
tion. If there is no library in the 
town this fact is to be reported. 
When necessary, the librarian shall 
aid the town clerk in making such 
report, and the librarian shall supply 
to the state library any additional 
report required. 

The final advance was made in 
1895. An act of that year requires 
the selectmen in each town to assess 
annually upon the polls and taxable 
estate a sum computed at the rate of 
S30 for every dollar of public taxes 
apportioned by the state to such 
town ; this assessment shall be used 

i 7 6 


for establishing and maintaining a 
free public library. Towns may 
raise at option a larger amount than 
required. The appropriation shall 
be held by the library trustees until 
the town votes to establish a library. 
Towns shall elect trustees for their 
libraries excepting where a free li- 
brary has already been acquired un- 
der special circumstances, or the 
towns already have town libraries 
established prior to 1892. The trus- 
tees shall have full control of all 
property appropriated for a library. 
They shall report annually to the 
town and to the state board of library 
commissioners. The penalty for vio- 
lating the law is 5500. Towns hav- 
ing no library and having made no 
assessment for one, may, hy special 
vote, determine not to establish one, 
and may be exempt one year from 
doing so. 

New Hampshire has the honor of 
enacting, in 1849, the first law in the 
country granting towns the privilege 
of making an appropriation for the 
establishment and maintenance of 
free libraries, and one of its towns 
had anticipated such legislation by 
sixteen years. It is now a familiar 
story how Peterborough established 
the first free town library, and it is 
not necessary to repeat it in detail 
here. Since 1S21, New Hampshire 
has raised annually a fund, called the 
" literary fund," from a tax on the 
banks of the state. This fund was 
originally intended for a state uni- 
versity. The university plan was 
abandoned in 1828. The law has 
been altered several times in the in- 
tervening years, but a fund is still 
raised which is annually divided 
among the towns ' ' for the support 
and maintenance of free common 

schools or other purposes of educa- 
tion." Peterborough established a 
library with the aid of its portion of 
this fund in 1S33, and has con- 
tributed to its support something 
every year since. After the act of 
1S49 other libraries were organized. 


A board for the aid of free libraries 
was established by law in 1891. The 
state librarian is a member of the 
board ex officio, and the other four 
members are appointed by the gov- 
ernor, librarians may ask for ad- 
vice in selecting and cataloguing 
their books and in matters pertain- 
ing to the maintenance or adminis- 
tration of the libraries. Biennial re- 
ports to the legislature are required 
from the board. The commission 
purchases the books given by the 
state to the towns establishing free 
libraries and sees that the required 
conditions are met by the towns. All 
public libraries must report to the 
commission annually. Two bulle- 
tins annually are expected to be 
issued by the board to the libraries. 
These shall contain recommenda- 
tions of the best librar} r methods, 
notes on library progress, and such 
general information as may be of 
value and use to the libraries. Two 
numbered bulletins and several cir- 
culars have been issued. 

Since 1S93 the commission has 
purchased books for new town li- 
braries as follows: In 1S93, $4,800; 
in 1894, $4,300; in 1895, $2,300; 
in 1896, $300; in 1897, $400, and 
in 189S (to June 1), £1,200. The 
sum of $300 annually was allowed 
for the expenses of the board at first ; 
in 1895 the amount was increased to 


i / 

$500 annually ; since then a reason- 
able amount is granted; $1,396 in all 
has been used to June 1. 1S98. 

Three reports have been made to 
the legislature. These show that the 
commission has done much in bring- 
ing to the notice of the towns the 
advantages of free libraries. Under 
the stimulus of state aid, and, later, 
under the requirement of compulsory 
support, near!}' every town has made 
a beginning of a library. 


The New Hampshire Historical 
Society was incorporated in 1823. 
From the first it has been granted 
the state publications. Appropria- 
tions have also been made to it by 
the legislature for books, for support, 
and for obtaining a calendar of the 
Xew Hampshire historical matter 
found in the State Paper office in 
London. For some years the regu- 
lar appropriation has been S500 an- 
nually. In the early years it was 
housed in the state house. Now it 
has a laige substantial building of 
its own in Concord. The society 
possesses many articles of interest 
in its cabinets which are intimately 
connected with the early history of 
the state. Undoubtedly, it has the 
largest and most valuable' collection 
of books and pamphlets and manu- 
scripts relating to the history of the 
state to be found anywhere. 

Dartmouth College library dates 
from 1770, and its history is entirely 
connected with that of the college. 
It is the largest library in the state. 
The library belonging to the Xew 
Hampshire College of Agriculture 
and the Mechanic Arts is compara- 
tively recent, and is devoted to the 
special needs of the college. 


The date of the origin of the New 
Hampshire state library is in doubt. 
The English writer, Edwards, in his 
"Free Town Libraries," places the 
date before the Revolution. He 
says, " New Hampshire took the 
lead in the establishment of a state 
library. The first legislative grant 
for the object was made whilst the 
state was still a colony, although on 
the eve of independence." 

On the other hand, it is claimed 
that the state had no public building 
in which a library could be sheltered 
until 1 8 19, when the first state capi- 
tol was finished ; that the legislative 
sessions were held in several differ- 
ent places, and were not established 
at Concord permanently until 180S, 
and that there seems to be a lack of 
any definite legislation respecting a 
library until 1823. It may be said 
that the official records of the colony 
between 1770 and 1776 are quite in- 
complete. Man}- of the acts and re- 
solves between these dates have 
never been published, some are even 
unknown. It is possible that some 
recorded action, yet to be definitely 
cited, may determine the question. 

As far as we know no act w r as 
passed organizing the library until 
1S39, long years after it had existed 
as a fact. The first reference to it 
found is a resolution of 1823, voting 
to appropriate Sioo annually for its 
enlargement and authorizing the gov- 
ernor to make the purchases. The 
next year the legislature voted to 
have two maps of Mexico and ad- 
joining territories purchased if they 
did not cost over $20. The librarian 
was directed, in 1S26, to procure 
"one copy of the journals of the sen- 



ate and one copy of the journals of 
the house of representatives for each 
session since the adoption of the pres- 
ent constitution, " and thereafter each 
succeeding year. 

A law of 1S39 made a distinct ad- 
vance for the library. A librarian 
was to be appointed annually by the 
legislature. He was to catalogue the 
library, keep a record of the circula- 
tion, and be in constant attendance 
during the sessions. The books to 
be bought were such as were usually 
purchased for a state library in those 
days, namely court reports, "history, 
state papers, statistics, political econ- 
omy, works on geology, mineralogy, 
and other sciences, and other works 
having an important bearing upon 
the business of legislation, to the ex- 
clusion of works of fiction." 

Binding of books and pamphlets 
received sanction in 1S40. A resolu- 
tion the same year secured the ap- 
pointment of a legislative committee 
to assist the governor in purchasing 
the books. It was repealed two years 
later and renewed in 1843. Such a 
committee proved of little benefit, as 
was pointed out in one of the annual 
reports of the librarian. The mem- 
bers of the committee were too busy 
with other legislative matters during 
the session, and after adjournment 
they were so remote from each other 
that it was impracticable for them to 
act.' The committee was not always 
appointed, and the annual appropria- 
tion several times was not used. 

An act of 1846 placed the duties of 
librarian on the secretary of state. 
He was required to appoint a deputy 
librarian who should assist during 
the sessions. The librarian or his 
deputy must at all times have charge 
of the library. He was to report to 

the legislature annually, and made a 
catalogue. In 1850 the governor 
and council were empowered to ap- 
point some one to ascertain what 
books were missing, to recover them 
and to make a catalogue. The 
deputy secretary of state became 
deputy librarian, and practically the 
librarian in 1857. 

A marked advance was made in 
1S66, when the library became an 
independent department of the state 
government. Three trustees were 
appointed by the governor and coun- 
cil to serve three years each after 
the first appointments. They have 
full control of the library, and serve 
without pay. They appoint the libra- 
rian and fix his salary. They make 
the purchases, dispose of the unnec- 
essary books, and the librarian is 
required to keep an accession record. 

By an act of 1887, town and county 
histories aie to be bought. Copies of 
the printed reports of the various offi- 
cers of the towns, cities, and counties 
and of all corporations doing busi- 
ness in the state, must be deposited 
in the library. The trustees are also 
authorized to reprint pamphlets which 
have become scarce, containing offi- 
cial transactions relating to the state. 

The additions to the laws in 1S91 
were as follows : From that date all 
newspapers in the state, which pub- 
lish the session laws, are required 
without additional pay to transmit to 
the library a complete file of the 
paper. Other periodicals in the state 
may be subscribed for by the library. 
Registers of probate are authorized 
to transfer to the library their files 
of newspapers covering periods prior 
to the files of the library. Town 
clerks shall annually transmit two 
copies each of the reports of the va- 



rious officers of the town to the state 
librarian and to the New Hampshire 
Historical Society. A penalty of $-20 
ma} r be imposed for the failure to 
send any of these reports. Schools 
and colleges shall transmit two cop- 
ies of all catalogues (all their other 
publications are included in the law 
of 1S95) to the library, and to the 
society. The public statutes of 1891 
require the chairman of the select- 
men, instead of the town clerk, to 
send the reports of the town officers. 
Since 1S93 the trustees have had 
authority to dispose of state publica- 
tions by sale or exchange. Since 
1S95 they may become custodian- of 
books and historical collections, and 
hold them for safe keeping and refer- 
ence use in the library. This en- 
ables the public to gain access to 
volumes not easily found otherwise. 
Already valuable volumes have been 
received in this way. The same 
year the library was granted the 
right to buy any book relating to 
New Hampshire, whether fiction or 

(a) Librarian. 

The first librarian appointed was 
Jacob C. Carter, in 1S34. He was 
annually chosen to serve until 1846, 
when the secretary of .state became 
librarian by law. William H. Kim- 
ball held the office of librarian from 
1867 until 1S90, excepting the years 
1S71— '72, when Mitchell Gilmore 
served. Arthur R. Kimball followed 
his father in 1S90, and served until 
December, 1S94, when Arthur H. 
Chase succeeded. 

(b) Rooms and Building. 

Jacob B. Moore was authorized in 
1828 to have fitted up the room 

xxv i— 12 

under the senate chamber for the 
library. This was done. While the 
state house was being repaired in 
iS64-'65 < the library was stored in 
the basement of the city hall. The 
repairs provided a room for the 
library in the center of the west 
side, but it was left unfinished. 
Temporary quarters were provided 
until the rooms could be fitted up. 
These accommodated 15,000 volumes. 
In 1S81 the governor and council 
were requested to have plans and 
estimates made for a state library 
building, or additions to the state 
house, and to report at the next 
session of the legislature. These 
were submitted. The governor and 
council and a legislative committee 
each recommended a separate library 
building in 1SS3, but no action was 
taken by the legislature. The de- 
mand for the building continued and 
became more insistent. Books were 
scattered during these years through 
nine different rooms in the state 
house ; valuable sets of books were 
broken as rapidly as they were com- 
pleted. There were constant losses 
from the unnecessary wear occa- 
sioned by the crowded and disorgan- 
ized conditions. Finally, in 18S9, a 
commission was appointed to secure 
more plans and estimates. When 
their report was made in 1891 the 
plans were accepted, and a building 
was erected north of the state house, 
on the corner of Park and State 

The building faces the south, con- 
sists of two stories and a basement, 
with a tower on the southwest cor- 
ner. It is 104 feet deep, and has a 
frontage of 141 feet. The exterior 
is entirely of Conway and Concord 
granite. A souvenir volume of the 

i So 


dedication, which occurred in Janu- 
ary, 1895, gives a full description of 
the building. The library was moved 
in the following summer. The build- 
ing is occupied at present, in addi- 
tion to the library, by the supreme 
court and the state departments of 
agriculture and education. About 
55,000 volumes can be accommodat- 
ed on the shelves in place. More 
shelving can be put in, but before 
a great while a stack-room will be 

(c) Books and Catalogues. 

There were less than 600 volumes 
in the library in 182S. Three hun- 
dred copies of a catalogue were pub- 
lished in 1846. This shows that there 
were then 400 law books and 600 vol- 
umes of history, biography, and ref- 

There were about 45,000 volumes 
when moved into the new building. 
There are now about 67,500, of which 
15,000 volumes are in the law depart- 
ment, 37,500 in the general library, 
and 15,000 volumes of session laws 
and official reports of the United 
States and ot the several states. 
These last, with 5,000 duplicates and 
100,000 volumes of reports of New 
Hampshire state officers, are in the 
basement. A finding list of history, 
biography, genealogy, geography, 
and" travel was published in 1897. 
The law reports, lav,- text-books, and 
the most-used reference books are on 
the first floor ; the general library 
occupies the alcoves of the second 
floor, classified by the decimal sys- 
tem. A typewritten card catalogue 
is being made as rapidly as possible. 
A comprehensive printed catalogue 
is planned when the card catalogue 
is completed. 

(d) Exchanges. 

Exchanges of laws and journals 
with other states were authorized in 
1S26. Twenty- five additional copies 
of the laws and public documents 
were to be printed after 1S41 for ex- 
changing with foreign countries. In 
1S4S the librarian recommended the 
publication of all the important re- 
ports made to the legislature by 
the state officers for preservation and 
exchange. As a result he was per- 
mitted to set aside a certain number 
of the documents for exchange of 
books and other works of science 
and art from foreign countries. 

From time to time exchanges were 
authorized with various historical so- 
cieties. A set of the American arch- 
ives was voted to the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society, and suitable 
exchanges were to be made as occa- 
sion offered. The distribution of the 
state publications remained the duty 
of the secretary of state until 1891, 
when it was turned over to the 
library excepting the distribution to 
the legislature, to the state officers, 
and to the municipalities. 

(e) Circu la tio n . 

The conditions on which the books 
ol the library might be used, and 
the constituency which could use 
them, have been subject to many 
and almost fickle changes. The first 
general act of 1839 provided that the 
books should not be taken out with- 
out the consent of the librarian and 
should be recorded. During the ses- 
sions books could be retained one 
week, at other times one month, and 
all must be returned by the 20th of 
May annually. This date was about 
two weeks before the annual sessions. 



The number of persons who could 
take books from the library was ex- 
tended and restricted several times in 
the following years. 

By an act of 1S91, the governor 
and council and the legislature could 
take the books during the sessions, 
the judges during term time, and 
the trustees could permit others to 
have them not exceeding twenty-four 
hours. The time limit was removed 
in 1893, but the books were subject to 
such rules as the trustees might im- 
pose. Books in the general library 
now may be loaned to any one in the 
state through the local public libra- 
ries, by the local library becoming 
responsible to the state library for 
any books so borrowed, and it in 
turn looking to the individual in 
case of any loss or damage. 

At first the library was open only 
during the session. In 1859, when 
there was supposed to be no circula- 
tion, the librarian was required to 
keep the library open for consulta- 
tion at all proper times. There were 
no regular hours until 1867, when 
they were appointed to be from 1 1 
a. M. to i p. m. Occasionally during 
court the room was open in the even- 
ing. On moving into the new build- 
ing the hours became from S.30 a. m. 
to 5 p. m. It is now open evenings 
when the supreme court and the leg- 
islature are in session, or some one 
from out of town desires especially to 
consult it. 

(f) Expc?iscs. 

The first appropriation for the 
library was in 1823 of $100, to be 
spent by the governor "as he may 
think proper," annually, "until the 
general court shall otherwise order." 
The amount was not alwavs used. 

Later a commission assisted in the 
purchases, if made. Special appro- 
priations of $500 or less were made 
from time to time for filling up sets ; 
$3,260 were spent in 1S67 for fitting 
up new rooms ; the annual appropri- 
ation was increased to $500 in 1878, 
to 52,500 in 1SS9, and to S3. 000 in 
1891 ; 32,000 were appropriated in 
1S95 for current newspapers and peri- 
odicals, for binding, and for filling 
up gaps in the law department. In 
1S97 the law was so amended that 
S5,ooo may be used annually for 
books in all departments ; the news- 
papers and periodicals, binding, and 
shelving shall be deemed incidentals. 

From 1S67 to June, iSqS, there has 

been paid hi salaries . . . $33,500 

For books, about 56,000 

For printing reports and blanks, re- 
printing pamphlets, and inci- 
dental expenses .... 33,000 

For maintenance of building . . 11,000 

Total, about $134,000 

The new building cost $314,300. 

(g) Reports. 

The revised statutes of 1843 re- 
quired the librarian to report to 
the governor annually. In 1846 the 
report was to be made to the legisla- 
ture. The condition of the library 
and the lists of books added and lost 
were to be given. The list of addi- 
tions was suspended in 1893 until a 
complete catalogue can be published, 
after which the list is to be continued 
as an annual supplement. 

The reports for i89o-'94 contain 
much bibliographical matter, among 
which may be mentioned the official 
publications of the state for iS90~'94; 
bibliographies of Dartmouth College, 
Manchester, and Dover ; statistics and 
brief sketches of the town libraries 



of the slate ; condensed list of New- 
Hampshire official publications from 
1699-1S92 ; index to the New Hamp- 
shire registers ; and a check-list of 
New Hampshire laws. 


The state asylum for the insane 
has received Sioo annually for books 
since 1S65. The state prison for 
several years past has usually had 
an appropriation for reading matter. 
The Industrial School at Manchester 
sustains its library from funds given 
by ex-Governor Frederick Smyth and 
Miss Louise Penhallow; . It has also 
received appropriations from the state 
for the same purpose. The state de- 
partments of public instruction and 
health have small libraries. 


In several states library associ- 
ations are found. The first of these 
to be incorporated was that of New 
Hampshire ; it dates from 1SS9. It 
was organized to secure cooperation 
among the libraries of the state, to 
improve their management, to en- 
courage the establishment of new 
libraries, to render the existing ones 
more useful as a means of popular 
education, to facilitate the collection 
and exchange of matter relating to 
different parts of the state. It holds 
meetings from time to time, at which 
practical methods of library economy 
are discussed. 


The special report on libraries of 
the United States Commissioner of 
Education in 1876, gives a list of 
fourteen free libraries in New Hamp- 

shire, having 52,663 volumes. Sev- 
enty-two other libraries are listed, 
having 153,080 volumes. In the 
report of the library commission of 
this state for ^895^-' 96 these statistics 
are found : 

Libraries established without state 

aid 62 309,129 

Libraries receiving incidental state 

aid 7 17.093 

Libraries materially aided by state 122 83,825 

Eree libraries 

5° 1 

Total free libraries distributed in 

195 towns ..... 196 418,348 

In addition there are other libra- 
ries in the state as follows : 


Eree libraries 



Subscription libraries 



Circulating libraries . 



School libraries 



Two college libraries 



State and department libraries 



New Hampshire Historical Society 



Totals 75 256,220 

Making a grand total of libraries 271 674,568 

*This did not include 15.000 volumes of public 
doc u me ruts. 

Nineteen towns voted, in 1896, the 
first assessment for a library. These 
towns are not included in the 195 
noted above. Nineteen other towns 
voted the same year that it was inex- 
pedient to establish a library. Thus 
the whole state is accounted for 
with the exception of unincorporated 
places having a population of 3S7 
persons. The total appropriations by 
the towns for these libraries are not 
known, but the sum of £48,607.12 
was voted that year at the annual 
meetings. This does not represent 
the whole, for some towns pay the 
running expenses of their libraries 
without special votes. 

The towns from early days have re- 
ceived the state publications. These 



often have not been suitably eared 
for. In some cases they have even 
been sold. Maine has, as one of 
the requirements, enjoined upon the 
towns which receive state aid that 
they shall keep such books in the 
public libraries. This insures their 
preservation and makes them acces- 
sible for use. 

The association libraries played an 
important part during the first three- 
quarters of this century in fostering 
the love of reading and culture of 
the people. Free libraries have come 
to take their place largely, just as 
compulsory education has been sub- 
stituted for optional education. Free 
libraries are accessible to every one 
in the community, while the asso- 
ciation libraries of necessity were 
restricted. As free district and high 
schools are the predecessors of tech- 

nical schools, so we may expect that 
there will in time be other libraries 
for the special investigators than 
those already existing. 

The state library, originally in the 
office of the secretary of state, was 
intended only for the legislature ; 
then it embraced the needs of the 
courts ; now its aim is to supply- 
such volumes for all readers and in- 
vestigators on subjects which the free 
public libraries for the most part are 
unable to attempt to cover. 

The free public libraries are the 
ones which come nearest to the peo- 
ple, and are the ones which must 
receive the most careful attention on 
the part of all. The library problem 
of the future in this state is not a 
large multiplication of libraries, but 
the building up and the fullest use 
possible 01 those already existing. 

By Carl Burell. 

11 You give me silver, 

I '11 give you give gold." 
Said Orchid to Lily-Bell— 

Then the Bell told. 
But what did she tell 

Down, down in the dell, 
With only the winds and the fairies to hear? 
Tho' she whispered so soft, 

And the winds sighed so oft, 
Yet the Yellow Orchid was standing so near 

I knew that he heard 

At least the one word — 

II You love my silver, 

The 71 I love your gold. ' ' 


/ 77. 

t5>' Clarence Henry Pearson. 

xffl Mr. Bildriver went 
shooting one day last 
fall. Mr. Bildriver had 
never before been shoot- 
ing with Mr. Unlukiktis. That was 
why he went with him this time. 

They took an early train out of the 
city and arrived at a small way sta- 
tion about twenty miles distant just 
as the sun was rising. Then they 
started across the country to a large 
cattle pasture where Mr. Unlukikus 
said there was an abundance of 
game. Mr. Unlukikus always knows 
where there is an abundance of 

Mr. Bildriver had just climbed the 
high brush fence surrounding the 
pasture and was engaged in tighten- 
ing his cartridge belt when he heard 
an explosion behind him and the 
dirt flew up in close proximity to 
his right foot. Turning, he saw 
his companion tangled up in the 
fence with a smoking gun in his 

"See here, Unlukikus," cried Bil- 
driver, excitedly, "you want to re- 
member that you are carrying a gun 
in your hands and not a walking- 
stick or a crowbar. If you are going 
to shoot holes in the atmosphere in 
this promiscuous fashion I want you 
to give me a chance to hide behind a 
stump somewhere or crawl into a hol- 
low log. You hear me ? " 

"Oh, well," said Unlukikus sooth- 

ingly, "these little accidents will oc- 
casionally happen in spite of all the 
precautions the most careful sports- 
man can take. I'm glad it's no 
worse. But say, look at that dog. 
He 's scented a quail or a partridge 
already. I paid sixty dollars to have 
him trained to point, and I don't 
grudge a cent of it. Say, ain't he a 

The dog came to a point a few 
rods ahead of them and they ad- 
vanced cautiously with their guns at 
full cock. As the)- came up the dog 
flushed a little bird about the size of 
an adult bumblebee. 

"Ya-as," said Bildriver in metal- 
lic tones ; "ya-as, Unlukikus, he is a 

Mr. Unlukikus had nothing to say. 
They proceeded for a while in silence 
and then the dog stiffened himself in 
front of a garter snake that lay coiled 
on a rock basking in the sun. Then 
his master 'rebuked him sharply with 
a birch withe. For a time after this 
incident the animal seemed melan- 
choly and depressed in spirits, but 
presently he rallied and pointed a 

' ' Say, what 's the matter with your 
blamed dog, anyway? " shouted Bil- 
driver in a rage. " Does he think 
we get up in the middle of the night, 
make a railway journey, and then 
walk twelve miles through thistles 
and underbrush to shoot pee-wees or 
field mice ? " 



"I don't know what ails him,'' 
said Unlukikus, dejectedly, "I paid 
sixty dollars " — 

" Ya-as," broke in Bildriver, '"you 
paid sixty dollars to have him taught 
to point and he points all right, but 
he lacks discrimination. Hell point 
anything from a circus procession 
down to a bluebottle fly. What 
you want to do now is to expend five 
or six hundred dollars more and give 
him a thorough course of instruction 
in ornithology so that he will be able 
to discern the salient points of differ- 
ence between a bullfrog aud a crested 

Unlukikus kicked the dog five feet 
in the air, arid they started for a 
small grove which they could see in 
the distance, Bildriver striding gloom- 
ily along ahead. Before long Un- 
lukikus saw the dog stealthily ad- 
vancing toward a small clump of 
bushes with his nose in the air and 
he began fingering the lock of his 
gun nervously. In a moment there 
was a report and Bildriver's cap was 
lifted from his head while Bildriver 
himself danced up and down like a 

" I thought that dog of yours had 
the least sense of anything on top of 
this earth," he yelled as he rubbed 
the place where a stray shot had 
scraped his bald scalp, " but he 's an 
intellectual giant compared with you. 
Did you think a wild turkey was 
roosting on my head ? Can't you 
tell the difference between a feath- 
ered fowl and a free born American 
citizen ? " 

Unlukikus humbly apologized and 
spoke soothing words to the injured 
man and put some court plaster, a 
quantity of which he always carried 
with him, on the damaged scalp and 

finally got him in a condition to pro- 

" I think you are a better shot 
than I am so you would better go 
ahead," said Mr. Unlukikus with a 
feeble attempt at diplomacy. 

"Not much. I don't go ahead," 
said Mr. Bildriver, firmly. "A man 
has a natural curosity to know what 
kills him, and so long as you have 
powder and shot and a gun about 
your person you '11 head the mournful 
procession and I '11 bring up the rear. 
Next time I go shooting with a dish- 
binged lunatic with a mania for homi- 
cide I 11 wear a complete suit of plate 
armor, and then I won't be so par- 

At this moment their attention was 
attracted by the actions of the dog, 
which was pawing away the leaves 
from under an old log and barking 

11 It 's a woodchuck," said Unluki- 
kus, as they hurried forward. "It 
isn't exactly a game animal but 
we '11 take him in," and he caught 
hold of the log and rolled it over 
while the dog, with a frantic yelp, 
rushed in and dragged a small, 
black and white animal from un- 
der it. 

"Great scott ! " cried Unlukikus, 
"it's a skunk, is n't it? " 

" Naw," snarled Bildriver, "it's a 
bird of paradise, that 's what it is. I 
knew that college-bred dog of yours 
would distinguish himself if he got a 
chance," and grasping his nose in 
one hand and his gun in the other he 
made a bee line for the station and 
was seen no more. 

"Well, dear," chirruped Mrs. Un- 
lukikus that evening as she met her 
husband at the door, ' ' what did you 


"Shoot," he growled disgustedly, bagged a conservatory on the way 
11 I shot a valuable piece of real home. Or perhaps it 's oil of winter- 
estate, I shot a Scotch tweed cap, I green. I shot a drug store down 
shot the whole scalp off the friend of near the station, I also shot " — 
rny bosom, I shot " — But Mrs. Unlukikus shot out of 

"Uriah,'' interrupted his wife snif- the room, 
fing the air, "what is that horrid "She scents the truth," muttered 

smell?" Mr. Unlukikus, with a mirthless 

" It 's mignonette, Mrs. Unlukikus. chuckle, as he dragged himself 

it 's mignonette," he responded. "I wearily upstairs to the bathroom. 

By Samuel Hoyt. 

So like a dream ! Nor twilight 'twas, nor day — 

A single parting ray of crimson shone 
Across a gilded frame and fell upon the face 
Of her, a slender girl with all of woman's grace, 

The while she struck a low, melodious tone 
Upon the ivory keys, and then straightway, 
In plaintive voice, to suit her roundelay, 
She sang (as sweetly as the angels may) 

A tender ballard of a southern zone. 

Such songs, I ween, fall on the mellow air 

That haunts the pines of Pisa, and distils 
From Casentino's forests rare perfumes — 
Where the acacia and the ilex plumes 

Lie dark against the magnolia-laden hills — 
Songs, drifting out from open casements where 
Fond lovers dream or sing away their care, 
While silver bells chime out the call to prayer, 
And spicy scent the passing zephyr fills. 

No sly appoggiatura vexed the strain ; 

- No struggling " technique " dinned the unwilling ear 

As St. Cecelia might have swept the strings 

Of her soft harp and given its passion wings, 

(While to my eyelids slowly crept a tear), 
So gently fell her notes, as dropping rain 
Upon the summer leaves — a sweet refrain — 
So sweet it lives with me to-night again, 

And haunting memory makes it doubly dear. 

By Ben Bridge. 

P^f^gPjT doesn't take much to 
(IS 1 send vour though ts hn n- 

dreds of miles away. 

it may be a face, or a 
" picture you see or a 

flower, the veriest trifle, and like a 
flash something is brought back to 
memor}'. This time, to me, it was 
the old farm. And what started it 
was a boy coming down street 
whistling " Swanee River." It 
wasn't a musical whistle "but it was 
clear and shrill, and before he had 
turned the corner I found myself as 
I walked down town humming the 
old song, 

" Dere's where me heart is turning ebber, 
Dere's where de old folks stay," 

and my thoughts were up in New 
Hampshire, at a little house among 
the hills. But the old folks didn't 
stay there now ; they had passed on 
years ago, and I wondered how the 
little house looked and why I could n't 
go up to the old Granite state, get a 
breath of the bracing air that came 
from those hills, and a look at the 
old landmarks, — for it was in the 
spring and I had been out of sorts for 
a while, and a few days outing would 
do me good. Anyway I would go. 

I left Boston a warm morning in 
May, and the sun was high up when 
I got off the cars at the little station. 
How natural it all looked! There 
lay the village in the distance, the 
spire on the same old brick church 
glistened in the sun. And the paper 
mills, too ! I could see them down 

in a little settlement, as it were, by 
themselves. Hark ! Yes. there was 
the noon whistle. I knew that whis- 
tle. Would I go to the hotel? Xo, 
not yet. while in the mood I would 
start out for the old farm. As I 
stepped from the platform into the 
road how many memories of the old 
days came back to me ; for I had 
traveled to and from school or on 
errands to the store, or with a load of 
grain from the grist-mill man}' a time 
on the old road. Here is the old 
mile-stone and guide-board. Half 
way home, now I stop and take a long- 
breath. The air is warm and I get a 
whiff of pine from the woods. A 
squirrel darts over the w T all at my 
side. I used to chase your fore- 
fathers, little chipmunk. 

Away in the distance I see old 
Kearsarge mountain. It was our 
barometer. When the clouds hung 
low on its summit or the top w 7 as 
capped, as we called it, look out for a 
storm. I am going over the flat now. 
And when up this rise I can get a 
glimpse, way ahead in the hollow, of 
the little house I used to call home. 
A few sheep are grazing in the worn- 
out fields. The old sap orchard has 
been cut down, and there are big 
gaps in the stone-walls. They have 
spared one big butternut tree here 
beside the road. There's the old 
flat stone jutting out of the wall, that 
I used to sit and crack the nuts on. 
There are a few old apple trees left in 
the little orchard. I see my old 
favorite which bore a famous apple, 


the rattle seed, is dead. I do n't find ney. I miss the high chest of 

any like those now days. 1 turn drawers, the old clock, the big round 

here and go up the path. It is table. Where are the faces of those 

grassed over now. that gave me such good cheer, that 

Poor, deserted little house, how made home ? I turn away. There 

worn and shabby 3*ou look. You, is a lump in my throat that I gulp 

too, have grown old. The lilac bush down. All of a sudden I feel tired 

under the window is full of blossoms, and old, and it looks a long stretch 

We used to call this window back to the village. A robin high up 

"mother's window.' ! lean look in, in the big maple is calling for rain, 

as the glass is all out. Old rooms, I go slowly down the path. A brisk 

how bare you look. I see the fire- breeze stirs through the trees. The 

place where I sat popping corn and air feels chilly. I turn for a last look 

toasting apples. The swallows are and raise my hat. Good-by, old 

flying inand out of the wide chiin- home, good-by, forever. 

By Annie Rogers Noyes. 

Beguiled from care, by slumber soothed, 
Fair scenes from childhood's happy day 

Come stealing back like soft, glad strains 
Of music far away. 

I see the loved of other days, 

In accents sweet their voices hear, 

The touch of gentle hands on mine 
Brings years departed near. 

A child again ! And naught but love 
And joy and happiness are mine ; 

I revel in the sunlight clear, 
Which seems alone to shine 

For me, to make my play more glad, 
To guild the fairy- footed hours, 

No care, no sorrow to molest, 

My pathway spread with flowers. 

And love of kindred hearts and true — 

Only excelled by love Divine 
Or angels', in the heavenly land — 

This love, again, is mine. 

I wake alas, the dream dispelled, 
The happy vision drifts away, 

And Care, unlovely sentinel, 
Holds undisputed sway ! 

By B. B. 

hers, one day. 

11 She was eousidered a failure in 
discipline in her last school, though/' 
replied the friend, who was prim. 

" What of that? " said the enthu- 
siast. "She wasn't appreciated or 
understood. It all came from put- 
ting her into a place too narrow for 
her. She is an all-around girl, and 
round pegs never do fit square 

" Why do you admire her so 
much?" inquired the conservative 

' ' She knows how to spend a vaca- 
tion, for one thing. No sooner is 
school out, than she is off to New 
York or Boston, ready to get the 
rest and refreshment that come from 
sight-seeing. Then, too, she knows 
a good picture, and makes a hobby 
of art. A hobby is a great preventive 
of discontent and frivolity. Her in- 
fluence will determine the future of 
many a boy and girl in Lincoln." 

" Yes, I know she has done a great 
deal in that town. But girls are dif- 
ferent. Miss James came to see me 
last evening, and she was telling me 
about her new schoolhouse. She is 
a noble woman, refined, earnest, and 
pure. But she fails to see how large 
the teacher's duty is. We spoke of 
pictures for school-rooms. I thought 

she would like to know how to get 
some good ones at little cost, but she 
took no interest. I was disappointed, 
for in the world of books that are far 
beyond the children's grasp, she and 
I are so congenial. And I know she 
loves the children, and teaches them 
faithfully. But she has not found 
her place, yet." 

" Isn't it fortunate we cannot make 
them over?" asked the older wo- 
man, merrily. " Now I know a little 
teacher-girl who plays games with 
her children, makes all her friends 
laugh by successful imitations of the 
children's baby ways, remembers to 
enter into all the make-believes of 
recess time, brings rope from home 
to make reins for little boys that 
have n't any, and is altogether such 
a lovable, original little human being, 
that her being a teacher at all seems 
almost a joke. She would never 
start a Sunday-school, but she made 
a whole neighborhood happy by a 
winter picnic of hot chocolate and 
cake for some country school-chil- 
dren who never went to a party in 
all their little lives." 

"We're all different, I suppose," 
said the other. " I like to hear what 
these girls are doing, for it often 
encourages me to try again. Miss 
Rainor was here to-day, and she told 
me she had come to the city to buy 
a piano for her school. She has 
collected some money in the district 
where she teaches, and she gave 


an entertainment at her school that must have cultivated public seuti- 

cleared nineteen dollars. She had ment, to make any money out of 

to arrange everything herself, and it." 

her school numbers over fifty. Just "Yes, one succeeds in one way, 

imagine how hard she must have and another, in another way. There 

worked, and how successful!}- she is a great difference in girls." 


[From the German of Chami?so.] 
By Mary II. Wheeler. 

King Conrad with his army, his knights and spearmen lay 
Before the town of Weinsberg for many and man}- a day. 
The Guelphs had been defeated, their army put to rout, 
But gallantly defended, this little town held out. 

But hunger came, ah, hunger, that pricketh like a thorn ; 
And then their plea for mercy was answered but in scorn. 
" Nay, you for us have stricken full many a warrior true, 
And when your gates are opened the sword awaiteth you." 

And then there came the women, " For us too must this be? 
We ask but for an out- way, and we from blood are free." 
The hero's scorn departed, his anger fled apace, 
And pity for the helpless found in his heart a place. 

" The women are permitted to pass hereout," said he, 
11 And each may take her treasures, whatever they may be, 
And go forth unmolested with all she choose to bring. 
This is the king's decision, the word, too, of the king." 

And in the early morning, with first returning light, 
The watching camp of Conrad saw- an unusual sight. ■ 
For lightly, very lightly, the gates were loosed at last, 
And ranks of staggering women from out the portal passed. 

Eow bending with their burdens they moved along the track, 
For each wife bore her treasure — her husband — on her back. 
" Halt ! halt, ye wives ! " and chieftains to angry words gave vent. 
The chancellor said clearly, that was not the intent. 

The good king answered, smiling, "Ah, so 'twas understood, 
And, were it not intended, still they have made it good. 
The king's word must be sacred, what spoken is, is spoken, 
Not even by the chancellor may it be turned or broken." 

So was the gold untarnished, unstained the royal crown. 
From time now half forgotten the legend cometh down. 
FUeven hundred fortv, we see the record stand, 
The king's word yet was sacred in the German fatherland. 


Sarah Little Story, widow of the late Alfred Story, died at her residence in 
Goffstown, January 17, 1899. Mrs. Story was born in Goffstown, Decembers, 1S17, 
and was the last of the family of eight children of Joseph and Margaret (Moon) 
Little. In early life she was a successful teacher in the schools of the town and 
acquired an enviable reputation as such. In 1S42 she was united in marriage 
with Alfred Story, a native of Goffstown, and together for half a century they 
were identified with the growth, progress, and prosperity of the town. Mrs. 
Story was a true Christian woman : one to whom the burdened heart could pour 
out its sorrows with a surety of sympathy; one to whom distress could prefer its 
suit with a certainty of tangible relief, whose hand was always open to those 
needing help, and whose heart was expanded by benevolence towards all man- 
kind. She was a valued member of Martha Washington Chapter, O. E. S. She 
is survived by a son. John W. Story, and a daughter Mardie L. Story, both of 
Goffstown. In her death Goffstown loses another of her representative people : 
another landmark has crone. 


Elizabeth McFarland Buxton, daughter of the late Rev. Edward and Eliza- 
beth McEarland Buxton, was born in Webster (then West Boscawen), April 2, 
1839, and died in her native place, February 13, 1S99. She united with the 
church, of which her father was pastor, at the age of twelve and at about that "age 
began to play the instrument in church, a service which she continued for years. 
Her early studies were mainly with her father, though she sometimes attended 
the district and select schools. She graduated from Mount Holyoke seminary in 
1S58, and after that was employed in teaching, for a few terms, in the common 
schools near home, but principally in seminaries for young ladies farther west. 
With the exception of two years at Bryn Mawr, Pa., in a girls' school of her own, 
her labors were in Monticello seminary, Godfrey, 111., in Zanesville, Ohio, and in 
Steubenville, Ohio. In the last-named place she taught eleven years. In 1S90 
she we-nt to Minneapolis to be with a friend and was not again employed regu- 
larly in school, though she had some private pupils and engaged in other literary 
work. After a few years a muscular atrophy so enfeebled her hands and arms 
that she was unable to wait on herself, and she returned in May, 1897, to Web- 
ster to spend the remainder of her days in the parish where her father labored so 
long, and where she was regarded with unbounded respect and affection. The 
helplessness continued to increase, and a severe illness in the spring of 1898 ren- 


dered her still more feeble. To one of her spirit it was a peculiar trial to be so 
dependent on others, but she bore it with cheerful patience. Unable for nearly a 
year to feed herself, or to lift her hands, or to rise from a chair, or raise her head 
from the pillow without aid, she never obtruded her own troubles on others, but 
relieved with many a bright and merry remark the tedium of the weary days. 
Miss Buxton was a rare woman ; truly modest, yet with sufficient self-assertion to 
save the other quality from weakness. With a mind remarkably well-informed 
and well-disciplined, she yet had the gentle courtesy and innate politeness which 
set others at ease. 

" None knew her but to love her, 
None named her but to praise." 

Her interest in humanity was not confined to her own community, but she 
watched public events with an eye keen to see what effect they would have on the 
world's welfare. The progress of Christ's kingdom was much in her thoughts. 
Her hearty interest in young people also continued to the last. She was fond of 
talking with them and anxious to have them choose what was noblest. In a let- 
ter dictated to one of her young friends who had large ambitions which seemed 
likely to be realized, she begged him not to be satisfied with any success which 
rested wholly in worldly gain or fame but to seek the noblest Christian manhood 
and become " such a man as the world needs." 

" Blessing she was, God made.her so, 
And deeds of week-day holiness 
Fell from her, noiseless as the snow, 
Nor did she ever chance to know 
That aught were easier than to bless." 


Wm. F. Jones, a life-long resident and prominent citizen of Durham, died at 
his late home February 3, 1899. Mr. Jones was a descendant of Stephen Jones, 
who is kno*vn to have been in possession of the Jones homestead as early as 
1663, and who was succeeded by his son, Stephen Jones; his grandson, Thomas 
M. Jones, and his great-grandson, Wm. F. Jones, the subject of this sketch, who 
was bona June 3, 18 18, and who was the last male member of his family. Mr. 
Jones descended from good stock on both sides of the house, his grandmother 
being Susannah Millet, and his mother, Betsey Chesley ; the former from the 
celebrated English Millet family, and the latter a member of the Chesley family, 
which was so prominent in the early history of New Hampshire. Air. Jones was 
honored by his townsmen by the various offices within their gift, having been 
sent to the legislature. He was a life-long farmer. 


Capt. Edmund P. Hutchinson died at his home in Milford, February 23, at 
the age of eighty years. He was one of the oldest and best known residents of 
his community, where for forty-five years he was a successful auctioneer and 
trader. Mr. Hutchinson was for many years a prominent Mason, both in the 
Blue lodge and chapter, and in politics a Democrat. 



Dr. Joseph Low Elkins, the oldest practising physician in Newmarket, died 
early Monday night of the grip. He. had been ill but a short time. Dr. Elkins 
was born in Newmarket, November 19, 1834. and received his education in the 
public schools, Philips Exeter academy, and Dartmouth college, being graduated 
from the latter institution in the class of 1S56. He later took a course in the 
medical department of Dartmouth, graduating in 1859, and the following winter 
attended a course of lectures at the Harvard Medical school. On July 1, i860, 
he opened an office in Newmarket, and he was in active practice for nearly thirty- 
nine years. In politics he was a Democrat, and he had voted that ticket ever 
since he became of age. He was always actively interested in town affairs, and 
had often been called upon to preside as moderator at the town meetings. He 
had also held the office of justice of peace for several terms, and at his death was 
superintendent of the school board. He was for many years a member of the 
Congregational church. He leaves a wife. 


Former State Supreme Court Justice Nathaniel H. Clement, who recently 
retired from the bench, died March 3, at his home in Brooklyn, N. Y., from grip. 
Justice Clement was a leading Democrat and a member of many clubs. He was 
born in Tilton, in 1844. His father, Zenas Clement, has served as state treasurer. 
When old enough he entered the Portsmouth high school, and subsequently Dart- 
mouth college, from which he graduated in 1S68. He served from 186 1 in the 
Civil War with a calvary troop composed of college men. In 1863 he became an 
attache of the treasury department at Washington, and in 1866 went to Brooklyn 
and was admitted to the bar. His election as city court justice took place in 
1882. He became supreme court justice in 1895 and served in that capacity for 

two years. 


Hon. G. W. McDufTee died at his home in Keene, March 1, after a short illness, 
aged fifty-eight. He was one of the most prominent and influential business men 
in Keene, going there in 1S62, and in 1S69 established the Cheshire Chair Co., 
and remained its manager until the time of his death. He was a prominent 
Republican, had served in the common council, board of aldermen, and repre- 
sented the city in the state legislature, and served as mayor for two terms, in 
i895~'96. He was a member of the board of trustees of the Eliott City hospital 
and Keene Savings bank. He was also a Knights Templar and an officer in the 
Order of the Golden Cross, deacon in the Second Congregational church and 
superintendent of the Sunday-school. 


Dr. Frank B. Locke, of Berlin, died February 17, at the Maine General hospi- 
tal, Portland, after a succession of nasal hemorrhages lasting several days. He 
was a native of Stewartstown, and a graduate of Albany Medical college ; he was 
an active member of several fraternal orders, — Masonic, I. O. O. F., Pilgrim 


Fathers and A. O. U. W. He was forty-three years of age. and is survived by 
two brothers, Fred VY\, of North Stratford, and Porter L., of Waltham, Mass. 


The Rev. Charles A. Towle died at Grinnell, la., February 22. He was born 
in Epsom, June 20, 1S37. At the age of twenty he entered Pembroke academy, 
and in that school and at Deny, fitted himself for Dartmouth college, from which 
he was graduated in 1 S64. He then taught for two years in the Appleton acad- 
emy at Mount Vernon, after which he entered the Theological seminary at 
Andover, Mass., staying there two years and finishing his theological studies at 
Chicago. He occupied a number of western pulpits, until, in 18S6, he was 
appointed superintendent of the Congregational Sunday-school Publishing society 
for the state of Iowa, which position he held at the time of his death. 


Horace A. Lamos was born in Somersworth in 1S41, being fifty-eight years old 
at his death, which occurred at Grand Rapids. Mich., February 16. Originally 
apprenticed to a printer, he soon tired of his trade and left it to enter the hotel 
business at Chelsea, Mass. At the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted with 
the First Massachusetts and served until he was wounded at Yorktown in 1863. 
In 1875 l ie went to Grand Rapids and became proprietor of the hotel and restau- 
rant at Union station, and at the time of his death he controlled all of the restau- 
rants on the line of the G. R. & I. railway. He is survived by a widow and a 
host of friends. 


John VV. Eastman, a native of New Hampshire, died at Minneapolis, Febru- 
ary 20. Fie was a great traveler and one of the California u Forty-niners," but 
finally settled in the West and built the first flour mill on Nicollet Island, thus 
becoming the pioneer miller of Minneapolis. He was seventy-nine years old, and 
is survived by two sons. Dr. Arthur M. Eastman of St. Paul, and Alfred F. East- 
man, who is superintendent of water-works at Skaguay, Alaska. 


Eleazer Smith, aged one hundred and one years, who fought in the War of 
1812, died at his home in Danbury, February 12. Mr. Smith was born May 16, 
1798, in Grafton, of which town his father was one of the early settlers. In the 
War of 18 1 2 he was a drummer boy, and his most valued relic was the drum 
which he carried through that memorable struggle. His grandfather was wounded 
at Bunker Hill, Mr. Smith was a Republican and voted at every presidential 
election, from that of James Monroe to William McKinley. 


Isaiah Dustin, captain in the Fifth N. H. Infantry during the Civil War, died 
at his home in West Derrv, March 1, of heart disease. 

Volume XXVI 





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As soon as you are fully aware of its merits. 


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Vol. XXVI. 

APRIL, 1S99. 



By Ellen E. Webster. 

OOSiLAUKE is the 
most formidable of the 
outlying foothills of the 
White Mountains. It- 
self it is a mighty spectacle rising 
with great power from the ranks of 
its own flanking highlands and push- 
ing its way skyward ; but its great- 
est power lies in the range of view to 
be had from its summit. The view 
is comparable only to that from the 
summit of Mount Washington." 

Indeed, some feel that it even ex- 
ceeds that of Mount Washington be- 
cause Moosilauke stands more by it- 
self. Its isolation is said to have 
another advantage — it is- not so often 
cloud-capped as the clustered peaks 
of the White Hills. 

Many are the surprises and pleas- 
ures that await the Nature lover as 
he climbs the five miles of road that 
winds from base to summit. The 
way is not only winding, but often 
reminds one of a giant's stairway, 
the treads of which are well shown 
in the view of the last mile. 

As more than half the way leads 
through a dense wood, it is only 

from a few places that one can get 
any foretaste of the grand and im- 
pressive view that awaits one on the 

The trees on either hand have 
weathered the storms of centuries, 
and how one longs to hear their his- 
tory ! To be sure, they have written 
some things in characters which we 
can interpret, but we long for ears 
that may hear the story of their vic- 
tories over rain-famines in summer 
and the Arctic Ice King's blasts in 
winter. How many times have these 
mighty trees of the forest been forced 
to join hands and, sometimes, even 
lock arms with one another for mu- 
tual support until some tempest has 
spent its force! Then, again, with 
what patience and persistence have 
they had to push and crowd their 
way — even to the death, be it sorrow- 
fully said, of weaker sisters and kin 
— all that they might have room in 
which to toss their sturdy branches ! 
But when gentle breezes stirred their 
leaves, what tender lullabies have 
they crooned to the forest children 
they have nurtured ! Birds have 



found shelter and rest with them, 
wild creatures of all sorts have writ- 
ten their autographs on the soil at 
their feet, and there also may we 
read thrilling adventures of the red 
man as told by the arrow-heads he 
occasionally lost in these solitudes. 

Ah! the trees can remember when 
the pale face first came among them 
and can point out many a blood- 
stained spot that marks the battle- 

Soon after the four-mile post is 
passed the only apologies for trees 
are seen in the dense, scraggy mats 
of stunted firs, spruces, and birches 
which lift their heads only a foot or 
two from the surface, for they 4i have 
learned that the onl}- way to live in 
such a place is to lie flat upon the 
ground and let the wind blow over" 

We began the ascent just before 

.. .. 

The Last Mile of Cz-.' aee Road. 

ground of these same pale faces and 
the wild men and wild animals of the 
forest. Yes, the pale face has robbed 
these trees of man}' a boon companion 
in the animal world — even to the com- 
plete extermination of certain resident 

But we have been slowly climbing 
as we read, and now we notice that 
the trees are smaller in size and some 
kinds have been altogether left be- 
hind because they could not survive 
the rigors of the altitude. 

sunset when the birds were singing 
their vesper hymns in cathedrals of 
their own choosing on different parts 
of the mountain, and darkness had 
stalked well over the summit before 
we reached the Tip-Top House. 

The panorama revealed next morn- 
ing was so far-reaching and complex 
the effect was for a time bewildering, 
as if we had come from a darkened 
room into one brightly lighted. The 
sublimity of the scene could not at 
once be appreciated, and we turned 






L_i* *". ' — £a& 

Tip-Top House. 

to lesser things — the birds, flowers, 
rocks, paths, etc., — waiting four or 
five days before actual mountain 
study was attempted, for distant 
peaks should be observed day after 
day and hour after hour that the 
changeable moods may be noted 
when varying lights and shadows 
sharpen and bring into prominence 
their outlines and features. 

For instance, although Mt. Wash- 
ington was seldom concealed by 
cloud-caps while we were on Moosi- 
lauke, it was not until the close of 
the seventh day that its character 
was best revealed. 

With the hotel as a centre, we 

gradually widened our horizon. The 
old, one-storied house, a rude affair, 
with walls three feet thick, was built 
of stone in i860. In this are the 
dining-room, kitchen, and a few 
sleeping rooms. The new part, 
built in 1872, very soon after the 
carriage road was completed, is of 
wood, one and a half stories high, 
and held in place by six large iron 
rods. This contains the office, par- 
lor, and other sleeping rooms. 

Outside, our attention was directed 
to the rocky surface, dotted here and 
there with several monuments made 
of rocks piled in various ways, that 
helped to break the monotony of an 

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otherwise plain and rather extensive 
summit, and were of interest because 
built b}' guests as memorials of their 

A ledgy crest is by no means char- 
acteristic of this mountain, though 
the eastern wall of the old stone 
house is buttressed by quite an out- 
crop of shelving rocks, weathered 
and scarred; and broken rocks abound 
in spots. Neither is it " bald " as its 
name would indicate (Moosi, bald, 

posed,— wood and sheep sorrel, poke, 
goldenrod, asters, buttercups (two 
or three inches high), mustard, Clin- 
tonia, snakehead, everlasting, low cor- 
nel, yarrow, goldthread, star flower, 
fireweed, mountain tea, sugar plum, 
skunk currant (which emitted so 
strong an odor we inquired if Mephi- 
tis Mephitica was a resident), straw- 
berry, blueberry, raspberry, moun- 
tain cranberries (served very accept- 
ably on the table every day of our 



■• • 



... ■ - 4 


G r e 9 n a n 

th Low Corr.el 

and Auke, a place — bald-place) for 
it has an unusual amount of soil for 
an altitude of nearly five thousand 
feet. • 

Wiry grass, rather than gray rocks, 
furnishes the prevailing color to the 
surface, but in July the Greenland 
sandwort, an Alpine species, is so 
abundant, Moosilauke is as white 
with its blossoms as some meadows 
are with bluets. 

The list of plants of this region, as 
we collected them on our rambles, 
was not so meagre as might be sup- 

stay), yellow and white cinquefoils 
(the latter being another Alpine 
plant), false Solomon's seal and 

The day I announced the discov- 
ery of " rose-twistfoot " (as I had 
been taught in youth to call Strep to- 
pus roseus), the name was misunder- 
stood by my nearest neighbor at the 
table, and she turned to her com- 
panion, saying: "Rooster's foot? I 
wonder if that was not the plant we 
noticed. I believe it was, for it did 
have a leaf shaped something like a 



rooster's foot," and I did not dispute 

The cranberries grew only two 
inches or so from the ground, but, in 
places, covered quite large areas, and 
the red fruit nearly the size of blue- 
berries, among the glossy, green 
leaves, was food to the eye as well 
as the palate. 

Birds were numerous, entertaining 
us on every walk upon the mountain, 
though on very windv davs we had 

ders, and millers were few and far 
between, so far as we observed. 

We saw a toad or two, a red squir- 
rel, a rabbit, and were told that 
hedgehogs were common. Years 
ago, bears and wild cats were seen, 
and moose were hunted on the slopes. 

Two domesticated animals spent 
their summer on the heights, — a 
white dog, the companion of the 
manager of the hotel, and a ribby, 
black cow that supplied the table 

I - - 

• -• — - • -. -■ - - m 


■ gear f> 

Mountain Cranberries. 

to seek for them in sheltered places. 
We identified hawks, Iludsonian and 
black-capped titmice, golden-crow ned 
and ruby-crested kinglets, juncos, 
red-breasted and white- breasted nut- 
hatches, winter wrens. Peabody-birds, 
hairy woodpeckers, partridges, and 
yellow-rumped, blue yellow- backed, 
black -throated blue, and Magnolia 
warblers, besides seeing several spe- 
cies we were uncertain about. 

Swarms of large flies buzzed about 
the house and barn and myriads of 
tiny insects might be met anywhere ; 
but grasshoppers, dragon flies, spi- 

with an abundance of rich milk. 
The mountain air made both ani- 
mals appear lazy, for the dog, though 
reported as quite lively in the val- 
ley, spent most of his time dozing, 
and the cow has been seen to chew 
her cud and ruminate for hours at 
a time. Indeed, one observer de- 
clared he found her at dinner time in 
the identical tracks she had been left 
in at breakfast. 

The thermometer was not ac- 
quainted with high temperatures in 
that part of the world, and, during 
the first week in September, the mer- 



.. \ 

In the Dirvng-Roorn. 

cur)' walked up and ran down the 
steps between 64 and 32 . 

At home, sixty-five miles south, it 
averaged eleven degrees warmer at 
seven in the morning, fifteen and 
three quarters at noon, and sixteen 
and seven-eighths at six in the after- 

We took the temperature of the 
water in three clear and sparkling 
springs aud found it to be 38^2° in 
one, while all were below 42 . 
" Kiosemole," or " Cold Spring," is 
beside the carriage road, a mile from 
the Tip-Top House, and probably 
few pass without refreshing them- 
selves from its living supply. An- 
other, on the path to Jobildunk's 
ravine, is named ' ; Hanlucima." 

There are three or four trails down 
the side of the mountain, and it is 
not only unsafe to go far from the 
beaten paths, but one does not de- 
sire to, as it is too hard work to fight 
a way over uncertain footing and the 
almost impenetrable thicket of tan- 
gled firs. 

The paths are carpeted in places 
with the most beautiful of mosses 

and lichens. One has reported thirty 
kinds of mosses. Mushrooms, of 
different colors and, favorably 
nourished, unfurl their umbrellas 
with usual rapidity, and, with equal 
haste, mingle their dust with the soil 

It is a steep descent to Jobildunk's 
ravine where the wilduess of the 
scene brings out all your supersti- 
tious qualities and you feel with the 
southern guide, "It would be might)' 
skeery to be found on the mountings 
when the ha'nts come outen their 
caves," yet the solitude and isola- 
tion create as powerful sensations as 
ghosts could. 

I was left at the head of this ravine 
alone, one day, while my companion 
went prospecting down the steep 
sides. I shuddered to look down the 
sheer precipice for "four hundred 
feet" with nothing else to be seen 
but sky, rocks, and trees, unless, 
perchance, a bird or a wild animal 
crossed the path. Not a glimpse of a 
house or the smoke from any dwel- 
ling ; in fact, not a trace of anything 
in creation made by the hand of man. 


"Stillness and solitude were there, 
hill and ravine, sky and valley, every- 
where magnificent, the outline every- 
where bold, grand, and sublime," but 
it was all Divine handiwork. 

The stillness was something to be 
felt. Absolutely, there was not a 
sound to be heard from the animate 
world while I waited, not even a ear 
whistle to reverberate among the 
hills ; nothing to be heard but the 
laughing brook at my feet as it 
leaped forward, sometimes above and 
sometimes under ground, to plunge 
at last over the precipice and join its 
waters with other rivulets to make 
what is now called Baker's river, but 
in Indian times was named '"Asquam- 
chumauke." " mountain water-place. " 
Its music was like voices of merry 
children at play, their feet dallying 
over the pebbles, their fingers fon- 
dling the most beautiful specimens 
along the stony way, while in child- 
ish trebles they shouted with glee 
and pleaded for a longer holiday, at 
which the deep underground current 
remonstrated in rumbling tones, urg- 
ing them on "to work, to work." 

Many of the trees on the wooded 
hills were so old their branches were 
bleached almost white and streaked 

the hillside with silver like the gray 
hairs of a hoary head. Some one 
speaks of them as "standing like 
skeletons down on the shoulders of 
the mountain, just as though a great 
graveyard had been shaken open by 
an earthquake." 

The wonderful and varied cloud 
effects were a source of never-ending 
pleasure. To see for ourselves layers 
of clouds was a new meteorological 
experience. We awoke several morn- 
ings to find ourselves as on an island 
in mid-ocean with a sea of clouds 
surging about us that covered every- 
thing from Moosilauke to the Green 
Mountains, while above us were other 
strata, one of which just capped Mt. 

Upon inquiring later about the 
weather from the people in the val- 
ley, we learned that they had not 
been in a fog, but supposed we had 
soaked in it ! It was strange, too, to 
see large, fleecy clouds floating below 
us which would have looked natural 
enough "down on earth," though I 
had always supposed them more dis- 
tant than these were ; and to see the 
valleys below during a thunderstorm, 
looking down, not up, at the play of the 
lightning, with a bright sky overhead, 

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■, ■ 
pi I* • . . 





was ail experience we longed for but 
did not have, yet such a sight is not 
uncommon. No wonder such a scene 
filled the Indians with superstition , 
especially as they believed the moun- 
tain to be the abode of their Great 
Spirit, "Gitche Manito." 

Mr. William Little in his " History 
of Warren, N. H.," tells us of the 
experience of an Indian chief and a 
few followers who pushed on to the 
top of Moosilauke : ' ' Not often did 
the Indians climb this mountain, and 

in the wildest confusion in all the 
land, the silver lakes were sparkling, 
the bright rivers were gleaming from 
the forest. As they sat upon that 
topmost peak the wind was still, and 
they could hear the moose bellowing 
in the gorges below, could hear the 
wolf howling, and now and then the 
great, war eagle screamed and hurtled 
through the air. A feeling of super- 
stitious reverence took possession of 
those Indians as they drank in the 
strange sights and wild sounds. . . . 

d i 

• ' 


■ - 

The Mountain Water Team. 

they only did it now to save time and 
distance. It was a hard ascent for 
their moccasined feet, over the stones 
and through the hackmatacks, as they 
called the dwarf firs and spruces ; but 
upon the bald mountain crest the way 
was easier, and the little birds were 
whistling and singing among the li- 
chens and rocks. When they reached 
the summit, the heaven was cloud- 
less, and the view was unobscured. 

" It was a sight, the like of which 
they had never seen before. Great 
mountains were piled and scattered 

"The untutored savage was filled 
with awe as he stood in the .very 
dwelling place of his God, afraid 
that the diety would be angry at the 
almost sacrilegious invasion. 

" As the sun was going down the 
western sky a light mist collected 
around the eastern peaks, and above 
all the river valleys in the west, 
clouds, at first no larger than a man's 
hand, began to gather. 

''Soon hanging over every valley 
was a shower — the heavens above 
them clear — the sun shining brightly 



upon the vapor, 
freshened, and 

Quickly the wind 
the screat clouds, 

purple and gold and crimson above, 
black as ink below, hurried from 
every quarter towards the crest of 
Moosilauke. Then thunder began 
to bellow, and the lightning leaped 
from cloud to cloud and streamed 
blinding down to the hills beneath 
while the great raindrops and hail- 
stones, crashing upon the in- 
finite thick woods, sent up a r— 
roar as loud as a hundred 
mountain torrents. l It is 
Gitchie Manito coming to 
his home angry,' muttered 
Waternomee, as with his 
companions he hurried down 
the mountain to the thick 
spruce for shelter." 

A recent writer says: "The 
Indian, poor child of nature, 
' a pagan suckled in a creed 
outworn,' stood afar off and 
worshiped toward these holy 
hills, but the white man 
clambers gayly up their 
sides, guide book in hand, 
and leaves his sardine box 
and egg shells, and likely 
enough his business card, 
at the top." This is true 
enough of many a tourist, 
but the real child of nature. 
whatever his color or creed, 
worships still. 

Of course there were sunrises and 
sunsets that defied anything like an 
adequate description, but one sunset, 
in particular, was so unique, an at- 
tempt will be made to give some idea 
of it. 

A thin vapor, close by, but be- 
tween us and the sun, reflected rain- 
bow tints, "as though the hand of 

myriads of gorgeous rainbows," of 
which the wind made havoc, sepa- 
rating them from time to time into 
tongues of red, yellow, green, and 
blue flame, and hustling them past 
so quickly only shifting glimpses of 
the foothills and valleys could be 
seen between. 

Through the vapor, at times, the 
sun looked as flat as a plate, and as 










... . :■' ' . 

. . 


A " SVe 

leton " on the Path 

to Job;;di 



devoid of interest as a round piece of 
yellow paper plastered on a wall, but 
as it neared the horizon, on a lurid 
background of magenta sky, it peeped 
from behind narrow bands of dark 
clouds like a face through prison 

In all these studies of nature we 
had become more and more familiar 
the Divine Artist had woven together with the mountains and toward the 







je Road, Tiueo Fourths o! a Mile from the Summit. 

close of our stay we gave one day 
to learning their names. The task 
seemed almost hopeless as we looked 
upon tier after tier climbing skyward 
on every hand. 

It had taken several days to realize 
the distance of the horizon, especially 
the sweep from northwest along the 
west and south as far as the south- 
east, where several of the peaks were 
one hundred miles away and a few 
at even a greater distance. 

The sun went down every night 
behind the Adirondacks in New 
York and we learned to find White- 
face among their peaks. Most 
noticeable of the Green Mountains 
were Camel's Hump and Mt. Mans- 
field, the former being especially 
beautiful when penciled against a 
sunset sky. On clear days Jay's 
peak in northern Vermont and Mt. 
Royal in Canada could be seen. 

To the north and east the view- 
was very impressive as it was near 
enough to be carefully studied. Be- 
cause of numbers, it took patience 

to learn to call our dear old Granite 
hills by name. 

The most prominent peaks studied 
were Kinsman, Cannon, Lafayette. 
Lincoln, Liberty, Flume, South 
Twin, Adams, Jefferson, Clay, Wash- 
ington, Monroe, Pleasant, Willey, 
Carter's Dome, Wildcat, Baldface, 
Sable, Eastman, Nancy, Carrigain, 
Hancock, Conway Kearsarge, Table. 
Moat, Osceola, Tripyramid, Cho- 
corua, Paugus, Passaconaway, Te- 
cumseh, and others, while beyond, 
Bonnyberry and Green Mountains in 
Maine were faintly delineated. 

Near Lake Winnipesaukee were 
Morgan Mountains, Cropple Crown, 
Red Hill, and Gunstock, with Aga- 
menticus in Maine for a background. 

Toward the south were the Unea- 
noonucks, Jo English, Wachusett, 
Ragged Mountains, Warner Kear- 
sarge, Cushman, Kineo, Carr, Cardi- 
gan, Monadnock, Croyden, Ascut- 
ney, Hoosac Tunnel Mountain, Kil- 
lington Peaks, etc., representing 
heights in New Hampshire, Ver- 



mont, and Massachusetts. Alto- 
gether these made quite a lesson in 
-geography for one recitation. 

But the days hurried by and we, 
too, must leave the mountain "to 
work, to work." 

In "Sir. Bradford Torrey's words, 
which so truly described my own de- 
parture, — " Slowly and with many 
stops I sauntered down the long hill 
through the forest (the stops, I need 
not say, are commonly the major part 

of a naturalist's ramble, the golden 
beads, as it were, the walk itself be- 
ing only the string), 'enjoying' the 
silliness, the sense of seclusion, the 
flicker of sunlight and shadow, the 
rustle of leaves, the chirp of the bird, 
or its full-voiced song, the tracery of 
lichens on rock and tree, the tuft of 
ferns, the carpet of moss, the bright- 
ness of blossom and fruit, — all the 
numberless sights and sounds of the 


- -• 






The Moosnauke. 


By Elizabeth B. Dyer. 

'T was up in the far North Country 

Where the wintry winds blow shrill, 
And the forest echoes the tempest shriek 
When the thunder birds their vengeance wreak. 
And their deadly lightnings kill. 

'Twas a wild mad night in the ages past, 

And the storm spirits filled the air. 
They lashed the trees with their ugly whips, 
And tore the branches in splintering strips, 
While the heavens shone with a lurid glare. 


Red Cloud, the hunter, had wandered far, 

Seeking in vain for deer, 
Till wean- and faint he sank at last 
With a wail that rang through the wintry blast, 

And told of a mortal fear. 

" Great Father ! Red Cloud, the hunter, dies 

This night in the blinding snow. 
His lodge in the far away Southern land 
Shall evermore silent and empty stand 
And his fate shall no one know." 

But Red Cloud slept and in dreams beheld 

A land that was fair and bright, 
Where mountains lifted their heads serene, 
And Nature, clad in living green, 

Was bathed in heavenly light. 

But the vision faded at dawn of day 
And the Indian awoke in despair. 
" Great Father ! " he cried, " O may it be mine 
To know where lieth this Land of Thine, 
And to hunt the wild deer there ! " 

Ere yet the words were ended 

The Master of Life drew near 
And into the Indian's trembling hand, 
With whispered words of loving command, 

He placed a coal and spear. 

" Thy feet shall wander these forests through, 

This spear shall bring thee food, 
This coal shall kindle a gentle heat 
That shall fill thy being with comfort sweet 
And scatter thy gloomy mood." 

The fingers clutched but could not hold. 

And the glowing fragment fell. 
A moment it rested amid the snow 
Then kindled and burned with a steady glow 

That no human power could quell. 

The rocks were melted, Earth tossed and heaved, 

And out of the midst of the smoke 
Came in thundering tones, " Ye hills arise ! " 
And Red Cloud, covering his awe-filled eyes, 
Knew 'twas God himself who spoke. 



And the hills uprose in their majesty 

Till the clouds their summits crowned ; 
While again that Voice from the loftiest height, 
Which towered beyond man's feeble sight, 
Made Heaven and Earth resound. 

" Behold ! these hills shall eternal stand, 
For the Great Spirit dwelleth there ! 

And lo ! he bendeth in love to hear 

The prayers of the children whom He holds dear, 
And guard them with kindly care ! " 

And then a sudden blaze of glory 
Shone full on the Indian's face. 
Trees burst in bloom, and wild-bird trills 
Joined with the music of brooks and rills, 
"And God was in His dwelling place ! 

By Clarence Henry Pearson. 


Men have had rheuma- 
tism before, and men will 
continue to have rheumatism until 
the last syllable of recorded time, 
but few men have ever been so 
thoroughly and so uuanimously 
rheumatic as was our genial friend, 
Unlukikus, upon the occasion to 
which we refer. 

Some men bear their troubles 
meekly and in silence. 

Mr. Unlukikus is not one of these 

Ever and anon a twinge of pain 
would catch him in the leg and skate 
playfully up and down his sciatic 
nerve, and then he would converse 
in a manner calculated to freeze the 
blood of an East Indian pirate, or 

the foreman of a job printing office 
that is five days behind its orders. 
Whenever anyone approached within 
five feet of his game shoulder he 
would emit a yell that could be dis- 
tinctly heard by every inmate of the 
deaf and dumb asylum over in the 
next ward. 

"Shan't I rub some of the lotion 
to your knee, love?" inquired Mrs. 

"No, you shan't rub some of the 
lotion to my knee, love, by a dumb 
sight," gritted Mr. Unlukikus be- 
tween his teeth; "I have had horse 
liniment and fluid extract of eternal 
punishment sopped on to that knee 
until it has soaked all through my 
system and made me smell like a 
bottle of coffin varnish. If you have 
got to rub that blamed liniment on 



something in order to ease your 
mind and employ your hands, please 
practice on the piano leg for a while, 
or try and limber up the joints of 
the stove pipe with it, and give me 
a rest," — and he concluded his sen- 
tence with a groan and tried to shy 
a book at the dog. 

"Are you in pain now, dearie?," 
inquired his wife. 

"Naw," responded "dearie," sar- 
castically, "of course not ; what put 
that idea into your head ? I was 
just groaning to keep in practice. 
Ouch !-ow ! -whoopee ! " he yelled as 
the cat, purring good-naturedly, 
jumped on the bed and walked over 
him, " take him off can't you ? wow ! 
wow ! — are you going to stand there 
with your thumb in your mouth and 
see this consarned cat amble up and 
down my pain-racked anatomy from 
June till Judgment? Do you think 
I'm a back fence?* Do you have 
an idea that I'm laid out in walks 
especially adapted for Tom-cat prom- 
enades ? Scat, you brute! " and the 
sufferer laid back and groaned while 
the frightened feline ran frantically 
around the room and tried to hide 
behind the coal scuttle. 

"Oh, dear! can't I do something 
to relieve you ? " asked the patient 
wife fluttering about with a world of 
sympathy in her eyes. 

"Yes, you can do something to 
relieve me," snarled the invalid. 
"You can take that dod-rotted cat 
by the tail and carry him out and 
knock his pesky head against the 
brick pavement seventeen or eigh- 
teen times, and then throw the 
mutilated remains over on to lot 17 
in block 49 of Mulligan's Addition 
to the City of Wahtunket." 

The cat was expelled and Mrs. 

Unlukikus announced that it was 
time for him to take his medicine, 
which she carefully measured out in 
a teaspoon and gave him, inadvert- 
ently spilling about two drops on his 
neck as she did so. 

"Look a-here," he shouted get- 
ting blue in the face, " I don't think 
you quite grasp the doctor's idea. 
This medicine is for internal use. 
He did n't instruct you to give me a 
bath, as I understood it, but merely 
to smuggle a teaspoonful of this dose 
down my neck every two hours. It 
may be all right theoretically for you 
to deluge me with a quart or so of 
that stuff every few minutes, but 
when it comes to practical experi- 
ment you can't get enough of it into 
my system by pouring it over my 
wishbone to do me any real good if 
you try four years. I believe if the 
rheumatism don't kill me, you will." 

"If something don't kill you be- 
fore long I guess you will kill me," 
said his wife with a tired look, " and 
if you are this way much longer I 
shall want to die." 

"Yes," snapped he, "of course 
you want to die just at this partic- 
ular time, and leave me hung up 
here in this way with an expensive 
funeral on my hands. Haven't I 
genuine trouble enough without any 
petty annoyances ? " 

"You deserve to die, you brute," 
said Mrs. Unlukikus flaming up for 
the first time, — "to talk like that to 
me after all I've done for you. I 
hope you won't, though," she added, 
softening a little, " for if you died in 
your present state of mind you'd be 
eternally lost." 

" Likely enough," grunted Un- 
lukikus ; "it would be just my 
durned luck ! " 


3!f T 


— ! 



- :'. 


' " 

Old North Church — Methodist General Bidica! Institute. 


£> William F. White her. 

X the spring of 1847 the Metho- 
dist General Biblical Institute 
was established at Concord. 
After nearly twenty- one years 
of honorable and useful activity it 
was removed to Boston, and as the 
School of Theology of Boston Univer- 
sity, it became the nucleus around 
which that institution with its College 
of Liberal Arts and various profes- 
sional schools has since been built up. 
The Institute was the only educa- 
tional Institution ever chartered in 
New Hampshire for the sole purpose 

of fitting young men for the Chris- 
tian ministry ; in other words it was 
New Hampshire's only theological 

It embodied the first successful at- 
tempt on the part of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, now the largest 
numerically, and one of the most in- 
fluential, of the Protestant denomina- 
tions of the United States, to establish 
a theological school or seminary sepa- 
rate or apart from any other educa- 
tional institution. 

A Methodist theological school 



could not be otherwise than radi- 
cally Arminian in its teachings, ag- 
gressively anti-Calvin istic. It is a 
noteworthy fact that the establish- 
ment of the institute was made pos- 
sible through the open-handed gen- 
erosity and liberal sympathy of the 
First Congregational church and so- 
ciety of Concord, a church and so- 
ciety which, for more than a cen- 
tury, had been a leading represen- 
tative of New England Calvinistic 

The impression more or less preva- 
lent that the early Methodists in the 
United States did not think highly of 
a liberal education, and attempt to 
make provision for it, is a mistaken 
one. In 17S4, the same year that the 
scattered Methodist societies were or- 
ganized into the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Cokesbury College, named for 
the two first Methodist bishops, Coke 
and Asbury. was established in Mary- 
land. The course of study was much 
like that of the other colleges of the 
time, Greek, Hebrew, and the sacred 
languages being emphasized, with a 
view of giving special preparation for 
the ministry. 'This college was the 
pride of the young and growing de- 
nomination, but in December, 1795, 
the buildings were burned. Other 
buildings were soon erected at Balti- 
more, but hardly were they finished 
when they were burned, and Cokes- 
bur}' college, with its semi-theologi- 
cal department, went out of existence. 

For years thereafter such theologi- 
cal training as Methodist ministers 
received as a preparation for their 
work was obtained from a prescribed 
course of study to be pursued by the 
young men during the first four years 
of their itinerant ministry. This 
was pursued by them in the midst 

of their work as circuit riders and 
preachers, under the direction of pre- 
siding elders and senior preachers, 
who were assigned to the same cir- 
cuit as themselves. The chief text- 
books were "Watson's Institutes," 
an excellent body of divinity, by the 
way, and volumes of "John Wesley's 
Sermons," especially those dealing 
with doctrinal topics. This course 
of study, largely doctrinal and ethi- 
cal, was pursued under difficulties, 
and was hardly adapted for making 
scholars. Such of the preachers as 
were really studious became versed 
in the theories and doctrines of Wat- 
son and Wesley, became familiar 
with the English bible and the 
Methodist hymn book, but knew lit- 
tle of exegesis, and still less of ser- 
monic construction. 

The itinerant circuit-rider during 
the first quarter century of the life 
of his denomination accomplished a 
really phenomenal work, but in the 
East, especially in Xew England, 
where the clergymen of the other de- 
nominations, and especially the Con- 
gregational clergy, were the schol- 
arly men of their respective commu- 
nities, there w T as felt on the part of 
the more thoughtful of the Metho- 
dists the need of a more critical, 
scholarly, and thorough training for 
the ministry, than was supplied by 
the conference course of study. 

The first step in the direction of 
securing such training was taken in 
connection with the founding of the 
Wesley an academy at Newmarket, 
N. H., in 1818. This institution, 
the first founded by the denomina- 
tion in New England, was to furnish 
not only the regular academic course 
of study but instruction was also to 
be given in rhetoric, logic, philoso- 


phy, eeclesiatieal history, divinity, 
Hebrew, the Chaldee of the Old Tes- 
tament and the Syrian of the New. 
Martin Rnter, a minister of the New 
England conference, was made by 
the trustees of the academy the first 
principal, and Moses White, A. M., 
preceptor. For much of the time 
the latter was not only preceptor, but 
entire faculty as well. In 1S20— '21 
Joseph A. Merrill, who was a trustee 
of the academy and also one of the 
preachers stationed at Newmarket, 
received some of the students of the 
academy who were licensed preach- 
ers into his family as boarders, and 
gave them instruction in sermon 
making, the doctrines of Methodism, 
and in controverted points of Calvin- 
ism, Universalism, and Socinianism. 
This may be set down as the germ of 
a Methodist theological seminary, a 
not over-promising one, however. 
Among the Newmarket students 
were E. T. Taylor of subsequent 
Seaman's Bethel fame, Rev. Charles 
Adams, D. D., subsequently profes- 
sor in the institute at Concord, and 
Rev. W. C. Larrabee, for many years 
a prominent educator in the West. 

In 1S24 the academy was removed 
to Wilbraham, Mass., where instruc- 
tion was given in theology by the 
principal, Wilbur Fisk, to the i- Theo- 
logical Association," composed of 
students in the academy who were 
contemplating entering the ministry. 
Wesleyan university was founded at 
Middletown, Conn., in 1S31, and Dr. 
Fisk became its first president. In 
this new institution he continued to 
give some general theological instruc- 
tion to an association of students com- 
posed of licentiates and of those who 
intended to enter the ministry, but 
this was only desultory and general. 

There was never a theological de- 
partment at Wesleyan, though under 
its university charter such a depart- 
ment or school might have been 

After the founding of Wesleyan 
university, the question of the estab- 
lishment of a theological school was 
agitated more strongly than ever, and 
the discussions of the question were 
earnest and frequent at the annual 
sessions of the different New Eng- 
land conferences. Wesleyan univer- 
sity was doing simply the work of the 
typical New England college, and 
this work emphasized the need of 
professional training for ministers, 
especially in the exegetical study of 
the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures, in 
systematic and biblical theolosrv, in 
ecclesiastical and doctrinal history, 
and in the structure and delivery of 
sermons. In the absence of Metho- 
dist theological schools, some young 
Methodist ministers resorted to the 
theological seminaries of other de- 
nominations, and in most cases were 
lost to Methodism. The example of 
the Congregationalists and Baptists 
in founding seminaries, both in and 
out of New England, with frequent 
hints thrown out concerning Metho- 
dist inferiority, had also marked in- 

The great majority of the Metho- 
dist ministers, however, set their 
faces steadfastly against theological 
schools, arguing that all needed theo- 
logical training could be obtained in 
the course of regular itinerant work. 
They pointed to results accomplished 
without the aid of theological schools, 
in justification of their position. 

Several of the members of the New 
England conferences, however, organ- 
ized what they termed a ''Wesley 



Institute Association," the object of 
which was to promote theological 
training for young ministers. Among 
its members were: Abel Stevens, 
Joseph A. Merrill, Orange Scott, Jef- 
ferson Hascall, Osmon C- Baker, Da- 
vid Patten, Charles R. Lowe. Edward 
Otheman, Charles Adams, and Elijah 
Hedding, all of whom were to make 
themselves felt as leaders and educa- 
tional forces in their denomination. 
In 1840, the first attempt was made 
to found a school under the name of 
"The Wesleyan Theological Insti- 
tute," in connection with the Metho- 
dist academy at Newbury, Vt. It 
was located at Newbury, with the 
understanding that the citizens of 
that town were to furnish a building 
equal to the academy, and that the 
association should raise an endow- 
ment fund of Si 5, 000. Two profes- 
sors were elected ; Rev. John Demp- 
ster, A. M., of theology, and John 
\V. Merrill, A. M., of sacred litera- 
ture. Mr. Dempster was at this time 
a missionary in South America, and 
did not return to the country until 
1842, and then took pastorates in 
New York city until 1846, when he 
entered on the service of the institute 
as an agent to solicit funds. From 
1840 to 1846 instruction was given in 
theology, to such students as availed 
themselves of the meagre opportuni- 
ties of this experimental embryonic 
school, by Osmon C Baker, principal 
of the academy, and in Hebrew by 
W. M. Willets. The experiment at 
Newbury was not, however, a suc- 
cess. The building for the use of 
the school was not furnished, and 
efforts to raise an endowment fund 
had met with little or no success. It 
was also recognized that if the ex- 
periment of a theological seminary 

was to have a fair trial, it must be in 
the form of an independent school. 

Near the close of 1846 it was de- 
termined to abandon the Newbury 
experiment, and establish in some 
more favorable locality an institution 
with professors of its own, and with a 
course of study similar to that of the 
theological seminaries of other de- 

Several places were considered by 
those having charge of selecting a 
location, and. in the spring of 1S47, 
Concord was selected. The faith of 
those who determined to found the 
school was little less than sublime. 
When Andover Theological seminary 
was founded, forty years previously, 
its founders and associate founders 
gave it some S6o,ooo with which to 
begin its work, and in their wills pro- 
vided for some S250,ooo more, but 
this association of Methodist preach- 
ers, who now proposed to found a 
theological school, were not only 
themselves destitute of money, but 
there were no wealthy Methodist lay- 
men to whom they could look for 
money to erect buildings or endow 
professorships. Besides this, their 
denomination, for the most part, 
looked with decided disfavor upon 
the project of a theological school. 
Events, however, justified their faith. 

The one thing which, above all 
others, led to the selection of Con- 
cord as the location of the school, 
was the munificent offer made by 
the First Congregational society of 
Concord to give to the association, 
gratuitously, their meeting-house on 
Main street, known as the Old North 
church, for the purposes of a theo- 
logical school, together with the lot 
of about an acre and a half, upon 
which it was located. This offer 


was supplemented by that of public- 
spirited citizens of the town to so re- 
model the house as to suit the new 
purpose to which it was to be de- 
voted . 

This house, the erection of which 
was begun in 1751, and which was. 
completed in 17S3, stood in a com- 
manding position on a small plain at 
the north end of the town, now the 
site of the Walker school. It had 
been abandoned by the society in 
1842, as a house of worship, for the 
new and more commodious house 
which had been erected, but it was 
a building rich in historical associa- 
tions, indeed, there was none more 
so in the state. The frame was 
erected in 175 1 , aud was partially 
completed, so that it was used for 
purposes of worship, but it was not 
completed and furnished with pews 
until 1783, when it contained forty- 
seven pews on the ground floor, and 
twenty-six in the gallery. The pews 
were then sold at auction, and the 
building became the joint property of 
the town and the pew-holders. It 
was enlarged in 1S03, and again in 
1828, at which time the town sold .its 
interest in the house to the First 
Congregational society. It would 
then seat 1,200 people in its pews 
and galleries. 

The original building was 60 feet 
long, "46 feet wide, and two stories 
high. The addition made to the 
south side in 1S03 was in the form 
of a two-story semi-polygon, 60 feet 
in length, and with a middle width 
of 30 feet. There was an entrance 
porch at each end, and the east 
porch was surmounted by a belfry 
and steeple, upon the spire of which 
stood, 123 feet from the ground, a 
gilded weather-cock of copper. This 

bird was four feet in height, weighed 
about 60 pounds; and with its proudly 
expanded tail and glass eyes, was a 
truly heroic looking bird. 

It was in this house that the New 
Hampshire state convention was 
held June 21, 1788, and which by 
its ratification of the Federal Con- 
stitution gave life to that instru- 
ment, and made the constitutional 
government of the United States an 
actuality. Previous to this, in 1778, 
a convention was held in the build- 
ing to form a permanent plan of 
government for the state. The legis- 
lature met here March 13, 1783, but 
on account of the cold it was forced 
to adjourn to another building. The 
next year, however, the house had 
been completed, and previous to 1790 
no less than fifteen sessions of the 
general court were held in it. It 
was also the scene of the conventions 
of i79i-'Q2, held for the purpose 
of revising the state constitution. 
From 1784 to 1806 the legislature 
assembled in this meeting-house to 
listen to the annual election sermon, 
and thence forward every year until 
1 S3 1, when the custom was discon- 
tinued. Of the entire number of New 
Hampshire election sermons thirty- 
nine were delivered in this building 
destined to pass into the possession 
of the " New Lights " or Methodists. 

In his history of the meeting-house 
of the First Congregational society, 
Joseph B. Walker says of this house : 
"From 1765 to 1790, a period of 
twenty-five years, all annual and 
special town meetings were held in 
this meeting-house. Here our towns- 
men, many of whom rarely, if ever, 
met on other occasions, except for 
divine w r orship, assembled to ex- 
change friendly greetings and dis- 



charge their civil duties as American 
citizens. Here, also, protracted re- 
ligious meetings were held from time 
to time, the most memorable of 
which was in 1S31. Here important 
addresses were delivered to large 
assemblies on Fourth of July and 
other occasions of general interest. 
Here in 1S35 was delivered before 
the general court a eulogy on Gen- 
eral Lafayette by Nathaniel G. Up- 
ham. Here were held conventions 
for the promotion of temperance. 
Here occurred in 1834 and 1S35, the 
memorable trials of Abraham Pres- 
cott for the murder of Mrs. Sally 
Cochran of Pembroke. Here was 
held that sharp political encounter 
between Franklin Pierce and Tohn P. 
Hale upon the latter's leaving the 
Democratic party in 1845. The 
walls of no other house in New 
Hampshire resounded to so many 
lofty flights of eloquence as did those 
of our second meeting-house from 
1751 to 1842." 

The pulpit of this church had 
been the throne of New Hampshire 
Calvinistic orthodoxy for more than 
a century. The building was hal- 
lowed for its associations. It was 
offered by its owner as a gift to be 
used for a school in which should 
be taught the tenets of Arminianism. 
It is to be doubted if ever before such 
a gift had been made by Congre- 
gational Calvinistic body to Metho- 
dist Arminian denomination. This 
gift and its acceptance marked an 
era in the ecclesiastical history of 
the state. The Methodist association 
agreed to use the property for a term 
of at least twenty years for a theo- 
logical school, and should they there- 
after abandon it, it should revert to 
its former owners. 

The building thus given was by 
the generosity of the citizens of Con- 
cord fitted up for its school use. It 
was divided at once into two stories, 
little or no change being made in 
its exterior. In the northwest part 
of the second story a chapel was 
arranged with a seating capacity of 
150. Two wide halls ran through 
the middle of the building from 
north to south in each story, and on 
either side of these were rooms for 
recitation and occupancy of students. 
There were two lecture rooms on the 
ground floor near the west and east 
entrances. On the second floor over 
the east lecture room was a reading- 
room, and next south of this a 

In June, 1847, the legislature gave 
an act of incorporation to Charles 
Adams, Osmou C. Baker, Abel 
Stevens, D. S. King, Elisha Adams, 
Ralph W. Allen, Miner Raymond, 
Lorenzo D. Barrows, David Patten, 
James Porter. Silas Quimby, Sanford 
Burton, Jefferson Hascall, and Newell 
Culver, under the title of " The Trus- 
tees of the Methodist General Biblical 
Institute." By the act of incorpora- 
tion, approved July 3, the trustees 
were empowered to hold property to 
an amount not exceeding $roo,ooo, a 
limitation which it need not be said 
was entirely unnecessary. 

Bishop Elijah Hedding, who had 
given his hearty cooperation in the 
work of establishing the institute, 
was elected its president, though it 
was understood that his Episcopal 
duties, and the fact that his home 
was in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., would 
prevent him from rendering any 
actual service. He lent, however, 
the influence of his great name to the 
experiment, at which his Episcopal 



colleagues looked askance, and he 
was continued in tbe office of presi- 
dent until his death, April 9, 1S52. 

Rev. John Dempster, who had 
been elected a professor when the 
attempt was made to establish the in- 
stitute at Newbury, Vt., was elected 
professor of theology and ecclesiasti- 
cal history, and at once entered on 
the work of organizing the new in- 
stitution. Mr. Dempster may fairly 
be called the father of Methodist 
theological seminaries. No man in 
Methodism was a more ardent be- 
liever in the need of a thoroughly 
equipped and trained ministry. He 
deemed the ministry to be not only 
a divine calling but a profession 
as well. He was born in Fulton 
county, New York, January 2, 1794, 
the sou of Rev. James Dempster, 
who had been bred a Presbyterian, 
and had been educated at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. He became 
associated with John Wesley, and 
was sent by him to America as a 
missionary. He died while John 
was a child, and the boy was left to 
gain his livelihood as a tin peddler. 

After his conversion, at the age 
of 16, he began to study diligently, 
and at the age of twenty entered 
the Methodist itinerancy, early dis- 
tinguishing himself as a powerful 
preacher. Ilis field of labor was for 
some years in Western New York 
and Canada, when he went in 1835 
to Buenos Ayres as a missionary, 
returning in 1S42 to take pastorates 
for three years in New York city. 
For the two years preceding his 
coming to Concord he had devoted 
himself to collecting books for a 
library and funds for the theological 
school, to aid in founding which had 
become his one ambition. The in- 

stitution at Concord was fortunate 
in securing Dempster for its chair 
of theology, which he filled with 
marked ability, compelling the ad- 
miration of a half reluctant church, 
until 1S54 when he resigned in order 
to found another seminary — the Gar- 
rett institute at Evanston, 111., where 
he remained as the senior professor 
until his death in 1S63. He had 
formed plans for establishing still 
other institutes, which failed owing 
to the financial disasters of 1S57, anc *- 
the breaking out of the Civil War 
in 1S61. Wesleyan university gave 
him the degree of D. D. in 1848. 
Though deprived of the advantages 
of a collegiate education, Dr. Demp- 
ster was one of the most successful 
educators of his denomination. 

Rev. Charles Adams, D. D., who 
was appointed to the pastorate of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in Con- 
cord in the spring of 1847, was 
elected professor of biblical literature 
and pastoral theology, and filled this 
chair during the two years of his 
Concord pastorate. He was born in 
Stratham, N. H., January 24, 1808, 
had been a student at the old New- 
market academy, and w r as graduated 
at Bowdoin in 1833. He was one of 
the popular preachers of the day, and 
preferred the pulpit to the professor's 
chair. On the expiration of his 
Concord pastorate he resigned his 
professorship to devote himself en- 
tirely to pulpit and pastoral work. 
He died in Washington, D. C, Jan- 
uary 19, 1890. 

Rev. Osmon C. Baker, A. M., was 
elected professor of New Testament 
Greek, homiletics, church govern- 
ment and discipline, and it is not too 
much to say that no better or wiser 
choice could have been made. He 



was, like Dr. Adams, a native of 
New Hampshire. He was born at 
Marlow, July 30, 1S12, and at the 
age of fifteen entered the academy at 
Wilbraham, remaining there as a stu- 
dent for three years. When Wesley- 
an university, at Middletown, Couu.^ 
was chartered, and opened in 1831, 
Baker entered as one of the first 
class, but left shortly before gradua- 
tion, owing to failing health. In 
1834, he accepted a position as 
teacher in the academy at Newbury, 

Bishop Osmon Oleander Ba^er. 

Vt., and was principal of that insti- 
tution from 1839 to 1844, when he 
resigned, to enter upon the active 
work of the itinerant ministry in the 
New Hampshire conference. He 
filled pastorates in Rochester and 
Manchester, and in 1847 was ap- 
pointed presiding elder. Shortly 
after, he was elected professor in 
the institute, and, after considerable 
hesitation, owing to his devotion to 
the pastoral work, and his reluctance 
to leave it, he accepted the election. 
A man of scholarly tastes and dispo- 

sition, of devout piety, of unusual 
administrative ability, and with a 
genius for teaching, Baker became 
at once a force and power in the 
new institution. Like Dempster, he 
thoroughly believed in the necessity 
of theological training as a prerequi- 
site to the highest success in the 

In 1S52, he was elected to the 
Episcopacy, but continued to make 
Concord his home until his death, in 
1 87 1, and, though burdened with his 
Episcopal cares and responsibilities, 
he was, even after his resignation of 
his professorship in 1S52, recognized 
as the guiding spirit of the institute. 
In one respect, the influence of Bishop 
Baker upon his denomination was re- 
markable. His " Guide-Book in the 
Administration of Discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church," pub- 
lished in 1S55, became recognized as 
the standard authority in Methodist 
ecclesiastical law, and in interpreta- 
tion of the book of discipline. While 
it has been enlarged and revised by 
Bishop Merrill, " Baker on the Disci- 
pline" remains, to-day, the basis of 
authoritative interpretation of the law 
of the greatest of Protestant denomi- 
nations. New Hampshire made a 
large gift to Methodism in the per- 
son of Osmon C. Baker. 

With these three professors, and 
with the Old North meeting-house 
remodeled, as already outlined, the 
institute, in the late summer of 1847, 
was opened to students, and began 
its work. 

The financial resources of the new 
institution were of the scantiest. The 
trustees were all poor clergymen, 
and able to do little or nothing them- 
selves, even had some of them been 
willing. The institute was new, but 



it lacked the favor which is often ac- 
corded to things new. Professorships 
were not sought, but were coldly de- 
clined by some of the best and ripest 
scholars of the denomination. 

A large class of both ministers and 
laity, not to say the majority of the 
bishops of the church, looked with 
suspicion upon the school as a dan- 
gerous experiment. There was a 
general unspoken sentiment, that, 
when a theological school had dem- 
onstrated that it was a needed power 
in the church, there would then be 
time enough to give it financial aid 
and substantial encouragement. 

Among the few who made sub- 
scriptions to an endowment fund 
were : Daniel Drew, of New York ; 
Lee Clafiiu and Kleanor Trafton, of 
Massachusetts ; and Agnes Suther- 
land, of Scotland. Main- of the minor 
subscriptions made were worthless, 
and nothing was realized from them. 
Funds were solicited to meet current 
expenses in the conferences located 
in New England and Eastern and 
Northern New York, but the aggre- 
gate from all sources barely availed 
to pay the salaries of the three pro- 
fessors. In April, 1S68, the treas- 
urer was able to report all professors' 
salaries and other obligations paid, 
and had a balance of S483 income in 
his hands, which he paid over to the 
treasurer of Boston university. The 
invested funds and movable property 
were also transferred to the latter insti- 
tution. The invested funds amounted 
to $24,468.68, besides notes, etc., of 
doubtful value, to the amount of 
$5,948. This, aside from small sums 
realized from collections taken in the 
churches, was the sole source of in- 
come of the institute, after twenty- 
one years of life and usefulness. 

What the income from all sources 
was, during the first few years, and 
how stable it was, may be judged 
from certain votes passed by the 
trustees at various times. 

In October, 1S47, shortly after the 
opening of the institute, the salary of 
each professor was fixed at $500. In 
June, 1S52, a committee of the trus- 
tees was authorized to say to a newly- 
elected professor that, as soon as the 
funds would justify, the salary of 
each professor would be raised to 
S750, and, in the meantime, the 
salary of each would be one third the 
entire income. At a meeting of the 
trustees, held November 4, 1852, it 
was resolved, "that the treasurer be 
instructed, in the final settlement with 
the professors, to pay them equally, 
according to services rendered, the 
funds which may accrue to the insti- 
tute for that purpose, during such 
service, if on hand, otherwise, when 
available, provided they do not ex- 
ceed the aggregate salaries." The 
vote passed in June was rescinded at 
this meeting. November 1, 1853, the 
salaries of professors were increased 
to $Soo, provided the funds were 
sufficient, and, November 8, 1856, 
another increase was made, making 
them $1,000 each, with the usual 
provision concerning sufficiency. 

Though the institute was, at first, 
regarded with cold indifference, or 
with open disfavor, by a large part 
of the ministry and laity of the de- 
nomination, its accommodations for 
students were in demand from the 
beginning. It was soon found that 
provision outside the building must 
be made for the increasing number of 
those who were seeking a distinctive 
theological training. Plans were de- 
vised, and a boarding-house was 



erected in 1S52, a little north of the 
old -church on the west side of State 
street. It was a two-story structure, 
and when completed, cost, with the 
land, $3,410.38. This was paid for 
on completion, January 20, 1S53, ex- 
cept $214.47, aR d this indebtedness 
was soon after paid. The erection 
of this building greatly aided stu- 
dents in obtaining board at actual 
cost. Some of the students preferred 
to board themselves, in their own 
rooms, or to take rooms or board 
with families in the city, and this 
was permitted by the faculty. Some 
of the students had families, and 
quite a number of these rented tene- 
ments, and took boarders to aid in 
meeting their expenses. The pro- 
fessors opened the doors of their own 
homes, and rented to students, at 
nominal rates, rooms of which they 
were not themselves in actual need. 
For the rooms in the institute build- 
ing, only such rent was charged as 
would pay for their care, and for keep- 
ing them in fair repair. Individual 
churches were appealed to, to fur- 
nish the rooms, and some responded. 
Now and then, one of the larger of 
the Methodist churches in New Eng- 
land would arrange to take a single 
room and furnish it in whole, or in 
part, and keep it replenished. 

Whatever may be said as to high 
thinking, plain living was the order 
of the day, at the institute. It had 
to be. There were absolutely no 
funds to aid indigent students in the 
way of securing board, clothing, and 
books, and, with few exceptions, the 
students were all indigent. There 
was something pathetic in the meth- 
ods adopted to secure money enough 
to pay for the bare necessities of life 
during a three years' course at the 

institute. Some, wishing to devote 
their whole time to study, found 
friends who loaned them money at a 
low rate of interest, to be paid in in- 
stalments, after admission to some 
annual conference. The prospect of 
ever securing freedom from the bur- 
den of debt may be imagined, when 
the fact is kept in mind that the aver- 
age salary of a Methodist minister in 
Xew England, at that time, was only 
about $300. Others, not daring to 
trust the future, undertook to pay 
expenses by undertaking to supply, 
with preaching, small churches from 
ten to fifty and seventy-five miles dis- 
tant, receiving as compensation, be- 
sides traveling expenses, $2 or $3 for 
Saturday evening and Sunday ser- 
vices. Their pulpit preparation had 
to be made in addition to their stu- 
dent work. 

Still others engaged in manual 
labor, or plied some art or trade in 
the city a part of the time, working 
one week outside, and then doing 
two weeks' school work in one. 
All this was an excellent seasoning 
preparation for such as did not fail, 
or die in the seasoning. Many 
broke down, or became discouraged 
and left the school without complet- 
ing the course. Appeals made to 
the churches for student support pro- 
duced little ; the churches were wait- 
ing for theological schools to justify 
their existence. The students, how- 
ever, were not wholly friendless. 
There were devout women — verita- 
ble Dorcases — who, with their own 
hands, made articles of clothing, ac- 
companying these, sometimes, with 
cash gifts, which were placed in the 
hands of the professors' wives for dis- 
tribution among the most needy. It 
may be questioned whether this was 



not a service of doubtful value ; 
whether it did not tend to create a 
feeling of pauperish dependence on 
the part of the recipient, detracting 
from his manliness. The clergyman 
ought to be a man, as well as a min- 

The qualifications for admission 
were for Methodists, a certificate 
from the quarterly conference of 
which the applicant was a member, 
testifying to a belief that he was 
called of God to the work of the 
ministry, and a like certificate from 
the pastor of applicants from other 
denominations. Applicants were re- 
quired to be well versed in the higher 
branches of an English education, 
and if intending to take the exegeti- 
cal course they were required to be 
able to read New Testament Greek 
at sight. 

The course of stud}' was similar to 
that in other theological seminaries, 
the full course extending over a 
period of three years. As there were 
never but three professors in actual 
service, the work of each was ar- 
ranged at first with reference to the 
convenience of the instructors, though 
later this work was grouped on a more 
scientific plan, one professor having 
exegesis and kindred topics, another 
theology, systematic and historical, 
and the third ethics and homileties. 
The institute was never entitled to 
confer degrees. Those who com- 
pleted the full three years' course and 
passed creditable examinations were 
entitled to a diploma signed by the 
faculty and president of the board of 
trustees, while those who pursued 
but a partial course received certifi- 
cates of character with a statement of 
the student work accomplished by 
them while members of the school. 

There were various societies and 
associations connected with the insti- 
tute, the two most prominent being the 
"Adelphiaii Theological Association." 
and the " Philosophical Society," each 
holding meetings once a week. There 
was also a " Normal Sabbath School 
Association," besides various smaller 
circles or clubs, with more or less of 
organization for the promotion of per- 
sonal piety or to cultivate skill in 

Previous to 1855 there was a 
preaching service once a week in 
the chapel conducted by undergradu- 
ate students in turn. All the stu- 
dents were expected to attend this 
service, and one professor was al- 
ways present from whom the stu- 
dent preacher expected to hear com- 
ment and criticism subsequent to the 

The three first professors remained 
but comparatively a little time with 
the institute, but the vacancies caused 
by their resignations were worthily 
filled, and their successors remained 
with the institute until its removal to 

Rev. Stephen M. Vail, D. D., who 
was elected professor of Biblical and 
Oriental literature on the resignation 
of Professor Adams, entered on his 
service July 1, 1S49. He was born 
in Union Dale, Westchester county, 
N. V., January 10, iSrS; was gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin college in 183S, and 
at the Union Theological seminary 
in 1842, having in the meantime 
been licensed to preach in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. He became 
professor of languages at Amenia 
seminary in 1S43, and in 1847 presi- 
dent of the New Jersey Conference 
seminary at Pennington, that state. 
While holding this position he at- 



traded attention to himself by induc- 
ing the trustees of the institution to 
admit young women as pupils, and 
for being tried before the ecclesiasti- 
cal courts of his church for the grave 
offence of advocating in his writings 
the cause of an educated ministry. 
To the credit of the court he was 
absolved from blame. Professor Vail 
came to Concord an enthusiastic 
believer in the need of theological 
schools, and by his accurate scholar- 
ship and enthusiastic devotion to his 
work, he did much to give the insti- 
tute a character and reputation among 
scholarly institutions. He was pro- 
nounced in his anti-slavery views, 
and a controversy in which lie en- 
gaged with Bishop John H. Hopkins 
on the subject of human slavery at- 
tracted wide notice at the time. He 
published essays on slavers' and 
church polity, " Outlines of Hebrew- 
Grammar," and other educational 
hand-books, and " Education in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church." Of 
the professors connected with the 
institute during its history, Dr. 
Vail was preeminently the student 
and scholar. Failing health induced 
his resignation in 186S, and in 1869 
he accepted the office of United 
States consul for Rhenish Bavaria. 
He traveled extensively in the East 
and Palestine, and on his return set- 
tled iu Southfield, Staten Island, de- 
voting himself to literary pursuits 
until his death, November 26, 1880. 
Rev. David Patten, D. D., a presid- 
ing elder of the Providence confer- 
ence, was, in 1853, elected professor 
of theology to take the place of 
Baker, who had been elevated to 
the episcopacy. Dr. Patten was 
born in Boston, October 15, 1810, 
and was graduated at Wesleyan uni- 

versity in 1831 , and immediately be- 
came principal of the Wesleyan acad- 
emy at Wilbraham. In 1S41 he re- 
signed to take pastoral work, and 
during the next ten years rilled im- 
portant pastorates in New Bedford 
and Fall River, Mass., and Warren 
and Providence, R. I. In 1S52 he 
was appointed presiding elder of the 
Providence district, and resigned this 
office to enter upon his work at Con- 
cord in December, 1854. His de- 
partment covered the field of s} r ste- 
matic theology, homiletics, pastoral 
theology, and church government 
and discipline. When the institute 
became the school of theology in 
Boston, Dr. Patten was continued 
in the professorship of homiletics and 
pastoral theology, and remained con- 
nected with the school until his death 
March 26, 1879. Dr. Patten was a 
man of fine presence, charming man- 
ners, sound learning, and of great 
influence with young men in mould- 
ing character and forming pulpit style. 
Rev. J. W. Merrill, D. D., was 
elected professor of ethics, meta- 
physics, natural and historical the- 
ology in 1853, and though he entered, 
upon his work some months before 
the resignation of Dr. Dempster in 
1854, in the assignment of the work 
of the professors he was recognized 
as the successor of Dempster as was 
Patten the successor of Baker. Pro- 
fessor Merrill was born at Chester, 
N. H., May 9, 1808, the eldest son 
of Rev. Joseph F. and Hannah J. 
Merrill. He prepared for college at 
Wilbraham, entered Bowdoin college 
in 1830, where he remained two 
years, when he entered the junior 
class at Wesleyan university and was 
graduated, a classmate of Patten, in 
1834. It is worthy of note that this 



Wesleyan class of eight members 
furnished the institute with two of 
its professors during the larger por- 
tion of its Concord history. The 
field of instruction assigned to Pro- 
fessor Merrill was a wide one, and he 
was noted for his faculty of inspiring 
young men with enthusiasm in their 
student work. On the removal of 
the institute to Boston, Professor 
Merrill spent several years in various 
pastorates in the New England Con- 
ference, retiring at last to his home 
in Concord, where with his mental 
faculties still active, and with a fair 
degree of physical health, he still 
resides, taking a keen interest in 
current events, honored by his min- 
isterial brethren, and respected as a 
man and citizen. 

Rev. Elisha Adams was never an 
instructor at the institute, but he was 
closely identified with its interests, 
serving as treasurer of the trustees 
from 1852 to 1S6S, and by his de- 
votion to the duties of his office, and 
unceasing endeavor in behalf of the 
school, kept it free from debt and 
was able to turn it over to the new 
trustees, when it was removed to 
Boston, with a small sum on the 
right side of the balance sheet. He 
believed in the institute and labored 
unceasingly in its behalf. 

The Methodist Episcopal church 
was slow in recognizing the exist- 
ence' of this its first school of the- 
ology. In the Methodist almanac, 
the official year book of the denomi- 
nation, brought out by the denom- 
inational publishing house, there 
appears a list of the academies, 
seminaries, colleges, and other insti- 
tutions of learning under the control 
of the denomination, but it was not 
till 1854, nearly two years after one 

of its professors had been elected a 
bishop, and nearly seven years after 
it was founded, that the name of the 
Biblical institute appears in the list. 
During the twenty-one years the 
school was located at Concord 570 
students received instruction within 
its walls for a greater or less length 
of time. Of this number 211 com- 
pleted the three years' course of 
study and were graduated. The 
number of graduates during the first 
seven years was 34 ; the next seven, 




The Rev. John W. Merrill, D. D. 

83 ; and the last seven, 94. These 
men went out from Concord into all 
sections of the country, and into 
foreign mission fields to vindicate by 
a usefulness increased by profes- 
sional training the value to the 
church of such training. 

Among the men Concord sent out 
to mission fields special mention 
should be made of Albert L. Long 
of the Bulgarian, Stephen E- Baldwin 
and Carlos R. Martin, of the China, 
and Edwin Parker of the India mis- 
sions. A few of the Concord grad- 






uates and students who have won 
an enviable reputation as pastors or 
educators are George Prentice, Wil- 
bur F. Watkins, John Cookmau, 
Lewis P. Cushman, Dudley P. 
Leavitt, Orlando H. Jasper, James 
O. Knowles, M. M. Parkhurst, 
Elijah Horr, Richard Harcourt, 
N. T. Whitaker, Norman J. Squires, 
Nathan G. Cheney, William F. 
Hatfield, and William V. Morrison. 
As compared with the school of 
theology of Boston university with 
its ample endowment, splendid build- 
ing on Mt. Vernon St., its corps of 12 
professors and instructors, its more 
than 150 students, to nearly every 
one of whom has been given, pre- 
vious to entrance to the school, the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, and with 
five other well appointed theological 
schools in other sections of the 
country, to say nothing of theologi- 
cal departments in a score or more 
of Methodist colleges and other 
educational institutions, the Biblical 
institute at Concord was a small 

affair. Yet it is no exaggeration 
to say that no other educational 
institution accomplished so great a 
work for Methodism as did the in- 
stitute, located in a state and in a 
community where, as compared with 
others, the denomination never ob- 
tained a strong hold or exercised a 
commanding influence. 

It legitimatized theological schools 
in Methodism. After devoted men 
like Dempster, Baker, Vail, Merrill, 
and Patten had with heroic self- 
sacrifice made the Concord institute 
a success in the face of the ill- 
concealed contempt on the one hand, 
or the outspoken opposition on the 
other of the leading men of the de- 
nomination, it was discovered that 
the Methodist Episcopal church be- 
lieved in a professional training for 
its ministry, and the leaders of the 
denomination began to look about 
for what they deemed a more advan- 
tageous location for their school. It 
was not till Concord had made 
specific theological training for Meth- 
odist clergymen to be recognized as 
essential to their greatest usefulness, 
that the removal of the school to 
Boston was determined upon. Con- 
cord paved the way for Boston uni- 
versity, and the theological semi- 
naries at Evanston, 111., Madison, 
N. J., Atlanta, Ga,, Greencastle, 
Ind., and San Fernando, Cal., and 
the Concord school was made possi- 
ble by the generous helpfulness of 
the historic First Congregational 
society of Concord supplemented by 
the generosity of Concord citizens. 
These opened the way for Dempster 
and Baker and their successors, 
enabling them to make their price- 
less contributions to the growth and 
development of Methodism. 




The course of stud.3- was arranged to suit 
the convenience of the three professors and, 
therefore, was not arranged on a strictly scien- 
tific method according to departments, as it 
might have been had not the entire work of 
instruction devolved upon three professors. 
There were changes from year to year, but the 
following course a?- arranged during the later 
years of the institute gives some idea of the 
work required of the processors and the ground 
which it was expected would be covered by the 

Junior Year. 

Professor Vail: Hebrew; Lectures on Sacred 
Geography and Antiquities; Greek, Har- 
mony of the Gospels, and Exegesis. 

Professor Merrill: 'Butter's Analogy; Hamilton's 
Metaphysics: Ethics (Watson and Way- 
land); Lectures on Natural Theology. 

Professor Patten: Evidences of Christianity; 
Inspiration of Scriptures; Exercises in Elo- 
cution and Preaching. 

Middle Year. 

Professor Vail: Hebrew, Poetry and Exegesis; 

Professor Merrill: The Will (Whedon); Acts of 
the Apostles, with Greek Exegesis: Eccle- 
siastical History. 

Professor Patten: Revealed Theology, with 
Lectures; Pastoral Theology, with Lectures: 
Structure of Sermons with Delivery. 

Senior Year. 

Professor Vail: Institutions of the Church; The 
Epistles and Apocalypse; Hebrew Minor 
Prophets; Chaldee, Arabic, and Syriac. 

Professor Merrill: Eceleiastical History from 
the Reformation; History of Methodism; 
History of Christian Doctrine. 

Professor Patten: Polemics; Church Govern- 
ment; Methodist Discipline; Pastoral The- 
ology; Sacred Rhetoric and Logic, and 
Lectures on Elocution were given during the 

senior year by Professors Murdock, Russell, and 

other masters. 


The first class graduated at the institute con- 
sisted of three members, who received their 
diplomas in June, 1S50. The last class, that of 
1S67, consisted of twelve members. In the list 
of classes given herewith, the name of the An- 
nual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church with which each member connected 
himself is given, as far as can be ascertained, 
and when members became clergymen in other 
denominations, this fact is also indicated. 

Class of 1850. 

John B. Foote. Central New York. 

E. F. Hinks; died Feb. 12, 1886. 

John Paulson, South Kansas; d. March 4, 1893. 

Class of 1S31. 

S. L. Bowman, New York. 

William Kelleu, N. E. Southern. 

Samuel McKean, Troy. 

Charles Nason, N. E.'Southern; d. May 28 1S85 

0. P. Pitcher, Northern New York. 
'L. P>. Tower. 

Class of 1S52. 

B. S. Arey, East Maine; d. Oct. 9, 1S94. 
Horatio Arthur. 

Lorenzo Barber. 

Alfred Bri-ham. 

Oloff H. Call, Kansas. 

Geo. W. Cheeseborough, Erie. 

1. S. Cushman, Maine; d. Sept. 16, 1871. 
Alonzo Flack, New York: .1. Mar. 1, 1885. 
J. P. French, East Maine; d. Aug. 6, 1862* 
Rodnev Gage, Michigan. 

C. C. Goss; d. July 22. 1891. 

Austin F. Herrick, New England: d. Sept. 9 1896 

Dugald Thompson, Des Moines; d. Mav 1896 

Alfred Welch. 

Ira S. Watkins. 

Henry S. White, Detroit. 

Class of 1853. 

Carlos Banning. N. E. Southern. 
Andrew J. Church, N. E. Southern. 
H. M. Church, Northern New York. 
Lewis E. Dunham, N. E. Southern. 

F. D. Hernenway, Michigan: d. April 19, 1884 
L. H. Hooker, Vermont: d. June 21, 1863. 
Charles H. Smith, New Hampshire. 
Ezekiel Smith, Maine. 

R. S. Stnbbs, Puget Sound. 
Wesley P. Wright. 

Class of 1854. 

d. Oct. 4, 1894. 

G. R. Bent, New England. 
John Capen, New England. 
J. K. B. Clavton. 
H. T. Giles, Central New York 
A. F. Morey, Genessee. 
Oliver Springstead. 

Class of 1855 

Jarvis A. Ames, New England; d. Julv 15, 1885. 

Andrew Carther, Philadelphia. 

Andrew K. Crawford. California. 

Charles U. Dunning, New Hampshire. 

Joel W. Eaton, Troy. 

Wm. S. Edwards, Baltimore. 

Geo. W. E. Ellis. 

Elon Fosr^r, New York. 

Nelson Green, Northwestern Indiana. 

J. S. Hannah, Presbyterian. 

G. E. Harris. N. E. Southern. 

Enos E. Kellogg, Northern New York; d. Julv, 

Jonathan A. Knowles. 
Alex McLean, New York, East, 
Chas. A. Merrill, New England; d. Jan. 6, 1896. 
Munson G. Wadsworth, Northern New York. 
Charles Young, New England; d. 1893. 

Class of 1856. 

Benj. F. DeCosta, Protestant Episcopal. 
H. F. DeForrest, Vermont. 
Wesley I. Pond, Troy. 
A. R. Sylvester, Maine. 
Samuel Wilson. 

Class of 1857. 

Thomas J. Abhott, New England; d. Nov. 7, 1878. 

Robert J. Andrews, New Jersey. 

G. T. Barnes. 

Edgar F. Clark, N. E. Southern. 



Tertullus Davidson. 

Abraham I. Dobbs. 

Geo. M. Hamlen, N. F.. Southern. 

Albert M. Long. Pittsburg. 

Henry M, Loud. 

Wtt. V. Morrison. N. E. Southern. 

John Pinkerton. New York, East. 

Joseph Scott. New England. 

James T. Tucker. New Jersey. 

W. F. Ward ; d. Jan. 30, 1SS3. 

William Wilmot. 

Thos. S. Wilson, M. E. Church, South. 

Class of 1853. 

Joseph Baker. 

Stephen L. Baldwin, Newark. 

Chas. W. Blackman. Maine. 

Wm. Glass. 

Chas. E. Glover, New York, East 

Edward H. Hvnson, Baltimore. 

John J. Millsaks, M. E. (Lurch, South 

Charles Morgan, Congregational. 

Benjamin Reeves. 

Henry D. Robinson. N. E. Southern. 

Gus^avus Silversteen. 

James B. Stevens; d. Dec. 2-i, 1S74. 

d. Sept., IS 
d. 1S61. 

Class ok 1S59. 

Nicolas M. Browne, Wilmington; d. Feb. 1S95. 

Nathan F. Colver; d. June, 1895. 

Thos. Elliott. New York. 

James B. Faulks, Newark. 

Samuel M. Hammond, New York, East. 

Malcom D. Herrick. Florida. 

Carlos R. Martin, Foochow. 

Charles Miller. 

Edwin W. Parker, North India. 

Matthew M. Parkhurst, Rock River. 

Hiram F\ Satchwell, Oregon. 

William Silverthorn. New England. 

Ebenezer A. Smith. New England. " 

Sidney K. Smith. New York, East. 

Aram'Yielle, Troy. 

Class of 1860. 

John W. Ackerley, New York. 

George W. Barber. Maine. 

Alexander N. Fields, Southern California. 

Josiah Fletcher, Northern New York. 

Chas. E. Little, Newark. 

John G. Slevin, Baptist. 

Dauiel J. Smith. New Hampshire. 

Theophilis Stevens. Philadelphia. 

Geo. C. Thomas, Yermont. 

Edwin W. Yirgin, New England. 

Benajah E. Whipple, Protestant Episcopal. 

W. De M. Weeden; d. June 1, 1893. 

Noah Wood. 

Class of 1861. 

James M. Bean, New Hampshire. 

George W. Brown, Troy. 

Daniel D. Cook, Cenessec. 

Oliver M. Cousens. 

Clement T. Frame. 

Ek-m Marsh. Troy. 

Thos. C. Potter, Presbyterian. 

Abel W. Pottle, Maine. 

Alexander C. Reynolds. Minnesota. 

Nathan F. Stevens. New England; d. June, 1879. 

James S. Thomas, N. E. Southern. 

C. H. Vinton, New England. 

Jesse Wagner, New England. 

Henry S. Ward. 

Edwin Warriner, New York, East. 

Robert Wilder. 

Class of 1862. 

Watson M. Ayres, New England. 
Wm. W. Baldwin, New England. 
Geo. W. Brooks; d. Mar. 20. 1883. 
Moses T. Cilley, New Hampshire. 
John G. Gooding. Troy. 
William F. Hattield, New York. 

Chas. H. Newhall; d. Mar. 10, 1894. 
W illiam H. Simonson; d. Jan. IS. 1SS9. 
Henry F. Spencer; d. Nov. 28, 1885. 
Church Tabor. Yermont: d. June 30, 1S96. 
John Warthman. 

Class of 1S63. 

Miles R. Barney. 

Edwin L. Chase, Southern California. 

Anson C. Coult, New Hampshire. 

Edward Davies, New England. 

Adelbert Gaylord, New York; d. Sept. 3, 18*2. 

•Elijah Horr, Congregational. 

Chester J. Hoyt. New York. 

John H. Lane, New York. 

Chas. C. Miller: d. Dec, 1892. 

Hiram D. Opdyke, Newark. 

Isaac D. Peasfee, Northern New York. 

Ezekiel Richardson, Baltimore. 

Jas. V. Sanders, New York, East. 

Wm. E. Smith, New York, East. 

Wm. Stout, Newark. 

Newton H. Van Deusen, Wyoming. 

Class of 186-1. 

Henry W. Ackerly, New York. 
Daniel C Babcock, New Hampshire. 
Svlvester Donaldson, Yermont. 
J. Wesley Hawkins, Philadelphia. 
Richard Harcourr, Philadelphia. 
John H. Hillman, New Hampshire. 
Joseph H. Owens, New PZnaiand. 
Cornelius M. Pegg, New York, East. 
Raphael M. Roberts, New York. 
Watson W. Smith. 

Class of 1865. 

Samuel R. Bailey, Protestant Episcopal. 

Daniel M. Birmingham, California. 

J. Wesley Cole. 

James Esgate, Wilmington. 

Edwin F. Hadlev, New York, East; d. Nov. 23, 

Joseph T. Hand, New York; d. Jan. 20, 1867. 
Wesley C.Johnson, Philadelphia. 
Orren C. Lane, New York, East. 
John A. Lansing, New England. 
Norman J. Squires. Congregational. 
William E. Tumpkinson, Wilmington. 
Albert Van Deusen, Newark. 

Class of 1866. 

Nathan G. Cheney, New York, East. 

Thomas Chfppsfield, Central Illinois. . 

Otis Cole, New Hampshire. 

R. James Donaldson. 

Alfred E. Drew, New Hampshire. 

Horatio B. Elkins. 

Theodore S. Huggerty, Newark. 

James R. Hammond. Oregon. 

Sullivan O. Kimball. 

John Keogan. New York. 

Edmund Lewis. New York. 

George C. Moorehouse, Troy. 

Samuel J. Robinson, Troy. 

LeRoy S. Stowe, New York. East. 

J. O. Thompson, N. E. Southern. 

W. H. Wa<hburn. Troy. 

Lorenzo D. Watson, Genessee. 

Class of 1867. 

George W. Anderson, N. E. Southern. 

James A. DeForrest, New England; d. Nov. 28, 

Charles E. Hall, New Hampshire. 
Allen J. Hall, New England. 
S. J. MacCutcheon, New York. 
Chas W. Mi Hen. 

E. Frank Pitcher, Philadelphia; d. May, 1876. 
Samuel Roy, New England; d. October. 1874. 
George W.'Ruland, Congregational. 
Edwin R. Sullivan. 

Nicholas T. Whitaker, New England. 
True Whittier, Maine. 

Bv C.C. Lord. 

^g^pOX Thursday, August r, 1S95, 
J II at South Berwick. Me., there 
v as effected an organization 
of the ' ' Sons and Daughters 
of Nathan Lord.'' The conditions of 
the organization implied that, sub- 
ject to a possible 
intervention of its 
executive commit- 
tee, there should be 
an annual meeting 
at South Berwick 
on the first Thurs- 
day in August. In 
compliance with 
this arrangement, 
the fifth annual 
gathering will reg- 
ularly occur oa Au- 
gust 3, 1S99. 

Nathan Lord, 
thus commemorat- 
ed, was an Eng- 
lishman and an 
early settler in an- 
cient Kitten', Me., 
of which South Berwick was once 
a part. The English locality from 
which Nathan Lord came to Amer- 

risdiction of the colony represented 
by the commissioners, after delibera- 
tion, forty-one residents, among them 
Nathan Lord, signed the following 
declaration : 

" We whose names are underwrit- 
ten do acknowledge 
ourselves subject to 
the government of 
Massachusetts Bay, 
in New England." 

Practically speak- 
ing, the date 1652 
marks the begin- 
ning of the history 
of Nathan Lord in 
ancient Kittery. A 
"planter," he ap- 
pears to have dealt 
somewhat in real 
estate, as if he had 
a mind to the in- 
crease of values in 
consequence of the 
improvements of 
civilization. Till 
1662 he was located in a district 
which appears to have been named 
for Sturgeon creek, a tributary of 

ica does not appear to be certainly the Piscataqua river, which marks 

known. The date of his arrival in 
ancient Kittery is also an uncertainty. 
When, in 1652, four commissioners 
from Massachusetts arrived at the 
house of William Everett, in Kittery, 
to confer with the inhabitants upon 
matters relating to the affirmed ju- 

the boundary between Maine and 
New Hampshire and empties its 
waters into the Atlantic Ocean, 
seeking the sea between Ports- 
mouth, N. H., and the present town 
of Kittery, Me. Sturgeon creek is 
now in the town of Eliot, Me., once 




In 1676, Nathan Lord and liis eld- 
est son, also Nathan, took possession 
of an estate of seventy-seven acres of 
land, on which was a house and barn, 
and held the joint ownership about 
five years, and then the father, for 
the consideration of "love and affec- 

. A 

Rev. Orlando M. Lord. 

a part of ancient Kittery. After 
1662, and until his death, about 
1690, he appears to have owned a 
homestead at or near a place now 
called Mt. Pleasant, in South Ber- 

1 "* 


Prof. John K. Lord. 

tion," and an implied promise on the 
part of the grantee not to claim any 
of the real estate of the grantor at his 
death, transferred his right, title, and 
interest in the seventy-seven acres to 
the son. This estate was located in 
the so-called district of Old Fields, 
in South Berwick. It is worthy of 
notice in this connection that the 
Lords, in the issue of the early perils 
of Indians, had a garrison at Old 
Fields, the structure being occupied 
as a residence as late as about the 
year 18 16. This original fortress 
and subsequent home was a unique 
and elaborate edifice. Its space 
afforded a door so large that a yoke 
of oxen and a cart could enter with 



ease. Over the door, or on the upper 
frontal aspect of the building, there 
was a carved representation of the 
prow of a ship, while within the 
house there were carvings in wood 
that were calculated to invite the 
wonder and admiration of beholders. 
Iti this residence, according to the 
traditions of his descendants at Old 
Fields, Nathan Lord sometime lived. 
In view 01 the perils of early Indian 
depredations, and the historically 
known practice of the local English 
settlers of leaving their homes and 
fleeing to garrisons, reflection, even 
without other reason, is inclined to 
credit this traditional temporary loca- 
tion of Nathan Lord at Old Fields. 


' ■ 

_ ....... ..:..:,:- : *'M 

Mrs. Annie Lord Marston. 

of their mentality. The development 
of such personalities as those of the 
late President Nathan Lord of Dart- 
mouth, and the late Dr. John Lord, 
of Stamford, Conn., affords special 
illustrations in kind. 

< ■'<%;■. 

Mrs. May Lord Nutter. 

Nathan Lord was twice married, 
and begat sons and daughters, his 
progeny being now extensively dis- 
tributed over the United States. His 
offspring have exhibited in a large 
degree the special characteristics of 
the English mind. Strength of in- 
tellect has been a prominent feature 

Frederick L. Keays. 



i. . 

per house of the English parliament 
are both peers temporal and peers 
spiritual, every one of which must he 
courteously addressed as "My Lord." 
In long periods of time, and by an 
easy colloquial transition, an official 
title has often passed into a common 
family cognomen of only titular sig- 

« ! 

Wi-.field S. Lord. 

However, it is not the special pur- 
pose of this article to enlarge upon 
the abstract family history of Nathan 
Lord. Enough has been related to 
prepare the mind of the reader for 
the consideration of any particular 
facts, deductions, or speculations that 
may follow. We are to say some- 
thing about the Lord escutcheon, an 
heraldic device, that, to the eye of 
adequate erudition, can convey many 
thoughts of profitable indulgence. 

It were but natural for the execu- 
tively associated sons and daughters 
of Nathan Lord to become interested 
in the identity of their family es- 
cutcheon. The presumption that 
the Lords had an escutcheon was 
legitimate. The family of Lord is 
in historic origin a noble one. In 
the parlance of the English nobility 
the name Lord was originally given 
to peers and other high officials b) r 
virtue of their office. The intelligent 
reader knows that to-day, in the up- 

i m . . . 

J. Everett Lord. 

nifieanee. In the progress of historic 
nomenclature, the title of Lord has 
shared the fate of such others as 
King, Prince, Duke, Earl, etc., which 
are now often only family surnames. 
It therefore follows that the descend- 
ants of Nathan Lord were right in 
anticipating the existence of an es- 
cutcheon of the great family they 
represented. This escutcheon, or 
coat of arms, is of apparent identi- 

Mr. Calvin Lord, who can be ad- 
dressed at Court House, Salem, 
Mass., is in the possession of an es- 
cutcheon of the Lord family, the de- 
vice being represented on page 227. 


Mr. Lord is a descendant of Nathan 
Lord, of ancient Kiltery, Me., and 
evidently has faith that his is the 
escutcheon of his own family lineage. 
In the strict language of lieraldry 
this escutcheon is described as fol- 
lows : 

Crest. — Demi bird, wings expanded sable; 
on its head two small horns or; dexter wing: 
gules, lined argent ; sinister wing argent, lined 

Arms. — Argent, on a fesse gules, between 
three einquefoils azure : a hind passant be- 
ween two pheons or. 

Mr. Lord cites the following au- 
thorities on the identity of this es- 
cutcheon : 

families of William Lord of Salem 
Mass., Thomas Lord of Hartford, 
Conn., and Robert Lord of Ipswich, 
Mass., each of which was settled in 
New Kngland as eaily as 1635. as well 
as those of Nathan Lord and others. 

For further illustration of our 
present subject we present a copy 
of another escutcheon, differing in 
details, but ignoring its crest and 
pendent, essentially the same in its 
main features, with that already de- 
scribed. Mrs. Ellen Lord Burditt, 
42 Mill street, Dorehester, Mass., 
kindly provided ti&'Avith the means of 
representing the coat of arms said to 
be that of the London, Kng., family 
of Lord. The heraldic description 
in this case is as follows : 

Crest. — A dexter arm, hand clenched, 
proper, in a maunch azure. 

Arms. — Argent on a fesse, between three 
einquefoils azure; two pheons of the field. 

The second described escutcheon 
bears upon the pendent the motto, 
Invia virtnii nulla est via. 

The intelligent reader will readily 
conceive how. in the progressive his- 

* A 


Ci.'i Lore . 

" Heraldic Journal." Vol. 1,^.43. 
" Salisbury Memorials." 

Sir Bernard Burke's " General Armory of 
England," 1S83. 

" The Book of Family Crests," Vol. 2, p. 2jg. 
" Hyde Genealogy." 1S64. 

Mr. Lord also cites what claims to 
be " sufficient authority" that the 
described escutcheon is that of the 



tory of a large family, its different 
branches would naturally vary the 
details of their distinctive armorial 
bearings. The two escutcheons pre- 
sented tend to confirm the idea of an 
historic unity 
familv of Lord. 

of the great English 

Mindful of the existence of the 
Sons and Daughters of Nathan 

Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Lord," we favor the reader with a 
list of the officers of the association : 

President — Rev. Orlando M. Lord, 
North Easton, Mass. 

Vice-presidents — Prof. John K. 
Lord, Hanover, X. II. ; George W. 
Lord, Berwick, Me.; Mrs. Ellen A. 
Rollins, South Berwick, Me. ; Rev. 
Augustus M. Lord, Providence, R. I. : 
Mark Libbey, South Berwick, Me. ; 
Miss Sarah J. Lord. North Berwick, 
Me. ; Mrs. Henry W., Lord, South 
Berwick, Mc. ; Mrs. Mary E. Borth- 

wick, Portsmouth, N. H. ; Rev. 
Ploward F. Hill, Concord, N. H. ; 
R. W. Lord, Kennebunk. Me. ; Mrs. 
Martha M. Lord Batchelder, Rye 
Beach, X. H. ; Prof. E. H. Lord, 
Wolfeborough, N. II . 

Recording secretary — Mrs. May 
Lord Nutter, Salmon Falls, N. H. 

Corresponding secretary —- C. C. 
Lord, Hopkinton, N". H. 

Treasurer— J. Everet£*Lbrd, North 
Berwick, Me. 

Auditors — Frederick L. Keays. 
New York city, N. Y. ; Charles E. 
Lord, Salmon Falls, N. H. ; Mrs. 
Annie L. Shaw, Kittery Depot, Me. 

Executive committee — Winfield S. 
Lord, Portsmouth, N. H. ; J. Everett 
Lord, North Berwick, Me. ; James 
Lord, Lebanon, Me. ; Jeremiah Lord, 
Somersworth, N. H. ; Miss Nellie 
F. Lord, Salmon Falls, N. PI. ; Miss 
Mary J. Lord, Eliot, Me. ; Charles 
E. Lord, Salmon Falls, N. H. ; 
Archie T. Jewell, Dover, N. H. ; 
Miss Edith M. Raitt, Eliot, Me. ; 
the president and secretaries cx-ojficio. 

Historical committee — C. C. Lord, 
Hopkinton, N. H. ; William F. Lord, 
Great P'alls, N. H. ; Mrs. Annie 
Lord Marston, Dover, N. H. ; Mrs. 
Ellen Lord Burditt, Dorchester, 
Mass. ; Miss ' Olive A. Akerman, 
Portsmouth, N. H. ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Goodwin, South Berwick, Me. 


By Caroline M. Roberts. 

The thrill of spring is in the hours, 

The sunshine, with its quickening powers, 

Awakes the sleeping grass and flowers. 

Life quivers in the genial air, 
And Nature with her lavish care, 
Flings grace and beauty everywhere. 

The buds are reddening on the trees, 
The soft, caressing southern breeze 
Renews its gentle ministries. 

The sunlit sky is clear and blue, 
The clouds take on a rainbow hue, 
As evening bathes the earth with dew, 

Which rises in ethereal haze, 

And mingles with the voiceless praise, 

That greets the morning's dawning rays. 

Enwrapt in love may every soul, 
Join in these anthems as they roll. 
In waves of joy, from pole to pole. 

And Christian pceons rise and swell 
O'er mountain top, and plain and dell, 
To Him who doeth all things well. 

By F. M. Colby. 

T is not at all strange that 
among us the springtide 
should be the theme of fre- 
quent and enamored refer- 
ences by our poets and imaginative 
writers. Its coming gives new life 
to all the dormant powers of nature. 

And in the presence of this univer- 
sal quickening, it is easy to fancy 
the " rosy-footed " genius of the sea- 
son winding her mellow horn adown 
the hillsides and through the valleys, 
awakening the sleeping flowers and 
leading: back the forest songsters to 



their accustomed haunts. The sud- 
denness witli which some of these 
"eldest daughters of the spring" 
leap into life and into bloom is re- 
markable, indicating, indeed, that all 
winter long their sleep had been very 
light — a half waking — so that the 
first and faintest breath of spring 
sufficed to call them forth. 

The first-born children of the year, 
the earliest wild flowers, how wel- 
come they are ! Some of these flow- 
ers are so shy that nobody ever 
knows when the}- appear. They 
open stealthily in the warm sun, 
under the snow, and only the very 
adventurous will be the first discov- 
erers. Before the winter is fairly 
gone pussy willow has climbed with 
her small silky catkins, — a very fit 
name the botanists have found for 
her attempts at a blossom, — up the 
slender wands of the shrub where 
she belongs, and stays there safely 
wrapped from the cold, looking out 
for spring, watching for the first flow- 
er that will bear her company. She 
does not wait long. 

Yonder, under those spreading 
oaks, where the ground is covered 
with dry leaves and grass, half- 
buried with soil, perhaps, or covered 
with its own or other leaves, the 
rarest favorite of the early spring, 
the trailing arbutus, lifts up its white 
and pink cups of incense and sends 
out its greeting, "Spring has come." 
In favorable seasons these can be 
gathered early in April and some- 
times even in March. How early 
do you suppose the Pilgrim Fathers 
found it ? How glad they must have 
been to welcome it, the very first 
flower in their new western home ! 
No wonder that from their grateful- 
ness, they gave it the name of May- 

flower, after the ship that had been 
the vessel of their hopes and that 
brought them to the New World. 

The botanists call it Epigcrt 


which indicates exactly its manner of 
growing closely to the earth. It is 
an evergreen vine creeping upon the 
'ground and hiding itself under what- 
ever may lie upon its surface. Its 
rose-colored flowers grow in clusters, 
with a salver-formed corolla of deli- 
cate petals resting in a calyx. I 
have heard it called ground laurel 
and wild lilac, as well as arbutus and 
Mayflower. It smells as sweetly and 
looks as freshly with either name. 

While the snow still lingers in our 
garden border and banks of white are 
visible along the edges of the fields, 
here on the border of the wood where 
the ground slopes southward, we shall 
find the modest and exquisitely deli- 
cate liver-leaf, Hepatica triloba. Such 
a soft, tender, slight flower as it is ! 
One would hardly expect it to be the 
first to venture out. It has not had 
the warm shelter of the earth as the 
Mayflower did, but it ventured to 
send its delicate hairy stem up into 
the spring air just the same. A close 
inspection of the plant, even in win- 
ter, will discover buds already formed 
and apparently ready to respond to 
the first breathings of spring. These 
large, dusky - green, heart - shaped 
leaves last through the winter, and 
the new ones do not usually appear 
till after the flowers. 

The hepatica is classed with the 
crowfoot family ( Ranunculacca ) , 
where also are found a large num- 
ber of our early spring favorites. 
Besides this broad-leaved variety 
there is still another //. acutiloba, 
with more erect and sharp-pointed 
leaves, but the difference between 


; oD 

the two species is neither wide nor 
constant. Long before anything in 
the garden is seen, save a few deli- 
cate snowdrops, and, possibly, now 
and then a purple or yellow crocus 
that have come out in the sunny 
borders, these lovely light blue and 
purplish flowers wrapped in their fur- 
lined silken cloaks can be found in 
profusion on our country hillsides. 

Did you ever read the old Greek 
fable of Anemone? She was a 
nymph in Flora's train and was be- 
loved by Zephyr. The queen of 
flowers, being jealous, banished the 
unfortunate maiden trom her court 
and changed her into a flower, which 
always opened at the return of spring. 
Zephyr, very ungallantly abandoned 
the former beauty to the rude ca- 
resses of Boreas, who, unable to gain 
her love, agitates her until her blos- 
soms are half open, and then causes 
her immediately to fade. The story 
always comes to me with the first 
glimpse of the beautiful wind flower, 
Anemone ncmorosa. The smooth and 
slender stems five or six inches high, 
three-lobed leaves, in a whorl near 
the head of the plant, above which is 
the cluster of pale pink or white star- 
like flowers, are unmistakable evi- 
dences that it belongs to the crow- 
foot family. They last but a short 
time. The motto, " Brads est nsusF 
" Her reign is short," admirably ex- 
presses the rapid decline of beauty. 

Another favorite flower among- us 
in New Kngland, less common, in- 
deed, through the Middle states, is 
the beautiful little star flower, Trien- 
talis Americana, with its dainty white 
blossoms rising from the stem above 
a whorl of emerald lanceolated leaves. 
It is usually found in damp, cool 
woods, and in rather high altitudes, 

and yet it prefers a southern expos- 
ure. This is one of the very few wild 
plants which is improved by culti- 

In these upland woods is found 
some of the fine wood sorrels, among 
which the violet-colored species, 
O.xalis -eiolaett, is usually the most 
valued. There is a large family of 
these sorrels, but the several species 
have a close resemblance only in the 
color of their flowers. The leaves 
are trefoil shaped, and the plant has 
much the appearance of white clover. 
The flowers rise higher than the 
leaves with bright scarlet, yellow, or 
white petals. 

Here, too, we shall find in some 
sunny nook by the side of a great 
rock or near the roots of some an- 
cient oak, in a bed of mould, the ac- 
cumulation of successive generations 
of decayed leaves, lovely specimens 
of the showy Orchis spectabilis. It 
has two oblong, shining green leaves, 
three to five inches long, from be- 
tween which rises the flower stalk, 
about six inches high, bearing a few, 
handsome, white and pinkish blos- 
soms. The plant somewhat resembles 
the lily of the valley, is of rare beauty 
and takes kindly to cultivation. 

Many of the earliest of the north- 
ern wild flowers are almost vestal in 
their purity. They have a chilliness 
of aspect compared with the fervid 
dyes of southern flowers. Most of 
our early favorites are pale little 
maidens; later on, come bright yel- 
low, purple, and scarlet, the pre- 
dominant colors of autumn. The 
smiling wake-robin has a bluish 
cast. The mitrewort is like frosted 
silver. The petals of the goldthread 
are of creamy richness. The hob- 
ble-bnsh is dead white, the choke- 



berry, roseate. Trailing arbutus is 
of the purest flesh toues, like the 
clear, fair complexion of a sweet 
young girl. But the " bluets " have, 
as the word denotes, a hue of bright- 
est azure. 

Not man}- are the flowers so favored 
with names as this golden-eyed darl- 
ing of the pastures and fields. In 
botanical nomenclature it is Hous- 
tonia arndia, to honor Dr. Houston, 
a well-known English botanist, and 
because it is of such heavenly blue 
when it opens. With the staid peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania, it is "Quaker 
bonnet; " they could think of noth- 
ing else so coy and so bewitching to 
call it by. Again it is '"Venus- 
pride," and "Dwarf-pink." It is 
"Innocence" for reasons that need 
no comments. And finally it is 
"Fairy-flax,' 3 fit for the elfin spin- 
ning and daintiest fabric for the 
queen of the fairies to wear. 

To the early spring belongs the 
bloodroot, Sanguitiaria Canadensis, 
with its broad leaves and white flow- 
ers, both leaves and flowers spring- 
ing from creeping roots, and each 
smooth flower stem supporting a 
pure white blossom with a broad 
disk, made up of narrow, ray-like 
petals, but apparently quite too deli- 
cate to brave the chill air of the sea- 
son in which it appears.' When any 
part of the plant is broken, leaves, 
flowers, or root, a rich juice exudes, 
which is an ominous red, of dye as 
deep as that gory spot on the " little 
hand " of Lady Macbeth which would 
"not out." From the ensanguined 
color of this juice the plant takes its 
name. It is highly valued in medi- 

After May has fairly come and the 
days begin to grow warmer, how fast 

the flowers press along. One must 
go often to their haunts or some will 
have bloomed and passed away. We 
had been many times to the swamp 
where grows the fever bush before 
we ever saw it in blossom. And 
then we did not recognize it till we 
had bitten the aromatic bark and 
tasted the pungent flavor which gives 
it its other names of spicewood and 
benzoin, making one think of the 
Orient and Old Testament days 
when caravans went laden with 
odoriferous things whereof incense for 
the temples was made. For years 
we failed to see the cassandra or 
leather-leaf in bloom. It is one of 
the Andromeda family and comes on 
late in April or early in May, when 
the small, egg-shaped, white flowers 
appear in a row like lilies-of-the-val- 
ley. They are slightly fragrant, and 
as pretty as they can be. They are 
so young and the bush so hoary, 
that it is like the contrast of a child's 
face on the bent, decrepit figure of 
an old man. 

Going down toward the wet land 
we may expect to find the delicate, 
little, . spring beauty, Clatonia Vir- 
gi?iica, nestling in the dead grass 
and weeds, with its pale red flowers, 
its tender and half prostrate stem 
with two long, lance-shaped leaves, 
all rising together from its bulbous 
roots. It belongs to the portulace 
family and is not dissimilar to the 
best known species of that plant 
found in our gardens, whether as 
cultivated flowers or weeds. 

There are other spring beauties 
that we cannot speak of at this time, 
the snow-white saxifrage, the Azalea 
viscosa, with its large white flowers ; 
the adder's tongue or dogtooth vio- 
let, with its lily-like flower of bright, 


golden yellow and sometimes slightly 
purple ; the blue violets which peer 
out everywhere in the thickets and 
among the grass. We pass by all 
these, which, with the others we 
have named, are the real hamadry- 
ads, the children of the groves, that 
may -be found in their glory only in 
their native wilds. Like Persephone, 
when torn from the flowery meads of 

Enna they pine and wither removed 
from their places. They are true 
children of the sunshine and the 
spirits of the air, and though but the 
harbingers of the coming hosts that 
accompany the flower-bearing May, 
who, themselves, give place to those 
bi Tune, they hold a place in Nature's 
casket that no other jewels can re- 

By Alice D. O. Greenwood. 

g^g«FplE had worked side by side 
I in the Fullerton Hosiery 
mill for a little more than 
a year, Joy Mi lien and I. 
Ruth Hartwell. 

It was in May that she came. I 
remember wishing that morning as I 
crossed the bridge and looked up at 
the window beside which my machine 
sat, that my "right bower" (as I 
called the woman who stood next to 
me on the right and turned stock- 
ings) was not so deaf, and possessed 
more quiet taste. 

Imagine then my surprise when in 
her stead I found a slight girlish fig- 
ure, clad in soft gray, with a great 
bunch of purple violets in the bosom 
of her dress. She glanced up as I 
took my place at the machine. Was 
she 'really beautiful, or was it only 
the contrast between the lace I now 
saw and the one I had been accus- 
tomed to see ? 

In the shadow her hair was a dark 
rich brown, but when the sunlight 
touched it it was of that peculiar tint 
you sometimes see on the ears of a 
thoroughbred English pointer. (Yes, 
a singular comparison, but I have 

never seen it elsewhere save in Joy 
Millen's hair. ) 

Her complexion was exquisite, and 
being a plain, matter-of-fact person, 
and not given to poetic similies I 
thought at once of a dish of Jersey 
cream and strawberries. She had 
pretty, slender hands, and I noticed 
she wore a ring on the third finger of 
the left. 

"Good morning!'' (I said, pres- 
ently, as I caught her looking at me) 
" a fine morning is n't it? " 

"Beautiful!" she replied, and I 
remember being glad she had not 
said lovely, as all the mill girls do. 

" Are you a ' super ' or have you a 
permanent job? " I asked. 

" I hope," she said, and the straw- 
berries seemed to melt and suffuse a 
tint of crimson through the cream, 
" I hope it may be permanent." 

Then I noticed the pretty, gray 
dress was sadly worn, and had been 
very carefully darned in many places. 
We said no more then, but when the 
whistle blew at noon, observing she 
had brought a lunch, I asked in 
what part of the city she lived. She 
gave me her street and number, 



which I knew was somewhat remote. 
However, I at once made up my 
mind to call, though I remembered 
she had not invited me to do so. 

I think it was in June that I first 
visited her. I found them in a some- 
what dilapidated tenement, on the 
outskirts of the city. I was at first 
surprised at the apparent elegance of 
the furniture, though when I saw it 
later and in a stronger light. I dis- 
covered it, too, was much worn. 

" Mamma, this is Ruth," Joy said 
in her pretty, simple fashion. 

"I am very glad, indeed, to see 
you, dear," Mrs. Milieu remarked, as 
she took my hand. " My daughter 
has talked of you so much that I feel 
quite well acquainted." 

The evening passed very pleas- 
antly, and when I arose to go Joy 
signified her intention of accompany- 
ing me as far as V street. 

It was then that she confided to me 
her history, and, having received it 
in confidence, I shall not repeat it 
here save as it bears upon this narra- 
tive. This much, however, I will 
tell. She was engaged to be mar- 
ried the following June to one Joe 
Barton, an engineer on the Hannibal 
& St. Joe railroad. 

The following April the mill shut 
down, whether for repairs or from 
policy, does not concern this story. 
Then it was, however, that we dis- 
covered that our little bank account 
was likely to "take unto itself 
wings," and we at once proceeded to 
institute a " cut down "by a removal 
to the country. And the latter part 
of May found us pleasantly situated 
in a typical Xew England farmhouse, 
about a mile from the pretty little vil- 
lage of W . We were very hap- 
py in those days, having no rent to 

pay. and no stockings to knit or turn. 
About this time Joe sent his dog, 
Fritz, to Joy. He was a noble New- 
foundland and became very much at- 
tached to us. 

We were expecting Mr. Barton 
the 20th of June. They were to be 
married the 21st, Joy's birthday, and 
go immediately to St. Joe, where they 
were to make their home, Mrs. Milieu 
remaining behind just long enough to 
superintend the removal of the fur- 

On the evening of the 15th we were 
all sitting together upon the piazza. 
The moon was almost full, and ob- 
jects were distinctly visible at quite a 
distance. Suddenly Fritz, who was 
lying at Joy's feet, pricked up his 
ears as though listeuiug attentively, 
then began a most energetic wagging 
of his tail, and before we were aware 
of his intentions, started swiftly down 
the road. In the moonlight we could 
see distinctly the figure of a man ap- 

"Who can it be," said Joy, "that 
he is so delighted to see? " He was 
leaping wildly about, and occasion- 
ally the individual would pause and 
seem to caress him. When within a 
few yards of the house Joy exclaimed, 
" It 's Joe ! " and ran down the walk 
to meet him, whereupon Mrs. Milieu 
and I entered the house, and as we 
did so I distinctly heard the village 
clock strike nine, so stole softly up- 
stairs and retired. Shortly after- 
wards I heard Joy's voice in the 
upper hall bidding Mr. Barton good 
night as she had shown him to his 

When I came downstairs in the 
morning she was standing in the 
doorway with her hands full of June 



I replied, 
and there 



" I wonder." she was saying to her 
mother, " what it is that is troubling 
Joe ! I never saw him so grave as 
he seemed last night. He said as I 
bade him good night, 

" ' Remember, Joy, that I still love 
you and that we will meet again.' 

41 Of course we will,' 
" in the morning.' ' 

"Yes," he answered, 
will be no more night." 

"Strange, wasn't it! " 

11 Oh, I don't know, 
mother replied; "I presume he was 
thinking of your marriage." 

A few moments later breakfast was 
announced, and Joy standing at the 
foot of the stairway, called softly, 
three times, "Joe! Joe! Joe!" and 
receiving no answer she said, 

" Poor fellow, he is very tired after 
his long journey. We will let him 
sleep till he wakens." 

And the breakfast was carried back 
into the kitchen to be kept warm. 

When eight o'clock came, how- 
ever, and he had not made his ap- 
pearance, Mrs. Milieu crept softly up- 
stairs. The door of his room stood 
ajar. We heard an exclamation of 
surprise and hastened to her side. 
The room was vacant. The bed had 
not been occupied. 

I shall never forget the look on 
Joy's face as she turned and went 
slowly downstairs. There was no 
breakfast eaten that day, and very 

little said. We could not bring our- 
selves to discuss the strange occur- 

About ten o'clock a boy came up 
the walk with an envelope in his 
hand. " For me," said Joy, as she 
received it from him. Her hands 
shook pitifully as she opened and sat 
staring at it in a dazed way till it fell 
from her fingers. I picked it up, it 
was a telegram, and read, 

Killed in a collision at 7:45 p. m., Joseph 
Barton, driver, engine No. 10, II. & St. J. R. R. 



Richard Bent, Agt. 

Ill September we went back to the 
mill. But instead of going to my 
old quarters I have since, at their 
earnest solicitation, made my home 
with Mrs. Milieu and Joy. Together 
we go to and from our work. The 
youth and beauty of her fair face 
with its sad expression, and the som- 
ber garments she now wears, make 
it all the more pitiful. 

Sometimes when she fancies she is 
alone I have seen her glance up sud- 
denly and smile as though she were 
looking straight into Joe Barton's 
eyes. And at such times Fritz mani- 
fests his delight in his dumb dog 

Upon one occasion I saw her stroke 
his great head tended}', and heard 
her say distinctly, "Fritz sees you, 


By President Jeremiah Eames Rankin, D. IK, LL. I). 


a stalwart son of Anak, six 
feet tall, was the sou of 
Jeremiah Eames. aud was 
born Ma}- 6, 1735. He came to Coos 
count}' from Boxford, Mass., his 
native town, locating in Northum- 
berland, N. H., on lot 53, which lot 
was confirmed to him at the first 
meeting of the proprietors. He mar- 
ried Susanna Peabody, of Boxford, 
going back for her after staking his 
claim. During his absence another 
man jumped his claim. He quietly 
surrendered and pitched elsewhere. 
In 1776 he built a block-house, and 
was given command of a company of 
soldiers. ' This garrison was main- 
tained until i;S2, and was on the 
very spot where the house, occupied 
by his grandson, John Eames, of 
Northumberland, and which has 
always belonged to the family, now 
stands. During the period between 
1780 and 1 82 2, in all civil and mili- 
tary affairs, Captain Eames' s position 
was a commanding one in the town. 
He had held the same position 
among the proprietors before the 
town was incorporated. 

Captain Eames had three sons, 
Jeremiah, who was born June 30, 
1762, Thomas, September 12, 1763, 
and Seth, October 21, 17S1 ; of which 
sons he is said to have made this 
remark, that "Jeremiah was good 
for himself and everybody else, Seth 
was good for himself and nobody 

else, and Thomas was good neither 
for himself nor anybody else." 

Captain Eames' coming from Box- 
ford is believed by John Eames, his 
grandson, and that from remarks of 
his father, Seth Eames, to have been 
owing to the persecution of a mem- 
ber of the family for witchcraft ; in 
1692 Rebecca Eames, wife of Robert 
Eames, having been indicted as a 
witch in Boxford, aud condemned to 
execution. She was reprieved by 
Governor Phipps and relieved of the 
attainder in 17 10, and died in 1721. 
But the odium attaching to the per- 
secution is said to have been one 
reason why Jeremiah Eames was 
willing to leave that neighborhood. 
Captain Eames lived to be eighty- 
one years, eleven months and five 
days old ; his wife, seventy-eight 
years and seven months. They both 
died in 1S17, and are buried in 
Northumberland near his original 

The daughters of Captain Eames's 
family were first, Lois, who married 
Hezekiah Smith, and had no chil- 
dren. She was born October 14, 
1763, and died March 26, 1795. 
The next was Susanna, who was 
born November 22, 1774, and died 
May 20, 1 8 10. She was never mar- 

Capt. Jeremiah Eames was one of 
the earliest settlers, and an original 
grantee of the town of Northumber- 
land, N. H. "He was a man of 



impetuous . mold, and a prompt and 
decided actor in all important mat- 
ters." He held numerous offices of 
political and military trust, and the 
town-meetings were often convened 
at his house. This was the case in 
1780, when he was chosen one of the 
selectmen, which office he held until 
1795; then again from 1796 to 1S00, 
when he was chosen representative 
1o the general court. In 1806, 1S09, 
and 1 8 10, he was town treasurer. 
Then the succession seemed to fall 
upon his son, Seth. 

Jeremiah Eames, Jr., the oldest 
son of Captain Eames, removed to 
West Stewartstown in 1797 and set- 
tled on lot No. 13, his father having 
built a sawmill and grist-mill there 
on what is still known as the Eames 
Falls. He took with him Anna, his 
wife, and three children, Jeremiah, 
3d, Anna, and William. There he 
had born to him Lois in 1799, Persis 
in 1 801, Cyrus in 1S04, Hiram in 
1806, Emily in 180S, Susan in 1809, 
and Adeline in 1812. His wife was 
a daughter of Col. William Williams, 
who was distinguished in the French 
and Indian wars, and who com- 
manded a regiment at the Battle 
of Bennington. The same Colonel 
Williams secured the charter of the 
towns of Bennington and Wilming- 
ton, Vt. 

Jeremiah, Jr., like bass father in 
Northumberland, was a leading man 
of the town, held a military com- 
mission, was representative in the 
general court, and served much of 
the time from 1800 to 1825 as one 
of the selectmen. He was a skilful 
surveyor, and with Seth, his brother, 
laid out much of the land of Coos 
county, where the authority of his 
surveys was never questioned. Lois, 

his second daughter, married Rev. 
Andrew Rankin, a native of Little- 
ton, a grandson of James Rankin, 
one of the first settlers, who, with 
his wife, Margaret Witherspoone, 
emigrated from Paisley, Scotland. 
They had six children, two of whom 
(sons) were Rev. Jeremiah Eames 
Rankin of Washington, D. C, fifteen 
years pastor of the Congregational 
church there, and now president 
of Howard's university ; and Hon. 
Andrew Evarts Rankin, a graduate 
of Middlebury college and Harvard 
Law school, for many years a resi- 
dent of St. Johnsbury, Vt., and clerk 
of the county court there, a man of 
judicial turn of mind, of great lit- 
erary culture and business ability ; 
and two of whom (daughters) were 
the wives respectively of Hon. Sum- 
ner Albee of Cambridge, Mass., and 
the Rev. Henry E. Butler, D. D., of 
Alma, Mich. Two other daughters 
were Sarah Maria, wife of Charles 
Flanders ; and Lois Adeline, for 
many years in the pension office, 
Washington, D. C. Cyrus Eatnes, 
the third sou of Jeremiah Eames 2d, 
married a Miss Fletcher of Indian 
Stream country. He was many years 
a tanner in Colebrook, X. H., and 
finally moved to Green Bay, Wis. 
He brought up a large family of 
attractive daughters, among whom 
was Emeline, who married the late 
Gen. E. R. Wadsworth of Chicago. 
Thomas Eames, the second son of 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames, was the most 
notable of all the hotel keepers in 
Coos county. He was a hunter, 
trader in furs, a rather reckless, 
large-hearted man, around whom 
centered all the free and easy livers 
of the neighborhood. He had seven 
children, six sons : Thomas, Charles, 



Jeremiah. George, Erastus, and 
Ralph, and one daughter, Harriet. 
His land was directly above that of 
his father's on the Connecticut. 
Many are the curious stories that 
are told of him. This for example : 
Some Indians were discussing the 
relative skill of the Indian and the 
white man as a hunter, when the 
arts of "Tom" Eames were instanced, 
"Oh, yes," replied the Indian, "Tom 
Eames Indian and more, too." The 
tavern that Thomas Karnes kept was 
regarded with suspicion by the cus- 
tom house officers, and the independ- 
ent proprietor was at one time prose- 
cuted for harboring contraband goods 
or guests or both. On one occasion, 
Thomas Eames, Jr., rigged up a box 
sleigh, and covered up within it 
several wild fellows like himself, who 
took the officers a long race through 
the snow. At last in a thick forest 
near Northumberland, at the chal- 
lenge of their pursuers with the 
threat to fire, they halted, and when 
the contents of the sleigh were dis- 
closed, a lively and protracted tussle 
in the snow occurred for mastery ; 
and one of the pursuers, Daniel Rich, 
was accustomed to tell the story to 
the day of his death. 

When " Tom " Eames came to his 
last sickness, he was approached by 
a minister with questions as to his 
probable destiny. " Where do you 
suppose you will .go to?" asked the 
minister. "Oh, my neighbors," he 
replied, "will carry me to the cem- 
etery." "Your spirit, I mean." 
"Oh, the boys, Tom and Erastus," 
meaning his sons, "will take care 
of the spirit." This story has been 
incorrectly attributed to Capt. Jere- 
miah Eames, who was a man of more 
serious mold. 

A granddaughter of Thomas Eames 
is Mrs. Eliza Faulkner of Keene, X. H., 
whose husband, the late Charles 
Faulkner, Esq., was a successful 
manufacturer there, and whose sons, 
graduates of Harvard, occupy posi- 
tions of honor and influence. A 
grandson of Thomas Eames is the 
late William Eames Brooks, Esq., of 
Rock Island, 111., who succeeded his 
father, William Brooks, as heir to 
the very valuable real estate on 
which Rock Island City is now lo- 
cated. It is said of William Brooks, 
that in 1S35, on his way to Rock 
Island, he was offered a large tract 
of land, some 200 acres, on the very 
spot where Chicago now stands, for 
the sum of S400, or §2 an acre. 

Mrs. William Brooks is remem- 
bered in Northumberland for this 
incident : It was the custom of the 
country to quarter the Methodist 
preachers at their conferences in the 
different families of the community. 
Two such preachers had been as- 
signed to Mr. Brooks. They came 
on Saturday. In the hurry of his 
business (he was a tanner) he ex- 
cused himself from appearing at the 
table, but he told his wife to serve 
them up the best dinner she could 
get. She went to the pig-pen, se- 
lected two choice shoats, which Mr. 
Brooks had lately secured to fatten, 
and set one of them before each of 
her two guests. She evidently in- 
tended that they should go the 
"whole hog." She showed herself 
the daughter of her own father. 

Seth Eames, the third son of Capt. 
Jeremiah Eames, remained on the 
farm, bringing up a family of ten 
children and succeeding to his 
father's influence in the town. In- 
deed, from the time of the incorpora- 



tion of 'the town in 1780, to the year 
of Seth Karnes's death, in 1854, the 
name of Barnes is the most promi- 
nent one in the town reeords. Seth 
Barnes -was for thirty- one successive 
years town clerk and treasurer. If 
the town wanted a road made, a 
bridge built, a sehoolhouse or meet- 
ing-house erected, a minister em- 
ployed, among the names mentioned 
for performing this function, was 
almost always an Karnes. The 
Barneses were selectmen, town 
clerks, or town treasurers as reg- 
ularly as though it ran in the 
blood ; and at this very writing. 
1897, Henrj r Dilkey, a son-in-law 
of Seth Karnes, and a soldier, is 
town clerk. 

But perhaps the most influential 
man as affecting the welfare of the 
town has been John Karnes, Esq., 
who owned the laud now occupied 
by the enterprising little village of 
Groveton, who laid out the original 
streets, making a gift of the land to 
the corporation ; who erected the 
Melcher House and ran it for two 
years as a temperance house ; who 
built the dams, and yet who now 
lives and farms on the very spot 

where his ancestor first pitched his 
tent. It happened to John Barnes to 
take a stand against slavery as early 
as 1S52. This lost him caste and 
threw him out of the line of family 
succession to office. He was one of 
the first five men in Northumberland 
who voted for James G. Birney, and 
when the Methodists erected their 
house of worship he gave them the 
first fifty dollars, with the under- 
standing that it should pay for a 
pew for colored people, though it is 
not known that a colored man ever 
lived in town. 

The sons of John Karnes and Fivila 
C. Day of Stratford were Seth John, 
born June, 1857, who successfully es- 
tablished himself in the milk busi- 
ness in Boston, and who died greatly 
lamented November, iSS6, and By- 
ron, who is still in the same business 
there. Seth married a daughter of 
Wittemore Rowell of Boston, and 
Byron, a daughter of Thomas Kelly 
of Groveton. Several children re- 
sulted from each of these marriages. 
The present Mrs. John Barnes (his 
first wife died in 18S5) w r as Miss 
Grace Eva, daughter of William H. 
Monroe, Boston, Mass. 


By General Low. 

BEFORE Lord Bacon's time i 

% !* gj m ight be said of philosophy, 

' of the great globe 

v\l % f'i as was sa *d o 
t^MJ which we ml 

habit before the 
creation of man that it was without 
form and void. To him it was com- 
mitted to utter the sublime com- 
mand, " Let there be light." In 
obedience to the impulse of his 
powerful mind the great truth which, 
lias ever since formed the controlling 
principle of philosophy was rescued 
from the mass of superstitions with 
which it was overwhelmed ; and that 
truth is this— that observation and 
experience are the great instruments 
by which we extract from nature her 
secrets. It was not that these in- 
struments were wholly unknown in 
the ancient philosophy, but that their 
vast importance was not appreciated. 
The}' were barely tolerated, while the 
chief energies of the human mind 
w T ere devoted to the discussion of 
questions which it was impossible . 
ever to solve, and which would 
amount to nothing if , they were 

It was at the hands of Bacon that 
the great nonpositiou that observa- 
tion and experience should be our 
principal teachers received an im- 
mense expansion, and an application 
upon a scale totally unknown before. 
Since his time philosophy which be- 
fore had exercised but little influ- 
ence over the affairs of men, and 

1 An address delivered at the dedication of Rinnfon 
herein were yi^en verbatim to Mr. Low by the Count 

presented to their gaze only the 
appearance of an unintelligible mys- 
tery, as in truth it was as well to 
those whose lives were devoted to 
its study as to others, has at length 
been brought home to the business 
and bosoms of men. The results of 
the proiound investigations of an 
English lawyer (for such was Bacon 
by profession) are felt by every 
individual within the range of the 
influence of the civilized world. The 
spinning jenny of Arkwright, the 
steam engine of Watt, the electric 
telegraph of Morse, the lightning 
conductors of Franklin, and the 
scientific applications of heat, for all 
the purposes of human life, by Rum- 
ford, and countless others ; arts and 
inventions are the legitimate progeny 
of one mighty mind. The Ark- 
wrights and Fultons and. Rumfords, 
and so many others who have fol- 
lowed in the path made clear by 
the light thrown upon it by Bacon, 
would, if they had existed before his 
time, as no doubt many kindred 
spirits did exist, have been forced 
by the current of an irresistible pub- 
lic sentiment to waste their magnifi- 
cent endowments in the discussion of 
frivolous questions, the doctrines of 
entities and quiddities or in master- 
ing the barbarous terms and mean- 
ingless refinements of an incompre- 
hensible logic. It was not until, in 
the person of Bacon, one was found 

■J hall in Concord. January. i -'si. The facts set forth 
esa of Kuiuford for this paper. 


and fitted to be the leader of the 
forlorn hope of progress, one capable 
of pointing out a way and making 
one, that these noble powers could 
be reclaimed from a barren service 
to the execution of those tasks which 
minister to the good of man. 

Among the men who have fol- 
lowed in the track of Bacon, drink- 
ing deeply the spirit of his great 
maxims and applying them in an 
enlarged, sagacious, and practical 
manner to human use, ore entitled 
to take a pla^e in the first rank of 
modern philosophers, is the one in 
whose honor and to recall the in- 
cidents of his varied and eventful 
life, we are in part at leasl now 

It is a natural instinct of the mind 
to desire to leave a memory which 
shall pass beyond the narrow limits 
of our own time, and reach, and be 
honored by posterity. It is one of 
the most important circumstances by 
which we are distinguished from the 
brutes which perish, and one of the 
agents which acts most powerfully in 
sustaining the mind under the almost 
overwhelming sense of difheultv and 
discouragment inseparable from the 
execution of all great enterprise. 
It is our duty to see that so rational 
and honorable a hope shall not be 

Although so assuredly celebrated 
and still constantly quoted as an 
authority upon all -points to which 
his researches were devoted, Count 
Rumford may be said to be but little 
known in places with which his 
name and fame are historically and 
inseparably connected. 

It is therefore proper, on this occa- 
sion, to furnish a brief narrative of 
his remarkable career, to show that, 

in designating this place of social 
assemblage by his name and in his 
honor, we are rendering no vain- 
glorious homages, but only a just, 
although a very inadequate, tribute 
of respect. 

Benjamin Thompson, afterwards 
Count Rumford, was born at Wo- 
bufn. Mass., March 26, 1753. Among 
the instances in his boyhood of the 
inventive faculty which afterwards 
made him so famous was an attempt 
to solve the problem of perpetual 
motion. His next attempt was, at 
Salem, to construct some fireworks 
to celebrate the repeal of the stamp 
act, in which he was severely in- 
jured b}' an explosion. 

In 1770 Col. Timothy Walker of 
this town, then called Rumford, in- 
vited him to take charge of an 
academy at Rumford ; the grace and 
personal advantages, says his biog- 
rapher, which afterwards gained him 
access to the proudest circles of 
Kurope, were already developed. 
His stature of nearly six feet, his 
erect figure, his finely-formed limbs, 
his bright blue eyes, his features 
chiseled in the Roman mould, and 
his dark auburn hair, rendered him 
a model of manly beauty. 

During his residence in Rumford 
he formed an attachment to a lady 
of the place, Mrs. Sarah Rolfe, sister 
of Col. Timothy Walker, whom, in 
November, 1772, he married, being 
then only nineteen, but was sepa- 
rated from her in 1776. One child, a 
daughter, was issue of this marriage, 
who, after accompaning her father 
during his later years, has returned 
to America to spend the close of her 
life among those scenes of which she 
ever retained a fond recollection. 
When Boston was evacuated in 


March, 1776, Major Thompson was 
sent to England with the news. On 
arriving he was taken into Lord 
George Germain's office, and he was 
appointed secretary of the Province 
of Georgia. 

At the close of the war Major 
Thompson had attained the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel in the British Ser- 
vice, but being now without employ- 
ment and having become attached to 
the military life, he conceived the 
idea of offering his services to Aus- 
tria, then at war with Turkey. But 
in passing through one of the garri- 
soned towns of France on his way 
thither, an incident occurred by 
which his energies were fortunately 
diverted into their proper channel. 
At a review of the troops of the gar- 
rison he presented himselt as a spec- 
tator, mounted on a superb English 
horse, and in the full and fine uni- 
form of his rank. Tin's was received 
as an act of cointesy. and trie French 
officers of his own rank eagerly 
sought his acquaintance. Among 
them was the Prince of Bavaria, 
Maximilian of Deux Pouts, held 
marshal in the service of the French. 
He addresses Thompson, who in- 
forms him that he comes from serv- 
ing in the American war. The 
prince, in pointing out to him many 
officers who surround him, says, 
u These gentlemen were in the same 
war, but against you ; they belonged 
to the royal regiment of Deux Pouts 
that acted in America under the or- 
ders of Count Rochambeau." The 
prince had been present at the sur- 
render of Cornwallis. In conse- 
quence of this introduction, he was 
to enter into the service of the king 
of Ba.varia, in which he continued 
eighteen years, and in which he 

achieved no small part of his fame. 
His first efforts were directed to 
improving the military establishment 
of Bavaria, then in a wretched condi- 
tion, which he placed upon a footing 
which required no change even when 
her troops were brought into line 
with those of Napoleon. So highly 
were his services esteemed that he 
soon obtained the rank of lieutenant- 
general, minister of war, and super- 
intendent of police, and afterwards 
the highest distinction in the power 
of the king to confer, being made a 
count of the German empire, taking 
his title from the theu name of this 
town, being the place of his wife's 
residence. But the great achieve- 
ment of his Bavarian life was the 
bold and ingenious manner in which 
he succeeded in putting a stop to a 
system of beggary by which the 
country, and especially Munich, its 
capital, was nearly overwhelmed. 
Having provided an extensive build- 
ing, preparations were quietly made 
for arresting, within a few hours, all 
the beggars of Munich. The first 
was arrested by his own hands, and 
in an hour not one was to be found 
in the streets. Although arrested in 
the first instance, the paupers were 
not tieated as ciiminals, but were 
dismissed, and permitted like other 
workmen to proceed daily to their 
appointed tasks. At the end of 
six years the mendicants were re- 
duced from 2,600 to 1,500, and their 
labor produced a clear annual in- 
come of $40,000 a year, instead of 
constituting a charge to the commu- 
nity of at least double that sum. 
The details by which he carried out 
tli is scheme cannot here be given, 
but their sagacity and effectiveness 
were such as to excite the greatest 


RUM FORD. 247 

admiration in every part of Europe. 
Notwithstanding the rough, usage to 
which the mendicants were thus sub- 
jected, his efforts resulted so strongly 
to their benefit, that they were led to 
conceive the highest affection for 
him, and when he was seized by a 
severe illness, they went in a bod}' to 
the cathedral to offer up prayers for 
his recovery. 

Cut his success in this particular is 
interesting, not so much in itself as 
in having been the means of turning 
his attention to that which was the 
great and crowning labor of his life, 
and has placed his fame upon a 
broad and solid foundation. It was 
in consequence of researches into 
which he was led, of the nature 
and application of heat, primarily for 
the purposes of rookery, and after- 
wards for those of warmth, that he 
was to deserve and acquire the repu- 
tation of having contributed to the 
comfort and physical well being of 
his race in a degree not inferior, per- 
haps, to that of any other man with 
the exception of an isolated effort on 
the part of Franklin ; nothing, in this 
regard, had, as yet, been done. The 
most polished nations of antiquity, so 
celebrated in painting, architecture, 
and the elegant arts, had made al- 
most no advance in this particular 
over the savage life at fire kindled 
in fcfoe middle of the room, and its 
smoke suffered to escape from a hole 
i?i the roof, was ' almost the only 
method of applying heat, whether for 
cookery or warmth. 

In Rumford's time fireplaces and 
chimneys had come into use, but 
their construction was so unskilful 
that it might still be doubted if 
there had been made any substan- 
tial advance over the primitive mode. 

In respect to this country, it is 
well remarked by Professor Ren wick 
(author of the life of Count Rumford 
in Sparks's Biography) "that the 
evils of the fireplaces which contin- 
ued in use until the early part of the 
present century, may be recollected 
by those whose age reaches 50, and 
they are remembered with feelings in 
which shuddering and scorching are 
strangel}' combined, and which are 
almost unknown and scarcely, to be 
imagined by the present generation." 
And Cuvier, another biographer of 
Rumford, and a philosopher of France 
of the highest renown, speaking upon 
this same point, says: ''That when 
we recall those enormous chimneys 
of our fathers, where they burned 
entire trees, and which almost always 
smoked, we are astonished that there 
should not sooner have been devised 
the simple and efficacious remedy 
of Rumford's. But it may be con- 
cluded." continued he, "that there 
is a real difficulty in all these discov- 
ies which come to light so slowly, 
and which seem so simple when they 
are once discovered." 

Rumford's attention was first at- 
tracted to the economizing of fuel in 
cookery, which was then universally 
carried on over open fires, of course 
with a vast waste. To remedy this 
he devised the method of setting 
boilers in brickwork with the fire 
beneath, now so universally adopted. 
By these and other kindred contriv- 
ances, he attained to so great an 
economy of fuel and labor, that three 
women were enabled to perform the 
cookery for a thousand persons, and 
at an expenditure of fuel almost in- 
credibly small, an economy which was 
immediately and most beneficially felt 
in every part of Europe, especially 


in the great institutions for chari- 
table purposes- 
He next devised a remedy for the 
fireplaces then in use, and which at 
an enormous waste of fuel furnished 
little heat and much smoke. The 
remedy for this, like most remedies 
for most evils, was very simple, but 
which, nevertheless, it required gen- 
ius to apprehend and boldness to 
applVj it being merely this, that the 
throat of a chimney should be no 
larger than just enough to allow the 
passage of air necessary for combus- 
tion, and that all the air entering it 
should previously have been caused 
to pass through the fire. He also 
exerted himself greatly and success- 
fully in England, and by reaction in 
this country to the introduction of 
stoves, in which he had to encounter 
strong prejudices. 

He next directed his attention to 
the properties of steam as a means of 
warmth, and for other uses, which 
were then completely unknown. The 
services which he rendered in this 
particular alone, especially in manu- 
factures, were of incalculable impor- 

In fine, it may be truly said that 
the whole system of applying heat 
for all purposes of human use and 
convenience, had its origin in his fer- 
tile and inventive mind. It cannot, 
indeed, be said of him, as of Frank- 
lin, that he snatched the lightning 
Iron: heaven, but a" still higher enco- 
mium may be justly pronounced upon 
him — that if his labors and the results 
of them could be struck from exist- 
ence, there would necessarily follow 
a greater deduction from all that 
is included in that most expres- 
sive and comprehensive word corn- 
forty than could result if the labors 

of any other one man whatsoever 
could be stricken out. 

This was, substantially, the great 
work of his life ; the vocation to 
which by an overruling power he 
was called, and for which his previ- 
ous career, however brilliant, in some 
particulars was merely a preparation. 
Such a designation at the hands 
of Providence as an instrument of 
immense and widespread benefit to 
his fellows, entitles him to hold and 
be considered as one of those names 
and memories which the world will 
" not willingly let die." 

Such was the perfection and econ- 
omy to which Rumford had attained 
in his contrivances for cooking, that 
it was wittily remarked of him, he 
would soon manage to cook his din- 
ner by the smoke of his neighbor's 
fire ; but, as well remarked by 
Cuvier, it was not for his own ben- 
efit that he sought out these econo- 
mies, for his repeated and varied 
experiments were only carried on 
by a great expenditure of his own 

In regard to light, also, says 
Cuvier, he made almost as many 
researches as upon heat. He in- 
vented a lamp with many parallel 
wicks, of which the flames, exciting 
mutually their heat, without losing 
any of their rays, produced almost 
an unlimited amount of light. It is 
said that when this was lighted it 
was of such brilliancy as completely 
to blind for a time the artisan who 
had made it, so that he was unable 
to regain his own home, and was 
obliged to pass the night in the 

He also proved by some ingenious 
experiment in opposition to an idea 
of that time, that heat has no weight. 



His investigations into the nature of 
color were equally ingenious and pro- 
found. lv It probably does not occur 
to the ladies," says Cuvier, "when 
making choice of a border or of a 
ribbon, that the proper assortment of 
the colors of a dress depends upon 
the immutable laws of nature, and 
yet it is so. If one looks fixedly 
for some time upon a ribbon, for 
instance, of a certain color, placed 
upon a white ground, it appears to 
be bordered by a different color, but 
always having a certain relation to 
the other, and in philosophical 
phrase, it is called its complimentary 
color. Thus it is that in dress, if 
the different colors are complimen- 
tary to each other, the effect is agree- 
able, and, of course, in the reverse 
case, it is not." 

It was in the course of his re- 
searches in regard to the manner in 
which heat is communicated to water 
that he discovered that beautiful law, 
Avhich, more than any other single 
instance, perhaps, demonstrates the 
existence of a superintending and all- 
wise power. He discovered by a 
beautiful experiment that the parti- 
cles of water as they become warm 
rise to the top, and becoming cool, 
sink to the bottom again. By this 
process continually repeated, it would 
happen if there were no furiher pro- 
vision, that the surface on being con- 
gealed to ice would sink at the bot- 
tom, and the warm particles rising in 
successive strokes, and being con- 
gealed as they reached the top would 
also sink, and thus all bodies of water 
in the course of one severe winter 
would become dense masses of ice, to 
the complete destruction of all ani- 
mated life. He it was who first 
showed clearly the important fact 

that at the precise moment when the 
water became sufficiently cold to form 
ice, it became not heavier but lighter, 
and floating forms a protection from 
the cold for that beneath it. 
■ It would be easy to speak at still 
greater length upon his various ex- 
periments and high scientific attain- 
ments, but this brief space will not 
permit. It is sufficient to say that in 
the opinion of all those qualified to 
judge they were such as to entitle to 
him the highest rank as a man of 

In was in about ten years, from 
thirty to forty years of age, that 
Count Rum ford achieved these great 
results. At the end of this time the 
troubles of the French Revolution 
had involved Bavaria, as well as the 
rest of Europe, and it was his good 
fortune by his skilful management to 
cause the neutrality of Munich, its 
capital, to be respected by the con- 
tending armies of the Austrians and 
French. The people and ruler of 
Bavaria were greatly pleased with 
this service, and as a testimony of it 
about one thousand dollars of the 
pension which had been granted to 
him was settled on his daughter for 
her life. She was also received at 
court as a countess of the empire. 
She was with her father in Bavaria 
from 1796 to 1799. He was also ap- 
pointed ambassador from Bavaria to 
the English court, but on his arrival 
there the ministry refused to receive 
him in that capacity on the ground 
that he was a British subject. As 
this post was one very agreeable to 
his wishes, and advantageous to his 
pursuits, he was considerably cha- 
grined by the refusal. 

At the death of his long-tried and 
firm friend, the elector of Bavaria, 


Charles Theodore, also taking place 
about this time, 1799, he was disin- 
clined to return thither, as it was un- 
derstood that the new elector, Maxi- 
milian Joseph of Deux Fonts, who 
had been the means of introducing 
him to the former prince, was not 
well affected towards him. He even 
entertained the design of returning- to 
settle in his native land, but from 
this he was diverted by a proposal 
from the King of Kngland to remain 
and assist in organizing the Royal in- 
stitution — an institution which has 
since rendered signal service to sci- 
ence, especially in the department of 
chemistry. Having revisited Bava- 
ria, he resolved to spend the remain- 
der of his days in Paris. There he 
became acquainted with Madame 
Lavoisier, a lady of large property, 
the widow of the celebrated chemist 
of that name, who was guillotined 
during the reign of terror. He it 
was, who, on being informed of his 
sentence, requested permission to 
finish an experiment in which he was 
then engaged, but it was refused. 

Such a union between one philoso- 
pher and the widow of another, would 
seem to be most natural and con- 
genial, but it did not prove to be a 
happy one. The particular causes 
of the separation which ■ took place 
are not given by his biographers, but 
I am informed by a competent au- 
thority that a union happy in appear- 
ance at first was soon interrupted by 
trifling difficulties which rapidly grew 
into serious ones. At last the lady, 
by way of summary revenge for some 
fancied injury, proceeded in company 
with her maid to his apartments 
where were kept some choice flowers, 
which were highly prized by her hus- 
band ; upon these, with malice afore- 

thought, as the lawyers say, she pro- 
ceeded to pour boiling hot water, to 
the complete destruction, of course, of 
the plants. Such treatment as this 
was too much for even philosophy to 
bear. As it was the custom of Ma- 
dam de Rumford to give twice a 
week an entertainment, at which. 
were to be found all the most consid- 
erable people of Paris, the count be- 
thought of a sure and sufficient retali- 
ation. At the hour the assembly 
drew nigh he ordered the servants to 
close the doors, and for fear it should 
not be sufficiently done, he proceeded 
to blockade them witli his own hands ; 
consequently, to the unspeakable 
vexation of madame, she was obliged 
to receive her guests outside the 

After this event a separation, of 
course, took place. A well-known 
rhyming couplet of ancient date has 
classed among the other grievous ills 
of life those of a smoky chimney and 
a scolding wife. The first of these 
ills Count Rumford was able to rem- 
edy, but the wife was too much even 
for his philosophy. 

In regard to his personal habits, we 
are informed' by Cuvier that he was 
at all points the model of order. His 
necessities, his pleasures, his labors 
were all matters of exact calculation, 
a^ much as his experiments. He 
drank nothing but water. He never 
ate only roasted or broiled meat, be- 
cause when boiled the nourishment it 
affords in proportion to its bulk is 
less. Pie never allowed the slightest 
superfluity, not even in words. It 
was for this reason, continues Cuvier, 
that he was not entirely agreeable in 
the presence of his equals. The 
world, adds Cuvier very acutely, 
wishes a little more of freedom, and 


it is so constituted that a certain 
height of perfection appears to be a 
fault unless we put forth as much 
pains to conceal that perfection as we 
had done to acquire it. 

Although in receipt of a liberal in- 
come for n lone; time, he made but 
small accumulations from it. It was 
expended freely, and especially in 
the prosecution of his numberless ex- 
periments. At his death he left a 
considerable sum to Harvard univer- 
sity, but I have learned that this 
was not proceeds of his own prop- 
erty, but was the sum settled upon 
him at his separation from Madame 
Lavoisier, and which, at his death, 
he resolved to devote not to the ag- 
grandizement of his own family, but 
to that to which his life had been 
devoted, the advancement of science. 

It would be easy, did time permit, 
to mention many other interesting in- 
cidents of the career of Count Rum- 
ford, but enough has been given to 
show that by arduous labors and sub- 
stantial benefits he has earned a title 
to remembrance. It is to be re- 
marked of him, that, unlike the 
most of those who have endeavored 
on a large scale to rectify existing 
evils, he does not seem to have en- 
countered that fierce and envenomed 
opposition, which, however unex- 
ceptionably conducted, such efforts 
have usually excited. This was, no 
doubt, in part, his peculiar good for- 
tune, but much more probably be- 
cause it was not an inevitable inci- 

dent of his undertakings that he 
should endeavor to rebuke and re- 
press the idolatrous tendencies of the 
human mind, which, in all those 
efforts go to the root of evil, par- 
ticular!}' such as are of a political 
or social character, is inevitable, but 
his work, such as it was, was done, 
and well done, and in common with 
the whole family of civilized men, we 
are his debtors. 

Therefore, we desire to dedicate to 
his honor this place of social resort. 
It is true this is not a splendid or an 
imposing memorial, but neverthe- 
less it may be considered as one not 
uncongenial to his character and his 
labors, for these did not tend to such 
results as men had been accustomed 
to consider as splendid or imposing. 
We cannot point to architectural 
piles or triumphal columns as his 
record. Neither the art of the ora- 
tor, nor the sculptor, nor the painter 
were his to diffuse without effort and 
forever his fame. But by his skill 
and science he has rendered the gift 
of charity to the destitute more effec- 
tual. By new comforts he has en- 
dowed and strengthened the name of 
home and has added facilities of im- 
mense to all the arts of 

Therefore, we desire to constitute, 
as a memorial of him. this place of 
social resort hoping that like his 
labors, it may be a place of genial 
and cheerful courtesy tending to give 
a new value to existence. 

By E. E\ Parker. 

On an unfrequented cross-road in New Hampshire, drear and lone, 

And whose very desolation constitutes its only charm 
Since humanity deserted it and Nature claimed her own, — 

In solitary glory lies the dear old homestead farm. 
O'er its fields the summer wind-harps still sound their dulcet strains, 

And the roistering winds of winter their boisterous bugles blow, 
But alas ! only a vestige, as a mockery remains 

Of all that made it sacred in the halcyon long ago. 

Then its abundant acreage of sterile rocky soil, 

Awakened from the barrenness of ages of repose. 
By the patient, plodding effort of the hardy sons of toil, 

Smiled jovously in Nature's face and blossomed as the rose ; 
And children's merry voices from the hours of early dawn 

Till night fall woke the echoes with their happy, careless strains, 
W nile the clatter of their footsteps o'er the smoothly-shaven lawn 

Resounded like the patter of the drops of summer rains. 

But change has come- with passing years; to-day its fields are bare 

Of cultivated verdure, but wild, luxuriant vines, 
And huge Canadian thistles and bristling, prickly pear 

Run riot o'er its uplands ; while silver birch and pines 
Most thriftily are growing in the lowlands and the vales 

Where the apple orchards flourished in childhood's happy morn, 
And mint and water-cresses now choke the meadow swales 

Where once the winds of morning wooed the rustling blades of corn, 

The farm house, which we children deemed a castle strong and stout, 
■ That years could ne'er demolish, with its massive oaken beams, 
And huge, enormous chimney, in the country round about 

Lives only in tradition as to us it lives in dreams; 
Eor time and man long years ago combined with willing hands 

To level and demolish it, and reached their wished-for goal, 
And now naught but the chimney, as a lone memento stands, 

Of the ancient superstructure, towering o'er the cellar hole. 

Around its lonely ruined site the green grass yet remains. 

The four-o'clocks and daffodils perennial bud and blow, 
And in the elms the orioles still pipe insistent strains 

To their callow broodlings swinging in their cradles to and fro ; 


The tree toad sounds his warning notes, and locusts' whirring wings 
Rise sharp and shrill and vibrant in the noonday's shimmering heat, 

And from the distant lowlands the singing south wind brings 
The black-bird's noisy whistle and the meadow odors sweet. 

\ But where are the}* who trod of old its fields of shining green, 

Whose buoyant spirits knew no grief and had no thought of care, 
Save for the present hour? I ask, and from the vast has been, 

The land of buried memories, an echo answers " Where? " 
And yet their earthly dwelling now of little moment seems. 

For youth's bright hours will haunt their lives in tempest or in calm, 
And wheresoe'er they live or roam, their hearts, in thoughts and dreams, 

Dwell ever in the precincts of the dear old homestead farm. 


c ■ 



By the death of Mrs. Adeline M. Fiske of North Littleton, which occurred on 
March 31, the last pensioner of the War of 1S12, in New Hampshire, passes 
away. She was nearly 91 years of age. , 


An old-time circus manager. John II. Pendergast, died at Exeter, March 24, 
aged 70. He had traveled all over the country in his role as manager, but had 
exhibited chiefly in the South. He is survived bv three sons. 


Daniel J. Cross, whose funeral took place at his home in Revere, Mass., on the 
28th, was the youngest son of Jeremiah, and Sarah Lyford Cross of Northfield, 
where he was born in 1849. He was educated at the New Hampshire Confer- 
ence seminary. He engaged in the grocery business in Boston before his major- 
ity, later buying out his employer and continuing until failing health compelled 
his retirement a few years since. He leaves a wife, a son, a daughter, one 
brother, Q. L. Cross of Concord, and a sister, Mrs. James Jenkins of Wal- 
pole, Mass. 



Judge Nathaniel H. Clement died at his home in Brooklyn, March 3. He 
was born in Tilton in 1S44; was graduated from Dartmouth college in 1863, 
moved to Brooklyn and was admitted to the bar in 1S66. He served from 186 1 
to 1862 in the Civil War with a cavalry troop composed of college men. He was 
a life-long Democrat and a member of many clubs. 


Pet ley S. Cofhn died at Newport. March 6, aged Si. He was a native of 
South Royalston, Mass., and moved to Newport in 1S40. where, in connection 
with the late John Puffer, he erected the Sugar River mills, now the D. Richards 
& Son mill. For a number of years he was a partner with Dexter Richards. Mr. 
Richards buying his partner's share in the mill in 1S67. Mr. Coffin was one of 
Newport's most prominent and influential citizens and a straightforward Republican. 


Charles Shrigley, for a number of years a well-known citizen of Keene, but 
who has recently resided most of the time in the West, died at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. Jarvis Adams of .North Oxford, Mass., March 30. Before moving 
to Keene Mr. Shrigley lived in Putney, Vt., which town he represented three 
terms in the legislature. While residing in Keene he was superintendent of the 
Marlborough Blanket mills. He was a member of the common council in 1875 and 
1S76, being the president of the board the latter year. He also represented 
Keene for one term in the state legislature. 


Rev. James Dudley LeGro died suddenly, March iS, at his home in Lisbon, 
where he was pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was educated at 
the New Hampshire Conference seminary at Tilton. He joined the New Hamp- 
shire Annual conference in 1SS6, and was stationed at Milan in 1886— '"87, where 
he was junior preacher ; at Jefferson in 1SS8; Milan, 18S9; Raymond, iSqo-'o^, 
and at Bristol for the five years ending last April, when he was stationed at 

He was a popular pastor, was fearless in the denunciation of wrongs, made 
friends wherever he went, and was considered one of the rising men of the con- 
ference, and his death has caused deep sorrow wherever he was known. 


Hon. Levi W. Barton, in his day the most prominent lawyer and leader of the 
Sullivan County bar and a prominent leader in the Republican party of his state, 
died March 10, at Newport, N. H., aged Si. He was a graduate of Dartmouth; 
a law partner of the late Governor Metcalf ; register of deeds for Sullivan county 
from 1855 -'5.8; county solicitor from i859~'64; representative in 1863-64, 1875 
-'7S; state senator i867- , 68, and held a leading position in both house and sen- 
ate, being for five years chairman of the judiciary and of the legislative caucus. 


He was ctftirniaq of the board of commissioners to settle the war debt; a mem- 
ber of the convention to revise the constitution in 1^76, and a Republican elector 
the same year. He \vas appointed bank commissioner by Governor Harriman, 
but declined, and was of the commission to revile and codify the laws of New 
Hampshire in 1877. He had been in feeble health for the past few years. He 
leases a widow and four children. He was born in Croydon. 


Professor Cilley, for more than forty years identified with Philips Exeter 
academy, died March 31 of heart troubles induced by gout. For a month his 
condition had been critical, though so sudden an end was hardly expected. 

Bradbury Longfellow Cilley was born in Nottingham, September 6, 1S3S, the 
son of Joseph L. and Lavina B. Cilley. He came of distinguished ancestry. 
Gen. Joseph Cilley served in the Revolution. Col. Joseph Cilley fought in the 
War of 1S12, and was a senator in congress, and others of the family were promi- 
nent in public life. In 1S51 Professor Cilley entered Philips Exeter, and in 1S5S 
was graduated froth Harvard. 

After brief service at the Albany academy, he was, in December, 185S, chosen 
professor of ancient languages at Exeter, and on February 14. 1859. assumed his 
duties. His intentions were then to choose the law as his profession, but he was 
happily retained in the permanent service of the academy, with which but three 
men — Principals Abbott and Soule, and Dr. Peabody, late president of the trus- 
tees — have been so long identified. 

Professor Cilley had seen the academy of 1S59, with its 100 pupils, expand 
into a school of about 350. Pie has served through three principalships and por- 
tions of two more. Every school building, save Abbott hall, is antedated by his 
service. Of the present board of trustees he had taught all but two, as he also 
had four members of the faculty. 

In many cases he had taught father and son ; he had emphatically built him- 
self into the school. He was a public spirited citizen, had been president of the 
Pascataqua Congregational club, and was prominently identified with the Cin- 
cinnati and other Revolutionary and Colonial orders. 

The professor leaves a widow, a son, and two daughters, five brothers and 
three sisters. Of the brothers. John K., is a bank president, Joseph I., a New 
York leather merchant, and George E., is a Boston merchant. 


Henry M. Burt, founder of the paper issued on top of Mount Washington 
known as Among the Clouds, died at his home in Springfield, Mass., Tuesday 
morning, March 7. He was born in Otisco, X. Y., September 13, 1S31. When 
fifteen years of age he moved to Northampton, and spent nearly his whole life in 
the Connecticut valley. 

For nearly half a century he was connected with the newspaper and printing 
business. Pie was at one time an editor on the Springfield Republican. In 1867 
he founded the New England Homestead, and conducted it for ten years. Mr. 


Bart, before his death issued the second volume of his book. "First Century of 
the History of Springfield," which is his greatest work. He was a man of liberal 
ideas and sound judgment, and leaves a wife, one daughter, and a son. the latter 
being Frank H. Burt of Newton, court stenographer of Suffolk count v, Mass. 


Elder John G. Hook died at his residence in Concord, April 12. He was 
born in 1S20 and received the light of conversion in TS39. Ke immediately 
began to "defend the doctrine'' in western New York, where he received the 
divine message, and he began to preach in 1842. In that same year lie took 
part in a great advent revival in this city, held in a big tent spread at the head of 
School street. 

At the very beginning of his work as a preacher he went about from place to 
place, covering the states of New Hampshire, New York, and Michigan in his 
circuits. As a result of his labors a church was organized in Philadelphia, and 
he ministered to the flock there for more than two years. For eight years he was 
engaged in missionary work in the city of Boston, where he made two hundred 

It was in 1S53 that he first engaged in tent work. This was in company with 
others, but subsequently he had exclusive charge of the work and carried the gos- 
pel over the stales of New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusets, New York, Con- 
necticut, New Jersey, and California. He was eighty days engaged in missionary 
work in San Francisco, holding three enthusiastic meetings a day without a break. 

Storms carried away his tent in California, and Elder John then set out for 
the Hawaiian Islands as a missionary, traveling under his own auspices with no 
aid from any source. He preached several times in the open air while in Honlu- 
lu, conducting large meetings in Emma square and on the docks. He afterwards 
returned to San Francisco and engaged there in missionary work until June, 1881, 
when he came home. During his stay in San Francisco he held forth in the 
Sand Lots, made famous by Denis Kearney, and everywhere his labors were won- 
drously blest. 

The provinces of Great Britain were also the fields of Elder John's missionary 
labors, and he invaded the province of 'Nova Scotia with the good word no fewer 
than eight different ti'mesj and dared the people of the Bay of Fundy fifteen times. 

In Nova Scotia he baptized 2,000, and for sixty months administered the 
ordinance of baptism, even through the ice, and when the mercury in the ther- 
mometer was twenty degrees below zero. He had baptized in the Flawaiian Is- 
lands, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, in nearly all of the rivers in New Eng- 
land, in scores of small streams, in the East river, New York, when both tide and 
ice were running high, and among those who received this ordinance at his hands 
were fourteen preachers. He had preached in as many as twelve different towns 
in one day. 

$160 Reward sl'»<>. 

The road- rs of this paper will be pleased to 
'earn that there is at least or.e dreaded dise tse 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages, 
and that is Catarrh. IlaH's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure known to the medical frater- 
nity. Catarrh being a constitutional disease, re- 
quires a constitutional treatment. Hail's Catarrh 
Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon the 
blood and mucous surfaces of the system, thereby 
destroying the foundation of the disease, and giv- 
ing the patient strength by building up the con- 
stitution and assisting nature in doing its work. 
The proprietors have so much faith in its curative 
powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars for 
anyjease that it fails to cure. Send for lis* o$ tes- 

'" Address. F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo. O. 
i>~J=>Sold by Druggists. 75c 

Hall's Farnilv Pills are the b >.. 

1 • 

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Anvone sen ling a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion free whetl 
Invention is probnbly patentable. Comnuinica- 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on Patents 
Bent tree. Oldest agency f« 1 securing patents. 

Patents taken throueb Munn & Co. receive 
special wAice, without c harg e, io tl - 

Scientific JFmerfcan. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest ch*. 
culation of any scientific journal. Terms, 83 a 
year: four months, ?L Sold by all newsdealers. 

f,1UNN & Co. 3S1Broadva * New York 

Branch Office, G25 F St., Washington, D. C. 

For Over Fifty Years 
MKv WcrsLOW'9 Soothixo SVRCP has been ased i>r children 
teethinjr. It eoothes Hie eli Id, softens the trams, allays • I 
cures *.i"..l coli and i- the best 1 medv for Diarrhoea. Tweniy- 

r -f <v;nr. a I . rtl«». 

Fortunes is STOCKS. 

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**■ for •The Story of the Philippines," b\ Murat 
Hal^tead, commissioned by the Government as 
Official Historian to the War Department. The 
book was written in army camps at San Francisco, 
on the Pacific with General Me-rritt. in the hospi- 
tals at Honolulu, in Hon^ Kong, in the American 
trenches at Manila, in the insurgent camps with 
Aguinaldo. on the Heck of the Olyn-pu. v.-ith 
Dewey, and in tbe roar of battle at the fall of 
Manila. Bonanza' f 1 agents. Brimful of original 
pictures taken by government photographers on 
the *]>ot. Large book. Low prices. Big profits 
Freight paid. Credit given. Drop all trashy 
unofficial war books. Outfit free. Address. H. L. 
Barber, Gen. Mngr., 356 Dearboru Street, Chicago. 



Devoted to History, Biography^ Literature, 
an d Slate Progress. 

Subscription : J£z.oo pet year ; S r.50 if paid in advance ; 
20 cents per copy. 

The: GrtANiTt Monthly Co., Concord. N. H. 

Wheel Co., 

Chicopee Falls, 


Tf)e Ben Acre Inn, s H! e * 

Tins hostelry, erected in 1S90, is charmingly situated on a 
slight elevation, some 300 feet from the steamboat lauding in Sutt- 
apee Harbor — commanding a view across the harbor, and through 
the long river valley leading to Claremont. 

It is 150 feet long, four stories high, contains too guest rooms, 
is surrounded by broad piazzas, and from cellar to roof is equipped 
with all the improvements known to the modern hotel. The sanitary 
arrangements have been carefully looked after, and no pains spared 
to insure pureness of water supply and thoroughness of sewerage. 

The house is lighted by electricity, and its public rooms con- 
tain large open fireplaces. It is provided with ladies' and gentle- 
men's billiard and pool parlors, a tennis court, a bowling alley, etc. 
The cuisine and service are of the highest grade of excellence. 

Mr. Sumner L. Thompson, who has been clerk at the Ben Mere 
Inn for the last three seasons, and was for many years at the Eagle 
Hotel, Concord, is to be the manager for this season. His long ex- 
perience has fully equipped him for the place and patrons will be 
well cared for under his management. The Woodsum Steamboat 
Company's steamers connect will: all trains at Lake Sunapee rail- 
road station, and their landing is directly in front of the Inn. The 
Ben Mere will open June 20. 

Correspondents should be addressed to Sumner L. Thompson, 
Xo. 11 Court St., Concord, X. H., until June 1; after that date 
to Ben Mere Inn, Lake Sunapee, X. H. 

F^rce^y; Point N. H. 

Twenty miles above Plymouth, on the line of the Boston ec 
Maine railroad lies the picturesque village of Warren. 

. Buekboard and Mountain wagons are in waiting for the noon 
express trains, and the five-mile drive to the Moosilauke. 

The bouse accommodates 100 people and stands on a broad pla- 
teau 1,700 feet above sea-level. 

Steam heat, nrep'aces, the latest sanitary appliances, electric 
bells, gas, and an excellent table make this a comfortable summer 

Croquet and tennis courts, golf links, miles of walks through the 
woods and pastures of its 800 acres, and a good carriage road to the 
top of Mount Moosilauke, an elevation of 5,000 feet, are among the 

Post-omce and telephone in the house. All correspondence 
should be addressed to Edward B. Woodworth, Concord, X T . H. 

'o!un?s XXVI 

( * 



Munjber 5 

its M ■) ... .^ 

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NEW 1898-1EI99 STYLES. 

• • • 


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r 181 Xoi'tli Main Street, 




The Granite AonTn^. 

Vol. XXVI 

MAY, 1S99. 

No. 5. 



By Col. Converse y. Smith, 

STUDY of the Chinese peo- 
ple is always of interest by 
reason of their peculiar 
methods of living, the man- 
ner in which they transact business, 
and on account of the vastness of the 
population of China, 350,000,000 or 
one fourth the inhabitants of the 
globe. It is claimed that there are 
30,000 Chinese in San Francisco, but 
the actual number, undoubtedly, is 
considerably less, and is gradually 
decreasing, due to the enforcement 
of the Chinese exclusion laws. 

Chinatown, in San Francisco, em- 
braces some twelve blocks, bounded 
by California, Stockton, Pacific, and 
Kearney streets, once an important 
section of the city, as the size and 
solidity of many of the buildings indi- 
cate. There are Joss houses, thea- 
tres, restaurants, curio shops, opium 
and gambling haunts, underground 
dens of filth, and infamy, making a 
night visit dangerous, unless accom- 
panied by a guide of experience. 
As early as 1S52 a movement was 

begun in California to check Chinese 
immigration, the governor of the 
state issuing a special message. In 
1879 the people of the state voted on 
Chinese immigration ; 154,63s were 
against Chinese and only 883 were in 
favor of admitting them. It was in 
1S92 that the famous Geary law for 
the exclusion of Chinese was ap- 
proved by the president. 

vSo much has been written of the 
bitter opposition of the Pacific coast 
to the Chinese, it was a matter of 
surprise to find the statements not 
only greatly exaggerated but wholly 
unwarranted. The conditions have 
changed; the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company and the Southern Pacific 
railroad, the two great corporations 
who own the state of California, and 
dictate its policy, desire the enorm- 
ous Chinese passenger business, 
while the American merchants and 
importers in San Francisco are anx- 
ious for the business that is con- 
stantly increasing between China 
and the United States. The admis- 






:.C'*^' ' 

.•v. L 9 


jfc p 


i i . I 

Chinese Primary Schoo 1 , Miss Rose Thayer, Principa 

sion of Chinese through the customs 
collection districts of Vermont and 
Champlain (New York) where so 
many arrive and depart en route to 
and from China, is far more strict 
and difficult than in San Francisco. 
For the current year 1S9S, at the 
port of San Francisco, 4,700 Chinese 
took their departure for China, 4,185 
returned, requesting admission, 3,823 
were admitted, and 495 were refused, 
while for the last four years, of the 
11,195 Chinese arriving at San Fran- 
cisco, but 7G5 were refused admis- 
sion by the collectors of customs, 
hence it is reasonable to infer that 
the Chinese exclusion laws have not 
been very rigidly enforced. Chinese 
are employed in every branch of 
business. There are many at work 
in the fashionable Palace hotel, and 
instead of being objectionable, they 
have become absolutely necessary. 

In the great fish canneries in Puget 
Sound, Chinese labor is exclusively 
employed. The Pacific Coast Can- 
ning .Company of San Francisco is 
a large Chinese packing establish- 
ment owned and managed by 
Chinese, yet for some unknown rea- 
son they employ both white and 
Chinese laborers. 

The importations by the Chinese 
at the port of San Francisco are ex- 
ceedingly large, and of the five or 
six million dollars collected as duties 
more than one half is paid by the 
Chinese importers, and no class of 
merchandise is more difficult to ap- 
praise. Crude opium for medicinal 
purposes is free; prepared, or smok- 
ing opium is dutiable ; the law de- 
nies the Chinese the right of import- 
ing, hence it comes consigned to 
brokers or banks, and the law is 
evaded. To comprehend the mag- 



nitude of the opium business and 
the extent of the terrible curse, it is 
only necessary to mention that one 
and one half million dollars as duties 
is collected on the drug at San Fran- 
cisco in a single year, and it is not 
unusual for one importation to pay to 
the government 5i 60,000. As a cus- 
toms stamp must be placed on each 
box of opium, and signed in ink by a 
representative of the collector, the 
use of a stamp not being permitted, 
one importation often requires over 
60,000 signatures, requiring many 
weeks labor. 

Those who have no connection 
with the Chinese will find it difficult 
to comprehend the magnitude of the 
slave-dealer's business in California ; 
it seems incomprehensible that young 
Chinese and Japanese girls are bought 
and sold in Sau Francisco, but such 
is the case. It became my duty to 
investigate the conduct of a customs 
officers who was charged with allow- 
ing one notorious Oriental procuress, 
Fong Sue)- Wan, to escape, and who, 
it is alleged, had for years been en- 
gaged in landing women for immoral 

Four and twenty Chinese girls 
were in court one day, recently, who 
were captured in a raid, most of 
whom were bought as slaves. One 
of the Chinese girls stated that she 
was sold by her mother for S250, and 
on arrival in San Francisco she was 
again sold for $1,900. The churches 
and various missions are doing every- 
thing possible to break up the nefa- 
rious business. 

There are Chinese churches in the 
city of nearly every denomination ; 
perhaps the Methodist, Presbyterian, 
and Baptist societies are the most 
nourishing. The pastor of the lat- 

ter church is Rev. Tong Kit Hing. 
Missions in the immediate vicinity of 
Chinatown represent every denomi- 
nation, and the important results of 
their work cannot be estimated- The 
Chinese also have a regular Salva- 
tion Army, holding regular meetings 
in their hall, and on the street. A 
Chinese telephone exchange is main- 
tained with a Chinaman as operator, 
with a large number of Chinese sub- 
scribers. There are Chinese employ- 
ment agencies doing a nourishing 
business, hundreds of Chinese clubs, 
all bearing aristocratic names, which 
are nothing less than gambling dens ; 
there are Chinese dentists, watch- 
makers, publishers, brokers, under- 
takers, etc. 

A Chinese funeral is a scene long 
to be remembered, and perhaps noth- 
ing so well illustrates this peculiar 
people. A Chinese Buddhist priest 
and undertaker have charge of the 
services, which are private, but on 

- ■■ 

( 3 


k * 


Bov/ Yook. 
A Chinese Slave Girl. 



the street the ceremonies are public. 
A large canopy is erected where a 
roasted pig is served wi'.h various 
Chinese sweetmeats. Incense is 
burned, and professional mourners, 
who are paid for their sendees, utter 
their lamentations. 

The remains are taken from a win- 
dow in order that the deceased may 
not encounter evil spirits that might 
be about the entrance ; the hearse is 
drawn by four jet black horses, and 

v. . 


-* : .3u 


i \ , ■ 


The Chinese Em p^'or in n:s S '.<-.:•; Rodcs. 

upon the glass of each carriage ap- 
pears the name of the highbinders' 
society to which the deceased was a 
member. The procession consists of 
twenty carriages, the first containing 
Chine; e musicians and paid mourn- 
ers, with food and fruit to be offered 
up at the cemetery ; there are large 
Japanese lanterns hung upon the 
hearse, with a large banner reciting 
the positions held by the deceased, 
and the great things he has accomp- 
lished. Upon the hearse is a pass- 

port as large as a map of New 
Hampshire, issued by the Chinese 
priest, which the deceased will pre- 
sent to high officials as he goes 
through the spirit land, and a great 
number of circular bits of paper bear- 
ing Chinese inscriptions, which are 
supposed to represent currency, are 
distributed for the purpose of satis- 
fying any evil spirits that are met 
en route. 

The procession moves through va- 
rious streets before taking departure 
for the cemetery, and in the mean- 
time the unearthly din is kept up by 
the musicians. 

Hon. Ho Yow is the imperial 
Chinese consul-general in San Fran- 
cisco. -The consul-general is a 
young man about thirty-five 3'ears 
of age, affable and polite to a de- 
gree, bright, intelligent, and appar- 
ently of the type that stands for new 
China. It is not known to many 
people, even in California, that this 
remarkable young man is the son 
of a Christian preacher, and is the 
brother-in-law of the present Chinese 
minister at Washington. He was 
educated at Oxford, graduated at a 
law university, speaks and writes 
our language fluently, and at the 
present time is attending a law 
school in San Francisco. 

The following is a translation of a 
letter of introduction, in Chinese, to 
His Excellency Wee Ting Fang, 
Chinese minister at Washington : 

"May it Please Your Excellency.— I 
take great pleasure in introducing to Your Ex- 
cellency, the bearer, Col. C. J. Smith. The 
Colonel has been specially commissioned by 
the department at Washington to conduct an 
investigation into customs matters in the state 
of California, and in the investigation has be- 
come well versed in matters pertaining to the 
Chinese, which will be of material benefit to 
our people in the best sense of the word. 



"His commission being; about fulfilled, and 
being about to return East, the Colonel hon- 
ored our office with a call, during which visit 
we spoke of Your Excellency's goodness, 
which inclined the Colonel to meet Your Ex- 
cellency in person, and to know Your Excel- 
lency's goodness as we know it. 

" I therefore cheerfully and respectfully pre- 
sent this, believing Your Excellency will show 
much kindness to the Colonel. 

" I have the honor to be 

" Your obedient servant, 

" Ho Yow." 

The Chinese consulate is a good- 
sized brick building with an oblong 
sign o\-er the door in Chinese charac- 
ters, which, when literally translated, 
reads "The Office for the Transac- 
tion of Matters Relating to the Great 
Pure Empire," in other words, 
"Chinese Consular Office." 

The words l< great pure " form the 
title of the present dynasty ruling in 
China, the dynasty that runs back 
to the Manehurian conquest of China, 
when the Chinese were obliged to 
wear a queue so as to be like their 
conquerors — wearing it as a badge of 
submission — now some 250 years ago. 
Before that, with the exception of the 
short period of 98 years, from 12S0 

A. D. to 136S, when the Mongols had 
possession of the country, the Chinese 
dynasties were all native, constitut- 
ing a history that extends, at least, 
as far back authentically as 2000 

B. C. Speaking of the Mongols, 
one is reminded of the fact that very 
often nations do not profit by their 
mistakes any more than individuals. 
When China first came under foreign 
sway in 12S0 A. D., it was through 
her calling upon her neighbors, the 
Mongols, to aid her against the Kin 
invaders. The Mongols rendered the 
required assistance and drove off the 
Kins, but forthwith appropriated to 
themselves the Empire of China, 
which they ruled for 98 years. The 

sixteenth emperor of the native dy- 
nasty that followed, instead of bene- 
fiting \>y the experience of the last 
emperor or of the dynasty prior to the 
usurpation of the Mongols, sought 
aid from his neighbors, the Manchu- 
rians, which the latter granted, only 
to follow the example of the Mongols. 
To-day China looks towards Russia 
for help, granting her right of way 
for an extensive railroad, with what 
result one can easily imagine. 

Ho Yow. 
Chinese Consul-General at Sail Francisco. 

The Chinese public school is near 
the consulate, supported entirely by 
the Chinese for the teaching of their 
language, in which all the boys shout 
out their lessons simultaneously, each 
regardless of the other, so as to bring 
about concentration of purpose, which 
they exemplify in their maturer years, 
by attending to their own business, 
oblivious of all surroundings. 

The Presbyterian Mission Home in 
which Chinese girls are rescued from 
slavery, and cared for and educated 



under the superintendence of the 
very superior matron. Miss Doualdina 
Cameron, is one of the most interest- 
ing- places in the city to visit. The 
home is a substantial structure, built 
of brick, comfortably, and even beau- 
tifully, furnished. Kere we heard 
those who had once been slaves sing 
in the English language songs and 
hymns that would touch the heart of 
an}- American. A little girl played 
while her brother sang "Just before 
the Battle Mother." The little boy 
also recited, with an American flag 
in his hand, a piece that closed with 
"Hurrah, hurrah for the United 


Showing a Baby's Dress. 

States." We were conducted to the 
library which was furnished entirely 
by the former Chinese consul. The 
furniture throughout was of rich 
Chinese material and elaborate de- 
sign. Over the mantel was a tidy 
having little mirrors attached, which 
we found were for the double pur- 
pose of frightening off evil spirits 

when they saw their faces in them, 
and of reflecting all good influences 
that may come their way. This tidy 
was, of course, only kept for a curios- 
it}-. On taking departure Miss Cam- 
, eron's wards wished us a Happy New 
Year in. the words " Kuug Hae Fat 

On a visit to Chinatown our atten- 
tion was incidentally called to a num- 
ber of other interesting facts concern- 
ing the customs, manners, and beliefs 
of the Chinese. For instance, when 
we came to a Chinese store and 
looked up to the sign over the door 
we naturally looked for the name of 
some member of the firm. A friend 
told us that the strange hieroglyphics 
did not form the name of any indi- 
vidual but embodied some fanciful 
motto indicative of good- will or omi- 
nous of good luck ; and this is true 
of all Chinese store names. The 
name in the present instance was 
" Sam Hop." " Sam" means three 
and " Hop " union or harmony. The 
idea intended to be conveyed was 
" May we three partners always be 
harmonious ." 

Presently we came to a place an- 
nouncing "long life boards" for sale. 
It turned out to be an undertaker's 
establishment. Not wishing to say 
"coffins" they say ''long life boards." 
It does not occur to them that it 
seems somewhat incongruous to call 
those things long life boards, which 
are needed only when life has been 
cut short. 

Turning into Waverly Place, we 
had pointed out to us a gorgeously 
dressed Chinaman that went by the 
name of Wong Sam, that is, not Mr. 
Sam, but Mr. Wong. In China the 
family name comes first. Wong 
means yellow, whilst Sam means 



-km r 

A Woman's Costume. 


and charged him with murder. This 
incidentally shows what Chinese 
highbinders would resort to in try- 
ing to accomplish their evil purposes. 

The origin of the word highbinder is 
involved in much obscurity. The word 
is said to have been first used by an 
Irish policeman in New York. What- 
ever value it then had etymologically. 
it certainly has since obtained a firm 
place for itself in the English vocabu- 
lary, especially on the Pacific coast. 
All along the Pacific coast many 
Chinese who do not know more than 
a dozen English words, will recog- 
nize "highbinder" and will object 
to being called one, as he knows the 
word means an all-round bad China- 
man — one who would steal, rob, levy 
blackmail, commit perjury, murder 
for hire or revenge. 

After passing Wong Sam we saw 
a young Chinese girl walking with 

three. Literally translated it would 
be " Mr. Yellow number three/' he 
being very likely the third son in the 
family. Mr. Yellow sounds queer to 
to us, but then we have Mr. White. 
Wong Sam had a face not to be 
easily forgotten. It was about as 
ugly a face as we have ever seen. 
As Wong Sam is now one of the best 
known highbinders in San Francisco, 
his ugliness is, doubtless, the result 
of a hardened career. lie speaks some difficult}'. It was not long be- 
good English, and is interpreter to fore we discovered that she belonged 
the Chinese association of slave deal- to a class of small-footed girls — not 
ers. He is known in San Francisco, small by nature, but artificially small. 
and especially in and around the The process was explained to us, and 
custom house, as a great schemer it certainly seems a cruel one. A 
and double dealer. He would play child who is to be small-footed is 
informant to the authorities and in- taken in hand when quite young and 
terpreter to the highbinders at one made to put her feet in water as near 
and the same time. He has a cousin boiling as possible. When the per- 
by the name of Wong Tan, who is son in charge of the operation thinks 
about as us:lv as himself. He 

and his cousin had a Chinaman 
arrested recently who had been 
really helping the customs peo- 
ple in breaking up the traffic in 
Chinese female slaves. They 
charged him with being a va- 
grant first, and when that failed, 
they had him rearrested and 
charged him with extortion. 
When that charge was dis- 
missed they arrested him again 


* . ;*. 




■ ■ 

- I 

. MM . • 


Group of Chinese Children, 



they have been long enough in the 
water, the child would be ordered to 
take them up, or rather allowed to 
take them up, when they would be 
immediately wound tightly around 
with a strong; bandage. The baii- 


U i - ■■ 

Mother and Sor.. 

dage is kept on until the next opera- 
tion, during which interval the child 
suffers untold agony. In course of 
time the growth of the feet is 
checked so much that in extreme 
cases, even when the person is grown 
up the feet are no longer than two 
and one half or three inches. Ameri- 
can • missionary ladies in China are 
doing all they can to persuade the 
Chinese to give up the practice. 
Their efforts have already met with 
some success, as societies have been 
recently formed among the Chinese 
women of nobility to oppose this 
cruel custom of foot binding. The 
Chinese account of the origiu of the 
custom is that long ago an exceed- 
ingly beautiful Chinese princess had 

extraordinarily small feet. Very 
soon all the ladies of the land 
thought they must have small feet 
also, till, finally, those who did not 
have them naturally had to go to 
^work and reduce them by artificial 
means. As that would be a very 
difficult thing to do after they had 
attained their full growth, in course 
of time some one thought of taking 
time b}' the forelock by keeping the 
feet small when still young and ten- 
der, resulting in the process described 

It is singular how every nation al- 
most must have some way of interfer- 
ing with the design of Providence. 
With ourselves we must have tight 
lacing, the Chinese must have foot 
binding, the Indians head pressing, 
and so forth. We think the Chinese 
very cruel to have the feet com- 
pressed. The Chinese think that we 
are cruel to turn the "human form 
divine" into the form of wasps, and 
both we and the Chinese think the 
Indians very strange to want the 
head knocked all out of shape. 

At the corner of Stockton street 
our attention was called to what 
was originally the First Presbyterian 
church of San Francisco, capable of 
seating from 800 to 1,000 people. 
It is now owned by the Missionary 
society of the Presbyterian church 
of the United States and used for 
the preaching of the gospel to the 
Chinese in San Francisco. Here 
services are conducted twice every 
Sunday in the Chinese language at- 
tended by several hundred Chinese. 

" Kung hae fat tsoi ! Kung hae fat 
tsoi ! " Such are the strange sounds 
that would come to the ear of an 
American should he feel inclined to 
wend his way through Chinatown at 



' New Year's. If prompted by curi- 
osity he should inquire as to their 
meaning, he would be told that they 
form a Chinese expression equivalent 
to our " Happy Xew Year." 

Although this is the nth of Febru- 
ary with us it is Xew Year's Recep- 
tion Da}- with the Chinese, that is, 
their January the 2d, they, as a rule, 
not calling on the first day of the 
year for fear of meeting with evil in- 
fluences that may stay with them 
through the year. He would see the 
more wealthy class of Chinese hur- 
rying round from door to door with 
their richest silk gowns on, and red 
buttons to match, both of which are 
supposed to have been made accord- 
ing to the latest and most approved 
Chinese fashions. He would see, 
also, pieces of red paper fastened on 
almost every Chinese door, with the 
hieroglyphics "hoi mun tai kat " 
inscribed thereon, which conveys to 
the Chinese mind the wish ''May 
good luck attend you as you open 
this door." Literally trans- 
lated, the four characters 

surely along Uupont street to-day, 
taking in the various Oriental sights, 
he will not fail to see that every 
Chinese house is most elaborately 
decorated with flowers and scrolls of 
the richest color hung on the differ- 
ent parts of the wall. These scrolls 
are arranged by pairs and contain, 
on an average, ten characters, com- 
posing expressions appropriate to the 

The following might be cited as an 
example : 

" Tsok siu ying Kau Sui, 
Kara yat shi San Ning." 

" Last night was still Old Year, 
But to-day New Year is here." 

And on the tables he would see 
beautiful!}' painted trays of an oc- 
tagonal shape, filled with sweetmeats 
of every description. In close proxi- 
mity to this he might see a plate of 
red dried melon seeds, which the 
Chinese are such adepts at cracking. 

The majority of the stores are 


read, ''Open door, bi 

Another very 
cumstance showing that 
something extraordinary is 
happening in Chinatown is 
the fact that the burning of 
firecrackers is most freely 
indulged in. The Chinese 
have an idea that the send- 
ing off of a string of fire- 
crackers has the sure effect 
of driving away all evil 
spirits and influences, and at the 
same time of preparing the place for 
the good spirits that never fail to 
bring with them a " heap " of " good 

As our American friend walks lei- 

1 /-' 

1 • . - 



A Chinese Family in the Park. 

closed and business suspended for at 
least two or three days. Business 
men are too busy making their New 
Year calls to attend to the call of the 
occasional customer. Every Chinese 
gentleman is supposed to call at New 



Year's time, and his mode of calling 
is quite simple. He ma)" either go 
alone or call in company with his 
friends, and he need' not knock or 
ring the bell to announce his arrival, 
but simply open the door and walk 
in. To an ordinary Chinaman, a 
man betrays an unusual amount of 
pride if he should either ring or 
knock before entering, because he 
says it is only high officials or man- 
darins of the most dignified buttons 
that announce their calls, and even 
on New Year they would not depart 
from this old and peculiar custom. 
As soon as he enters he is received, 



SXo'-i Deco- 

>ns for Cm-'ese Ne// Year. 

not by the ladies, but by the young 
men of the house, and immediately 
commences a series of ceremonies 
consisting of bowing and shakings of 
their own hands, that would puzzle 
even the most accomplished French 
dancing master. After they have 
gone through these ceremonies they 
are supposed to wish each other as 
heartily as they could a " Kung hae 
fat tsoi," " sz sz yu e tak sain ying 
shau," which means, " I wish you a 
very happy New Year," and "May 
you have all you desire." After 
these ceremonies and wishes are 
over, the caller is politely asked to 
be seated, which is expressed in 
Chinese by "tsiug tso, tsing tso," 

and then the sweetmeats and melon 
seeds, spoken of above, are served, 
accompanied by dainty little cups of 
tea of the most delicious flavor. The 
caller takes a small piece of the 
, sweetmeat, raising his cup, and, ac- 
cording to the most approved Chinese 
etiquette, calls upon the others to 
"tsing cha, tsiug cha," which means 
"please drink, please drink." Then 
follows a short conversation which 
must be on the most luck)- topics of 
the day, at the end of which the 
caller takes his leave with a polite 
bow and a "tsing tsing, tsing," 
" good- by, good-by," to repeat the 
same ceremonies next door. 

In case you should wonder if 
the Chinese New Year always 
falls on the ioth of February, I 
take the liberty of saying it does 
not. Usually their year com- 
mences a little earlier, in the 
latter part of January. The rea- 
son it comes so late this year is 
because they had what they call 
the '' yuen yuet " or intercalary 
month in the year just past. 
That, of course, makes the year one 
month longer. This intercalary or 
added month occurs once in four 
years. The reason of it might be 
clearly seen from a short arithmet- 
ical calculation. As the Chinese 
regulate the time according to the 
motion of their moon, their months 
are either of 29 or 30 days dura- 
tion. The former is called "yuet 
smu " or the little month, and the 
latter "yuet tai," or big month. 
Add the result of 29 days multiplied 
by 6 to that of 30 days by the same 
factor, and we have the sum of 354 
days, which is 1 1 days less than our 
ordinary year, consequently, in three 
years they are about a month behind 



us, which they make up in the fourth 
year by the addition of this intercal- 
ary month. 

Another peculiarity about the 
Chinese year is the fact that if a 
child is born on New Year's eve he 
will be two years old on New Year's 
morning, and upon the first anniver- 
sary of his birthday the same child 
will be three. The present emperor, 
Kwong Sui, for instance, is said to 
be 30, when, in reality, he is only 
28*2 or 29 years of age. 

A word or two on the strange cus- 
toms of this peculiar people would 
not be uninteresting to you. One of 
the most strictly- adhered-to customs 
is that of paying all debts before 12 
o'clock on Xew Year's eve. They 
make the greatest effort to do this, 
very often under the most painful cir- 
cumstances, simply that they might 
be free from debts on the first day of 
the year. With reference to this they 
have a couplet : 

" Tsok ye yat tau mo shui, 
Kam chiu imin cluin fung." 

" Last night all in a fog or flurry, 
This morning full of happiness." 

Another of their strange customs, 
but quite a good one, is that of 
sweeping their houses from top to 
bottom before the dawn of New 7 
Year's morn. An amusing supersti- 
tion in connection with this is in the 
hiding away of all brooms as soon as 
the sweeping is over. It would be a 
difficult matter to find a single broom 
in Chinatown on the first day of the 
year. A Chinaman would much 
rather meet " Yim Lau Wong," or 
"his satanic majesty," than an inno- 
cent broom on New Year's day. 
They have an idea that brooms used 
on such a day would "sweep all 

their good luck away." This is, 
however, only true of those Chinese 
who have not been brought under 
the enlightenment of the gospel. 
Christianized Chinese, as a rule, are 
free from these fetters of dark super- 

New Year's eve is celebrated by a 
feast known as the " tuen nin " feast, 
or the feast of the " winding up " of 
the old year, and the day after New r 





A Chinese Merchant. 

Year's day they have another feast 
known as the " hoi nin " feast, or the 
feast of the "opening" of the year. 
On New Year's day they take a 
great delight in indulging in the 
eating of an abundance of oysters 
and mussels. It might be wondered 
why they should choose such as their 
favorites for a New T - Year's dinner, 
but the mystery is solved when we 
are told that the name of the former, 
"ho shee," sounds exceedingly like 
the words "prosperous market," and 
they regard the latter as ominous of 



good luck, also from the fact that 
they are bi- valves, and consequently 
would indicate a " compound " inter- 
est or "double" profit to all their 
consumers in their business adven- 

On New Year's eve the Chinese 
mother, in her parental love common 
to all mothers in the world, sits up to 
the small hours of the morning to 
prepare her presents for her boys, 
whom she fondly hopes would grow 
up to be faithful followers of " Hung 
Foo Tsz," Confucius. She does not 
assume the form of Santa Claus, but 

comes with her presents in all her 
parental reality. Among her pres- 
ents there must inevitably be a sum 
of money, however small, wrapped 
up in a piece of red paper, as the two 
together are called by a name com- 
posed of the two words, " lai shee," 
indicating wealth and prosperity. 

The Chinese Xew Year is observed 
to even a greater extent in China 
than it is at San Francisco. To the 
Chinese, New Year tide is the hap- 
piest season of the year, and they 
look forward to it as longingly as we 
do Christmas. 

By E. D. Hadley. 

HE transition from the Colo- 
nial government in the thir- 
teen American colonies to a 
government by the people 
was attended with many dramatic 
situations and incidents. There was 
wise forethought, brave resolution, 
and determined action by the colo- 
nists. There was stubborn resis- 
tance to invasion of prerogative by 
the representatives of royalty, and 
there was undignified surrender. 
There was courageous looking of 
danger in the face and wise conduct 
on their part, and there was fear 
and trembling, frantic trial of expe- 
dients and cowardly flight. Gen- 
erally speaking, there went across 
the Atlantic to the king's ministers, 
from the royal satraps, clamorous de- 
mands for more force, more sever- 
ity, more coercion of the disobedient 

'Read before the Des Moines Chap 

Daily they saw their power slipping 
away from them and the arising of 
the power of the people, until their 
own authority was but a substance- 
less shadow and the royal sceptre of 
but a feather's weight. 

In reality the exit of the royal gov- 
ernor from each colony was but an 
incident of the transition period and 
marked the completion of a political 
revolution in the colony for the main- 
taining of which the struggle was 
thenceforth carried on, for the sup- 
pression of which the king enlisted 
Hessians, Tories, and Indians, sent 
fleets and armies, waged battles, and 
projected campaigns. 

The exit of the royal governor left 
no hiatus in the government, pro- 
duced neither anarchy nor disorder. 
The machinery of government under 
the new order of things was already 
in full swing, and went on without 

er, Sons of the American Revolution. 


missing a stroke or "slipping a cog." 
Never did the people dispia}- more 
signal ability or greater aptitude for 

The exit of the royal governor in 
each colony was the sequence of 
events which collectively marked a 
stage in the transition from vice-regal 
to popular government, and can be 
understood only iti the light of events 
that led up to the gubernatorial reso- 
lution to withdraw from the scene of 
departed power. 

At the time of the breaking out of 
hostilities, in April, 1775, two colo- 
nies, Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
had governments, republican in form, 
and their governors were elected by 
the people. There were no internal 
convulsions, no interregnums in these 
colonies. These colonies, with all 
the machinery of government in op- 
eration, became states at one bold 

Three colonies, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Delaware, were under 
proprietary governments, with gover- 
nors appointed bv the proprietors, 
whose grants were held by the 
crown. The governors submitted 
gracefully to the popular will, and 
the proprietors were powerless to 
prevent the assumption of power 
by the people. Local administra- 
tion was undisturbed, but executive 
power was confidently and success- 
fully undertaken by the people 
through their representatives. 

The remaining eight colonies, New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts in 
New England ; New York and New 
Jersey in the middle region ; Vir- 
ginia, North Caroliua, South Caro- 
lina, and Georgia, in the South, 
were royal provinces, with governors 
of royal appointment. 

John Wentworth, the governor of 
New Hampshire, was a native of that 
colony. The governor of New Jer- 
sey, William Franklin, was Ameri- 
can born, the son of the most gifted 
of America's statesmen of the Revo- 
lutionary period, Benjamin Franklin. 
These two men had made long visits 
to England, and had cultivated the 
favor of the ministers until they had 
been able to some purpose to " brook 
the pregnant hinges of the knee that 
thrift may follow fawning," and they 
returned to America as royal gov- 

Governor Josiah Martin, of North 
Caroliua, was born in Virginia, and 
from his nineteenth year had been an 
officer in the British arm}', rising to 
the grade of lieutenant-colonel. The 
other five royal governors were Brit- 
ish born, and either bore military 
titles, like Governor Martin, or titles 
of nobility. 

There was Gen. William Tryon, in 
New York, Lord Duumore, in Vir- 
ginia, Gen. Thomas Gage, son of a 
viscount, in Massachusetts, Lord 
William Campbell, in South Caro- 
lina, and Sir James Wright, in 
Georgia, all "carpet baggers," gen- 
erally greedy for the spoils of office, 
whether in the form of salaries and 
fees, wrung from the pockets of the 
people, or grants of enormous tracts 
of the choicest land. They were 
royal or ministerial favorites, sent to 
the colonies to improve their slender 
fortunes at the expense of the people. 
Dependent upon the king's will, all 
the royal governors were the willing 
instruments of the king for the effec- 
tuating of his arbitrary designs. 
They were believers in the "divine 
right of kings." To them, "tuc- 
king could do no wrong." The 


king's prerogative was of an expan- 
sive potency, only equaled by the 
all-powerful authority of parliament, 
and the powers of the two were, to 
the royal government, practically 
synonymous with omnipotence. They 
endeavored to wield both. So long 
as the work of the legislative assem- 
blies, which existed in each colony, 
could be thwarted, first, by a royal 
tool, and then by the king himself, 
if his tool in the gubernatorial chair 
failed, as to any measure, to exercise 
the royal prerogative in the interests 
of tyranny, legislation in the colonies 
was a hollow farce. 

Thus the colonies in their aspira- 
tions after freedom and good govern- 
ment had as enemies a royal tool in 
the governor, the king himself, and 
a subservient parliamentary majority 
catering to the king's wishes. 

Thus it was in April. 1775. With- 
in six months five royal governors, 
apprehensive of personal violence at 
the hands of the people, became fugi- 
tives and refugees on board British 
ships of war ; one was under the pro- 
tection of the British army in Boston, 
and two, within nine months, were 
held prisoners by the people of the 
colonies they had assisted to mis- 

Gov. John Wentworth of the colony 
of New Hampshire was of the promi- 
nent English family of Wentworths, 
of Went worth- Woodhouse, Yorkshire, 
whose most distinguished represen- 
tative was Thomas Wentworth, Earl 
of Strafford, a man of distinguished 
ability and great ambition, who rose 
to great power under Charles the 
First, and was attained and caused to 
be executed by the Long parliament, 
which, a little later, brought the 
head of Charles to the block, and 

was, at length, dissolved by Crom- 
well for its " tyranny, ambition, op- 
pression, and robbery of the people." 
Another distinguished Wentworth 
was the Marquis of Rockingham, 
more than once one of the ministers 
of George the Third, and a friend to 
the colonies. 

The governor was the third Went- 
worth who had exercised the guber- 
natorial office in New Hampshire. 
The elder John Wentworth had been 
lieutenant-governor from 17 17-1730, 
discharging the duties of governor 
during the extended absence of Gov- 
ernors Shute and Barnett. 

Benning Wentworth, his son, be- 
came governor in 1741, and in 1766 
was succeeded by John Wentworth, 
the brother of Governor Bennington 
Wentworth, thus superseded. 

Thus it is seen that Gov. John 
Wentworth (2d), was one of the rul- 
ing class, both in England and in his 
native colony. More than that, his 
family was very influential in the 
colony, an uncle being a member of 
one of the patriotic committees of 
Portsmouth, and John Wentworth of 
Somersworth, likewise a descendant 
of the original settler, William Went- 
worth, of Dover, having been speaker 
of the last general assembly, in 1775, 
and president of the first, second, and 
third provincial conventions at Exe- 
ter. The governor was a merchant 
of large wealth and extensive landed 

His appointment as governor was 
brought about by the influence of his 
distant cousin, the Marquis of Rock- 
ingham, whose warm friendship he 
had acquired during a prolonged 
visit to England, and he entered upon 
his duties with a popularity which 
equaled the unpopularity of his un- 



cle, . Benning Weniworth, whose 
greed for land grants made to ' l men 
of straw " for his own benefit, caused 
his downfall. 

Until the critical period of 1773 
and 1774 his administration was not 
difficult, but when the claims of his 
royal master and the claims and re- 
solves of the patriotic people of the 
colonj- came into sharp competition 
he found the usual difficulty of at- 
tempting to serve two masters. 

Belknap, the historian, says, 
"Hitherto the governor had pre- 
served his popularity, and the peo- 
ple in general were satisfied with his 
administration. But the obligations 
which lay on him to support the 
claims of Britain and the plans of 
her ministry rendered his situation 
extremely delicate and his popularity 
very precarious." 

When, in June and September, 
1774, two shipments, of twenty-seven 
and thirty chests, respectively, of tea 
were received at Portsmouth, he man- 
aged so adroitly that the tea was re- 
shipped without any serious outbreak. 
Belknap says : "In New Hampshire 
the prudence of Governor Went- 
worth, the vigilance of the magis- 
trates, and the firmness of the people 
were combined, and the hateful com- 
modity was sent away without any 
damage and with but little tumult." 

The governor firmly believed that 
an accommodation between the peo- 
ple and the king and parliament 
would be brought about, and earn- 
estly strove to prevent a union of the 
colonies in the common defense of 
their liberties, so far as it could be 
prevented by inducing the people of 
New Hampshire to stand aloof. 

But in the resistless march of 
events toward open hostilities an 

xxvi— 18 

incident had transpired already that 
signalized the rise of a new power in 
the colony, independent of law, out- 
side of law, and yet devoted to the 
law and order of the community, 
scornful of gubernatorial frowns or 
favors, loyal to the king but defiant 
of his ministers and the British par- 
liament, the unbought, unterrified, 
untrammeled power of the people. 

On the preceding 10th of May 
(1774), an adjourned meeting of the 
general assembly convened at the 
Province House, in Portsmouth, and, 
after transacting the ordinary busi- 
ness of the session, taking a course 
pursued in the other colonial assem- 
blies, appointed a committee of cor- 
respondence, on the 28th day of May, 
by the narrow majority of one vote. 
The following resolution was also 
adopted: "Resolved and voted that 
the Speaker of this House be directed 
to answer such letters from time to 
time as he may receive from any of 
the houses of our sister colonies 
relative to the aforesaid difficulties, 
and to assure them that this House 
is ready to join in all salutary meas- 
ures that may be adopted by them at 
this important crisis for saving the 
rights and privileges of the Ameri- 
cans and promoting harmony with 
the parent state." 

What might be expected from an 
assembly in such a mood the govern- 
ment could not foresee. He must be 
rid of these troublesome patriots 
before more mischief was done. He 
adjourned them on May 30th to June 
3d ; on June 3d to June 6th ; on 
June 6th to June 8th ; on June 8th 
he dissolved the assembly by this 
message : 

" Mr. vSpeaker and gentlemen of 
the Assembly : 



"As I look upon the measures 
entered upon by the House of As- 
sembly to be inconsistent with his 
Majesty's service and the good of 
this government; it is ni} r Duty as 
far as in me lies to prevent a^- Detri- 
ment that might arise from such pro- 
ceedings. I Do, therefore, hereby 
Dissolve the General Assembly of 
this Province and it is dissolved 
accordingly. Province of New 
Hampshire. Council Chamber, Sth 
June, 1774. J. We tit worth." 

The governor thought that by dis- 
solution he had destroyed the com- 
mittee of correspondence. "But 
they were not restricted to forms," 
says Belknap. The members, on a 
summons by this despised and feared 
committee, met in their own cham- 
ber. The governor, with the sheriff, 
went among them. They rose at 
his entrance. He declared "the 
meeting illegal, and directed the 
sheriff to make open proclamation 
for all persons to disperse and keep 
the King's peace." 

Thus sturdily he maintained the 
king's authority as difficulties thick- 
ened around him. The members 
met in another place and wrote let- 
ters to all the towns, calling upon 
them to send deputies to a conven- 
tion at Kxeter who should choose 
delegates for a general congress and 
recommended a day of fasting and 
prayer, which was religiously kept. 
Eighty-five deputies were chosen by 
the people and met at Kxeter, July 
21st, and elected Nathaniel Folsom 
and John Sullivan delegates to the 
First Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia, in September, and recom- 
mended to the people to relieve the 
distress in Boston, which was done 
by contributions. 

The governor now saw and wrote 
that "the union of the colonies 
would not be lost in New Hamp- 
shire." By these acts of sovereignty 
on the part of the people he saw 
another authority rising in the prov- 
ince, founded on the broad basis of 
public opinion and unrestrained rep- 
resentation, an authority over which 
he had no influence or control. 

What should hinder further and 
more complete exercise of authority 
by conventions representing the 
people, to which the people looked 
for guidance, with profound respect, 
and whose behests the)- showed 
every tendency to obey? "Yet he 
endeavored to preserve the shadow 
of the royal government, and kept 
its forms as long as possible." A 
free representation ! A free assembly 
or convention ! What a deviation 
from the existing methods in this 
royal colony ! The people could not 
choose members of assembly but in 
obedience to the king's writ. The 
assembly met at the king's com- 
mand, given by the governor. The 
house must submit its choice of 
speaker to the king's representative 
for approval. The assembly could 
not adjourn for more than a day 
without the royal order. The assem- 
bly was subject to dissolution at the 
royal will, as exercised by the gov- 
ernor. These conditions hampering 
all free deliberation smacked strongly 
of despotism. 

It is not surprising that Governor 
Wentworth used his great powers to 
get rid of this troublesome colonial 
assembly. But this course had a 
sure tendency to widen the breach 
between the king and his hitherto 
loyal subjects, and to destroy the 
governor's popularity. 



As the rigorous weather of ap- 
proaching winter rendered barracks 
necessary for General Gage's troops 
in Boston, and the mechanics of 
that town could not or would not 
build them, General Gage called on 
the royal governors in the other 
provinces to send him mechanics. 
Governor Went worth made his first 
grave mistake in employing an agent 
to secure mechanics for General 
Gage and send them secretly to Bos- 
ton. "The committee of Ports- 
mouth, at the head of which was his 
uncle, Hunking Wentworth, bore 
their public testimony against it, and 
ceusured, not by name, but by im- 
plication, as ' an enemy to the com- 
munity.' The agent was made the 
'scapegoat,' and on his knees 
craved pardon and by his vicarious 
humiliation in place of the governor 
the popular rage was disarmed, and 
injury to the person or property of 
the governor was prevented." 

His activity in the king's cause in 
securing evidence of treason against 
the patriots who captured the garri- 
son of Fort William and Mary, at 
the entrance of the harbor, Dec. 13, 
(1774), and removed one hundred 
barrels of gunpowder and the next 
day removed fifteen cannon and all 
the small arms, with the dismissal 
from public employment of all who 
had participated in this daring deed, 
together with his inflammatory' proc- 
lamation, calling on all officers to 
assist in detecting and securing the 
offenders and warning all people to 
beware of "being seduced by the 
false acts and menaces of abandoned 
men," put an end to all attachment 
the people of patriotic proclivities 
ever had for his person. As if these 
causes were not more than enough 

for the alienation of the good-will of 
the people, it was about this time 
that the governor and his friends 
formed an association of loyalists for 
the support of the royal government 
and their mutual defense, and 
boasted that at a minute's warning 
a hundred men could be procured 
from the Scarborough frigate and the 
Canseau sloop of war in the harbor ; 
a boast so foolish, in view of the fact 
that a thousand armed patriots could 
be mustered at a few hours' notice in 
the streets of Portsmouth, as to be 
insulting and exasperating. 

A second convention of the people 
met at Exeter, January 25th, 1775, 
and made another move forward in 
the perfecting of the rising govern- 
ment of the people by selecting John 
Sullivan and John Eangdon, the 
heroes of the capture of the fort, 
delegates to the second continental 

Great events are now crowding 
forward the destinies of the American 
people and unwittingly the royal 
tools are ripeningj by their injudi- 
cious acts, the sentiment of the peo- 
ple to the point of accepting the gage 
of battle thrown down by his 
majesty, George the Third, able and 
stubborn tyrant that he was, who 
absolutely controlled the American 
policy of England. 

The attempted seizure of a few 
munitions of war at Concord, the 
19th of April, was the firing of the 
slumbering train, and the country 
was in a blaze of patriotic fervor from 
the Kennebec to the Savannah. The 
smoke of battle had barely vanished 
from the liberty-loving air of Con- 
cord and Lexington ; the grave had 
not closed over the patriotic dead of 
that fateful day ; the minute men in 

2 7 6 


squads, companies, and regiments 
were hastening to the beleaguering 
of the British army, so terribly shat- 
tered in Boston, when, on April 21st, 
(1775), the third Provincial conven- 
tion or congress of New Hampshire 
assembled at Exeter and assumed 
that legislative and executive power 
which it and its successors ever re- 
tained until the adoption of the state 

Governor Wentworth had san- 
guine hones of the good effects of 
the "conciliatory proposition" of 
Lord North in New Hampshire, and 
summoned a new assembly, which 
convened at Province House, Ports- 
mouth, thirteen days later, on May 

4 th (1775). 

The "conciliator}' proposition" 
which the governor relied upon to 
soften the hearts of the people and 
lead their errant affections back to 
the mother country was as follows : 
"That when any colony," by their 
governor, council, and assembly, 
shall engage to make provisions for 
the support of civil government, and 
administration of justice, in such 
colony it will be proper, if such pro- 
posal be approved by the king and 
parliament, for so long a time as 
provision shall be made, to forbear to 
levy duties or taxes in such colony, 
except for the regulating of com- 
merce ; the net proceeds of which 
shall be carried to the account of 
such colony, respectively." 

The colonies were to surrender 
every contention ; the government 
promised nothing and retained and 
reaffirmed the right to tax the colo- 
nies, which was the chief matter in 

There is pathos and the sound of 
suppressed sobbing in his speech to 

the assembly, in which he entreated 
them as "the only legal and constitu- 
tional representatives of the people 
to direct their counsels to such meas- 
ures as might tend to secure their 
peace and safety ; and effectually 
lead to a restoration of the public 
tranquility and an affectionate recon- 
ciliation with the ' mother country.'" 
He recommended the '"conciliatory 
proposition" to their consideration. 

The house desired a recess to 
enable them to consult their constitu- 
ents on these momentous questions, 
and very reluctantly the governor, 
on May 6th, adjourned them to June 
12th. In view of all the circum- 
stances it does not seem, at this late 
day, that the members of the assem- 
bly were all quite candid in asking 
for this recess ; but there is room for 
the thought that they were procrasti- 
nating for the purpose of gaining 
time and putting off the day of open 
rupture with the governor. 

While these scenes are passing in 
the assembly at Portsmouth another 
legislative body exists at Exeter, less 
than twenty miles distant, which 
does not owe its existence to the 
summons of the king's writ, but to 
the spontaneous expression of the 
popular will. To say that these 
were rival bodies would not be cor- 
rect except in a nominal sense. 
They were chosen by the same con- 
stituencies. Numerous members of 
this assembly were also members of 
the provincial congress which met at 
Exeter, April 21st. The Hon. John 
Wentworth of Somersworth, who 
was elected speaker of the house, 
had been, only two weeks before, 
elected president of that congress. 
The action of the Portsmouth body 
was perfunctory only. The Exeter 



body represented the earnest thought, 
the firm resolve, the paramount will 
of the people. 

The Portsmouth body represented 
the nominal loyalty of the people to 
the king, and its members were 
ready to act in harmony with the 
governor if king, parliament, and the 
minister would concede and guar- 
antee their inalienable rights as 
British subjects— if not, they would 
be as unyielding as the provincial 
congress at Exeter. That the pro- 
vincial congress were not only mas- 
ters of themselves but dominated the 
assembly is evident, because, on the 
reconvening of the assembly at Ports- 
mouth, June 1 2th, the house forth- 
with expelled three new members 
at the demand of the provincial con- 
gress at Exeter, on the ground of 
invasion of the rights of the house by 
the governor in summoning them 
from new and small towns without 
the concurrence of the house itself. 

The governor must have seen that 
his influence with the house of as- 
sembly was no greater than with 
the provincial congress at Exeter. 
Without one arbitrary act, one case 
of severity, while acting within the 
strict letter of the law, the inevitable 
happened to him ; the people had 
drifted away from him, and he was 
without a party, except an insignifi- 
cant handful of royalists whose good 
will was a detriment. 

On June 13th he adjourned the 
assembly to June 11th, having in- 
effectually remonstrated against the 
expulsion of the three members. On 
the same day "one of the expelled 
members, having spoken his mind 
freely without doors, was assaulted 
by the populace and took shelter in 
the governor's house." The gov- 

ernor said that this member, a Mr. 
Fenton, "happened to call upon" 
him at his house. The people de- 
manded Mr. Fenton. The sturdy 
governor, of course, refused to vio- 
late the rights of hospitality. The 
people brought a cannon and leveled 
it at the vice-regal mansion. The 
member was delivered up or deliv- 
ered himself up and was taken to 
Exeter. The cannon was, in fact, 
not loaded. The tension in the rela- 
tions between the governor and the 
people could bear no further strain. 
The governor considered himself in- 
sulted, and saw himself practically 
friendless. For safety and his dig- 
nity's sake he retired to Fort Wil- 
liam and Mary with his family. His 
house was pillaged by a mob. 

For the last time a royal assembly 
met in New Hampshire on the nth 
day of July, according to adjourn- 
ment. On the iSth of Jul}' the gov- 
ernor sent a message from his safe 
retreat at the fort, adjourning the 
assembly to the 28th of September. 

That assembly, with the governor, 
represented legality, regularity, for- 
mality, legitimacy, the ma jest}' of 
the king, and the majesty of the law, 
but the faintest whisper of a wish 
coming from the provincial congress 
at Exeter was more powerful to more 
of the people than the most absolute 
commands of the assembly and gov- 
ernor and king thundered forth in 
manner imperative and by royal 
proclamation. And why ? Because 
royalty was swiftly dying in the prov- 
ince, killed by its own hand, and the 
will of the people held sway over the 
minds and hearts of the sturdy yeo- 
manry of the state, and spoke 
through the provincial congress at 
Exeter. By all rules of procedure 



and all precedents the pro\ incial con- 
gress at Exeter was irregular, un- 
authorized in law, had no legal exist- 
ence and no authority whatever ; but 
its acts were legitimized by the will 
of the people, stood the test of time, 
and no power was ever able success- 
fully to controvert their validity. 
Their authority was the right of revo- 
lution. The people had accom- 
plished a complete revolution and 
would henceforth maintain it. 

Governor John Wentworth had 
ceased to be a factor in the problem 
of governing the province, and his 
absence did not hinder the march of 
events. A committee of the conven- 
tion or congress demanded of Theo- 
dore Atkinson, secretary of .the prov- 
ince, the provincial records. He 
refused. Then a committee from 
congress came down from Exeter 
with force enough to intimidate the 
secretary, and took all the records to 
Exeter. Atkinson's report of this 
event to the governor is as follows : 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
July 7th, 1775. 
Sir : Your excellency will give me leave to 
acquaint you that on the 4th itrst. I had a visit 
as secretary from the committee appointed by 
the Provincial congress of this colony held at 
Exeter, when they shew me their appointment 
and requested the delivery of all the records 
and files in the secretary's office. I told them 
it would be against my Honor and oath of 
office to volunteer such delivery. After an 
hour's moderate conversation and without any 
heat the committee left me and I was in hopes 
I should not have any further visit from them ; 
but on the 6 inst. they came again and urged 
the delivery. I still refused, as before, and told 
them thej* well knew it was not in my power 
to defend the office by force of arms: if they 
took the records, or any of them, they must be 
answerable. They then entered the office and 
took all the files and records, etc. 

Atkinson as major-general of mili- 
tia issued a proclamation for calling 
out the militia to defend the govern- 

ment. Not a regiment, nor a com- 
pany, nor a platoon, nor a squad, 
nor a man, responded to the sum- 
mons. Secretary Atkinson afterwards 
begged to be forgiven for his appar- 
ent disaffection toward the patriot 
cause, and pledged himself to fidelity 
for the future. 

Meanwhile Governor Wentworth, 
in lodgings of a very mean order, 
cramped for room, with a scanty 
table, under a leaky roof, in a dis- 
mantled fort without a garrison, with 
his household taking turns at stand- 
ing guard against fancied danger of 
assault by the people who only 
wished him a safe and speed}' de- 
parture, remained at Fort William 
and Man- under the protection of the 
warship Scarborough and sloop- of- war 
Canseau. Under date of Jut>e 15th, 
1885, he wrote to General Gage: 
"Seeing ever)- idea of the respect 
due his majesty's commission so far 
lost in the frantic rage and fury of 
the people as to find them to proceed 
to such daring violence against the 
person of his representative, I found 
myself under the necessity of imme- 
diately withdrawing to Fort William 
and Mary, both to prevent as much 
as may be a repetition of the insults 
and to provide for my own security. 
I think it exceedingly for the king's 
service to remain as long as possible 
at the fort where I am now in a small 
incommodious house, without other 
prospect of safety, if the prevailing 
madness of the people should follow 
me hither, then the hope of retreat- 
ing on board his majesty's ship Scar- 
borough, if it should be in my power. 
This fort, although containing up- 
wards of sixty pieces of cannon is 
without men or ammunition." 

When the dismantling: of the fort 



was completed he sailed away with 
the ships of war to Boston, on the 
24th day of August (1775), aban- 
doning his estates, his home, his 
royal province, and what few loyalist 
friends remained to do him honor. 

As the adjournment of the assem- 
bly, July Sth, by a message sent to 
Portsmouth, whither he dared not go 
in person, from his safe refuge in the 
fort, under the guns of the Scar- 
borough % may be looked upon as but 
a painful manifestation of the dying 
agony of the royal government in 
New Hampshire, so the final act of 
the governor in September will ap- 
pear as the last convulsive gasp. 
Before the 2Sth of September dawned 
when that troublesome assembly 
should meet, the governor sailed 
from Boston to Gosport, a fishing 
hamlet on what is now Star Island, 
one of the Isles of Shoals, and with 
his feet firmly planted on that barren 
rock, over and against which the 
Atlantic surges have rolled for ages 
and ages, ten miles from the main 
line of New Hampshire, as if to give 
foundation for an otherwise extra- 
territorial act on September 21st, 
fulminated a proclamation adjourn- 
ing that assembly to the 24th day of 
April, 1776, as follows : 

By The Governor. 
a proclamation'. 
Whereas, the General Assembly is now ad- 
journed to Tuesday the 28th instant, and it 
appearing in no way conducive to his Majesty's 
service or the welfare of the Province, that the 
Assembly should meet on that day, but that it 
is inexpedient to prorogue them to a farther 
time, I have therefore thought best to issue 
this proclamation, proroguing the meeting of 
the General Assembly to be held at Ports- 
mouth on the 2Sth of September to the 24th 
day of April next at 10 o'clock in the forenoon ; 
and the General Assembly is hereby prorogued 
according to that time ; then to meet at the 

Court House iu Portsmouth aforesaid; and 
hereof all persons concerned are to take notice 
and govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Gosport the 2rst day of Septem- 
ber, in the fifteenth year of the reign of our 
Sovereign Lord George the Third, by the 
Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ire- 
land, King, Defender of the faith, etc. and in 
the year of our Lord Christ, 1775. 

By His Excellency's command 

J. Wentworth. 
Theodore Atkinson, Secretary. 

" This was his last act of adminis- 
tration and the last time he set his 
foot in the province. Thus an end 
was put to the British government in 
New Hampshire where it had sub- 
sisted ninety-five years," says Bel- 
knap. The assembly never recon- 
vened. Henceforth the provincial 
congress and its committee of safety 
managed the affairs of New Hamp- 
shire, and no British officer, soldier, 
or civilian, interfered. 

Although Governor Wentworth 
thus made his exit with a pompous 
flourish of proclamations, expelled 
by the moral forces of this complete 
political revolution, he did not aban- 
don hope that the British government 
would regain its control over the 
colonies, and that royal governors 
would be able to return to their own 
again. Letters are extant to show 
that he, like his companions in 
misery, the other royal governors, 
lingered along the Atlantic coast, 
camp-followers of the British forces, 
ready to return to the scene of his 
power and splendor, when the army 
should have smoothed the way. On 
the 17th day of March, 1776, he 
wrote to the Earl of Dartmouth from 
Nantasket Road; April 10th, 1776, 
he wrote from Halifax ; Nov. 5th, 

1776, from Long Island; Jan. 6th, 

1777, from New York; Jan. 17th 
and Feb. 3d, 1777, from Flat Bush, 

2 SO 


Long Island, and June Sth, 1777, 
from New York; Feb. Sth, 177S, he 
sailed for England. He passed his 
latter years and died at Halifax, a 
baronet, retaining the office of sur- 
veyor of the king's woods in North, 
America, which had been bestowed 
upon him with the governorship. 
But his agents no longer branded 
with the king's broad arrow the 
tallest and straiglitest pine trees in 
the forests of New Hampshire. 

An eminent writer speaks of him 
as a man of "sound understanding, 
refined tastes, enlarged views, a dig- 
nified spirit, and as retiring from the 
chair with a higher reputation than 
any other man who held the same 
office he did in the country."- 

Belknap says of him : " If a com- 
parison be drawn between him and 
most of the governors on this conti- 
nent, at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion, he must appear to advantage. 
Instead of widening the breach, he 
endeavored to close it ; and when his 
efforts failed he retired from a situa- 
tion where he could no longer exer- 
cise the office of governor : leaving 
his estate and many of his friends, 
and preserving only his commission 
as surveyor of the king's woods, the 
limits of which were much con- 
tracted by the succeeding Revolu- 

•It is generally conceded that he 
discharged what he conceived to be 
his duty, as the king's representa- 

tive, with moderation. He saw a 
treasonable convention sitting and 
assuming legislative and executive 
powers only fifteen miles from the 
seat of his own government and did 
not raise a hand against them, nor 
fulminate against them with a proc- 
lamation. He made no arrests and 
harried no patriots. His rule was so 
mild and inoffensive, in these criti- 
cal times, that the patriots matured 
their plans without let or hindrance. 
A better royal governor for the cause 
of the colonists could not have been 
selected. And yet he was faithful 
to his king. The one alternative 
which would have freed him from 
the troubles of the last year of his 
rule does not seem to have occurred 
to him, that is to say, the alternative 
of resigning an office that brought 
him into that attitude of hostility to 
the people of his native province, 
which his duty as a royal governor 
required of him. Whether, had 
British armies invaded the province, 
he would have been one of the in- 
vaders, is problematical, and possi- 
ble. It is fortunate for his memory 
in his state that hostile acts toward 
his people, like those of the gov- 
ernors of North and South Carolina, 
incitement to revile insurrection like 
that of Duumore of Virginia, or 
devastation with fire and sword like 
that of Tyron of New York did not 
disgrace the exit of the royal gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire. 

1 1 ■ 

1 m 


By Henry O. Kent, Cadet, Class of 1854. 

{"The "History of Norwich University," recently 

printed at this office, contains, aside from the his- 
toric record of this well-known military institution, 
nearly sixteen hundred names of former cadets, 
with a roll of honor of over six hundred names, 
based on actual service in honorable station. In 
this list are fifteen general officers, one hundred 
and seventeen colonels and field officers, one ad- 
miral (George Dewey, the hero of Manila), three 
rear admirals, and a long list of commodores, cap- 
tains, and comrnaudeis. 

Many New Hampshire men of eminence have 
been connected with Norwich University and its 
literature is of interest to our people. Ex-President 
Pierce, ex-Governor Baker, Gen. Charles H. Peaslee, 
Rev. Drs. J. 11. Karnes and Howard F. Hill, and Col. 
Henry O. Kent have served upon its board of trustees, 
while many of its cadets have held command in our 
regiments and high places in the professions and 
business circles. 

Colonel Kent has been a devoted son of his alma 
mater since graduation ; his numerous addresses, 
orations, and metrical compositions being held in 
high regard by the sons of N. U. It is with pleas- 
ure that we present the following selections from 
his muse. — Kditor Granite Monthly.] 

Henry O. Kent, Cadet, N U., 1854. 


Air: "Benny Ha: en's, Oh! " or "The Wearing of the Green." 

This song was writien in the summer of 1S55, and was at once adopted as the college song of 
Norwich University, in manner similar to the adoption of " Benny Haven's, Oh ! " at West Point. 
It has been sung on all public occasions, — reunions and gatherings of cadets, — and was chanted 
by the alumni and past cadets who fought on both sides in the great Civil War. 

Come, pour the ruby wine, my boys, 

• And give a loud bravo, 
For our tried and true companions 

Who have left us long ago ; 
They are scattered on the ocean 

Of life's pleasures and life's woe, 
And ne'er again may shout with us 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 
In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 
And ne'er again may shout with us 
In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 

2 S2 SONGS OF A r . U. 

They have left us here to vegetate 

In military row. 
To serve the time allotted us 

Through sunshine and through snow ; 
But we'll treasure up in memory,' 

Where 'er through life we go, 
The names of those who 've met with us 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the Army and the Navy ; 

Each prospective grand hero, 
Who went from out among us 

To fight his country's foe, — 
May he win a crown ot laurels, 

Where 'er Fame's breezes blow, 
And shout amid the battle's blast 

For the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To our hero-chieftain, Ransom, 

One glass before we go ; 
His blood bestains the rocky height 

In distant Mexico. 
His country's flag waved o'er him 

When the volley smote him low ; 
And we '11 drop for him the silent tear 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the silver-headed veteran 

Who slumbers calm and low, 
West Pointers join the chorus 

From the everglades and snow ; 
We '11 crown with brighter memories, 

As onward still we go, 
Our stern old founder's cognomen 1 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the ladies fair of Norwich, 
Where 'er through life we go, 

We '11 treasure up each witching smile 
They e'er did on us throw. 

From the " Congo's " dismal galleries, 
And the cushioned pews below, 

1 Alden Partridge, U. S. A., former superintendent at West Point; first president. 

SOjVGS OF A t . V. 2 S3 

Or erst upon Commencement Day 
From the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the pretty ones who occupy 

Our heart's internal row, 
Who have chaineo* us by their glances, 

And have stole our 'fections so : 
They have handled Cupid's arrows 

In a way by no means slow ; 
And we '11 chorus them in eau de vie 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the annual Commencement 

Our hearts shall overflow, 
As we lose our boon companions 

Pro bono publico. 
But we' 11 shout the chorus louder, 

As o'er life's sea we go — 
A hip hurrah for old N. U., 

And the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


To the coming year of jubilee 1 

On: cups shall ever flow, 
When we hope to gather once again 

In eighteen sixty, oh ! 
To mourn each patriot fallen, 

To share each brother's woe, 
And once more to join in chorusing 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 



The moon in her course o'er the eastern hill 

Looks down on the old parade, 
On the flagstaff white, in the silent night, 

And the guns in the barracks' shade. 
Her radiance silvers each well-known spot, 

Remembered and loved of yore ; 
But the friends who at night roamed with me neath her light, 

They are gone— they are with me no more ! 

1 i86o, and every fifth year thereafter, was nominated by the original Friendship clubs, as the year of 

284 SONGS OF A r . U. 

The sun shone bright, through the closing day 

When our college life was done ; 
We had fought the fight and had kept the faith, 

The earlier race was run ! 
Now hands were wrung in brave farewell 

When parting words wer 4 e said, 
For the march was life, with toil and strife 

The bivouac with the dead. 

The days are sped down the aisles of time 

When we shared each grief together, 
But the throb of each heart M keeps the cadence " apart 

And the " lock step " continues forever. 
So we cherish alike in weal and in woe, 

Young manhood's friendships deep, 
Till the march is done 'neath the wearying sun, 

Till the tents are pitched — and we sleep. 


From a friend to bestow upon his inamorata, Miss Carrie Hatch, the pretty daughter of the 
boarding mistress at Commons, North Barracks. 

Oh, Carrie Hatch, dear Carrie Hatch, 

Your face is sweet to see. 
But Carrie Hatch, ah, Carrie Hatch, 

You are hatching care for me. 


There is joy in the dash of echoing steel 

When the foeman's crest is riven ; 
When war cries ring through murky air 

Up to the arch of heaven. 
Then the dauntless heart throbs proud and high, 

In the run of the charging host, 
With Fame's bright presence ever nigh 

To laurel the conqueror's post. 

It is joy to welcome those faces dear, 
Once bowed o'er our childhood's bed, 

Where mingled a father's and mother's prayer, 
In love o'er the sleeper's head. 

SONGS OF JV. U. 2 85 

Grim Father Time hath followed close 

Through each revolving year, 
His hand he has pressed on the father's breast 

And the sheen of the mother's hair. 

It is joy to young manhood's heart, Fred, 

In its warmest, prou'dest glow, 
To grasp the hand of a well-loved friend, 

As the heart's glad currents flow. 
Aye, it cheereth on through the path of life 

'Mid its storms to the peaceful end, 
Oh, a royal gilt beyond fee or price, 

Is a true warm-hearted friend. 

On the death of Cadet William George, of Chelmsford, Mass., killed by the accidental dU 
charge of his gun while hunting, May, 1855. 

A saddened sound comes on the breeze. 
And softly whisper the waving trees, 
Quietly, sweetly, cadenced and slow, 
Murmuring ever a requiem low. 

Clearly it sounds o'er the old parade, 
When the moon is lighting the forest glade, 
When rideth high the noonday sun, 
When rattles loud the 'larum drum. 

It telleth for aye of a spirit fled, 

Of a brother who joins the countless dead. 

They laid him down in his early pride, 

Where the green turf grows by the forest's side. 

Where the brook sings ever its carol free 

In its course to its haven, the rolling sea, 

Where flowers were bright and zephyrs' breath 

Toyed with the curls on the brow of death. 

List not again for the well-known tread, 

Call not again the name of the dead, 

Sadden not in his wonted room 

When the shadows of evening and memory come. 

No more shall ye greet in the Barrack hall, 
No more shall arouse him the reveille's call, 
The drooping flag, the booming gun, 
Telleth for aye that his march is done, 

286 SONGS OF A r . U. 

Of a manly heart, of a willing hand 

That have joined the throng in the spirit land, 

Of one who looks from a realm afar 

Beyond this earth's contentious jar 

On the corps that stand as brothers true 

Within thy cherished walls, N. U. 

Young- George was a brother of Misses Carrie and Orra George, for many years favorite teach- 
ers in the schools of Concord, one of whom syasjfance of Lieut. Charles W. Walker, Co. B, 2d 
N. H. Vols., the first officer from X. H. to die in the War of the Rebellion, and whose funeral 
was attended by the state government and the legislature, then in session, De Molay Command- 
ery of Boston, and other fraternal bodies, in June, 1S61. He lay in state, with a guard of honor, 
in the rotunda of the state house. 

Killed at the storming of Ckepultepec, Mexico, Sept. /?, 1847. 

Major General Truman B. Ransom, in the militia of Vermont and colonel of the Ninth U. S. 
Infantry Vols., was vice-president from 1835, succeeding Captain Partridge as president in 1843. 
Franklin Pierce was the original colonel, but on his early promotion as brigadier, Ransom, who 
was lieutenant-colonel, was commissioned to command. He took many of his cadets with him 
into the field. 

Adjutant-general Drum, U. S. A., a lieutenant in the Ninth, told me in Washington, in 1S88, 
that in his long military career he never saw so perfect a soldier as was Colonel Ransom. He 
was, he said, by his side, when he fell at the head of his command, while waving his sword and 
crj'ing "Forward the Ninth! " a musket ball striking him fairly in the forehead. He was in- 
terred at Norwich with military honors. His three sons were all in the service, — Col. Dunbar R., 
U. S. Artillery; Maj.-Gen. T. F. G., commanding the 17th Army Corps; Lieut. Fred Fugene, 
Illinois Volunteers and U. S. Cavalry; while his only daughter, " Katy," married Capt. James 
O'Hara, U. S. A. 

War rode upon the eddying storm, 

In volleys flew the leaden hail, 
Men's life blood bursting bright and warm 

Made many a vest of crimson mail. 

Loud rang the bugler's cheering voice, 
Reechoing 'neath the smoky sky, 

As charging 'mid the battle's press, 
The gallant Ninth came sweeping by. 

Proudly above the eddying smoke, 
The regimental banner shone ; 

New England hearts with pride awoke, 
At their loud leader's clarion tone. 

There, cheering on the serried ranks, 
With sabre glittering free and bright, 

There, where the sections quivering sank 
Before the flashing volley's might, 


SOA r GS OF N. U, 2 S 

There, pointing to the starry flag, 

And to the castle's turret stone, 
" Strike for New England, Ninth," he cried, 

" Chepultepec is won ! " 

Hurrah ! hurrah ! then rang a cheer 

That burst the smoke wreaths rolling o'er, 

That 'mid the battle echoed clear 

Above the cannon's thunderous roar. 

'Tis stilled again, that conquering shout, 

Loud svrelh, anew the battle's peal, 
But where is he who called it out ; 

No more is seen his flashing steel. 

Straight driving 'mid the leader's shower, 

Full toward the proud victorious brow, 
The bullet told its vengeful power. 

'Tis done, that gallant crest is low ! 

His death couch 'mid the rocky cliffs, 

Over which our conquering legions go — 
Ah ! his laurel crown with blood was kissed, 

Beneath the skies of Mexico ! 

His coronach the battle's cry, 

His requiem the cannon's roar, 
New England's sons, who saw him die, 

Mourn the loved chief who leads no more. 


In 1S66 the South Barracks at Norwich were burned, and the university was removed to 
North field, where new college buildings had been erected. The supplemental verses " Hurrah 
for Old N. U. ! " were written thirty years later than " The Old South Barracks, Oh !" and, like 
the 'original, were dedicated to the corporation, faculty, undergraduates, alumni, aud past cadets 
of alma mater. 

One doleful night in winter, 

Full many years ago, 
The bursting flames red banners waved 

Above the pallid snow ; 
Her blackened walls, her ruined halls, 

Told shivering tale of woe ; 
But, phcenix-like, N. U. arose 

From the Old South Barracks, oh ! 


She saw her bright escutcheon, 

For which her sons had died 1 . 
Bearing the words that Miller said 

'Mid battle's surging tide, — 
" I '11 try ! " The blood was pulsing ; 

Uprose she from the blow ; 
When duty calls, not ruined walls 

Should check its ardent flow. 

No more beside the river, 

On beauteous Norwich Plain, 
By hallowed dust, 'mid early scenes, 

Might she repose again ; 
But on the hills of Northfield, 

Robed in imperial green, 
Crowned with the love of loyal sons, 

She sits, our peerless queen. 

Her dowry is the faith of sons 

Who loved her in their youth, 
The loyal zeal of each cadet 

Who follows knightly truth. 
We mourn our honored Dr. Bourns'", 

Staunch General Jackman, too"; 
Crowned be each name with lasting fame, 

Loved champions of N. U. ! 

At Norwich or at Northfield 

Our hearts shall ever glow 
O'er cheering tales of college days, 

And boon companions, oh ! 
With pretty girlb and loyal men 

It always should be so, 
E'en when bright locks turn grizzled hair, 

And Time sifts down his snow. 

We vow anew a brother's love 

For each good comrade low ; 
We '11 keep the faith they pledged for us 

In the Old South Barracks, oh ! 
We '11 do our duty bravely, 

In honor, leal, and true ; 
Then vive I* amour, and vive la guerre ! 

Hurrah for Old N. U. ! 
Boston, Sept. 25, 18S6. 

1 Col. James Miller of New Hampshire, at Niagara, rSi,}. 

•The Rev. Dr. Edward Bourns. IX. D., president. 

3 Geu. Alonzo Jackman. first graduate and professor of mathematics, military scieuce, and tactic: 







- - ■ 

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-;--.^HJ : '.:i.... . ; ii*-i'..w : > -• ■ :.;£..-: 

/>y Harry M. Caw's, Esq. 

OME one has said that the 
American Government and 
Constitution are based on 
^ the theology of Calvin and 
the philosophy of Hobbes ; and it is 
true that there is a hearty Puritanism 
in the view of human nature which 
pervades the instrument of 17S7; it 
is the work of men who believed in 
original sin, and they were resolved 
to leave open no door they could pos- 
sibly close. 

Marshall says, in his Life of Wash- 
ington : " The fact that power might 
be abused, was deemed a conclusive 
reason why it should not be con- 
ferred,'' and in accordance with that 

1 A paper read before S. 

idea each of the three branches of. 
our government, the executive, the 
legislative, and the judicial, was 
made a check and control upon the 
others. The plan is not altogether 
new, for Aristotle, in the fourth book 
of his "Politics," observes that in 
every polity there are three depart- 
ments. The executive is represented 
by the president; the legislative by 
congress, and the judicial by the 
federal courts. 

We usually think of the duties 
and powers of congress — the senate 
and house of representatives — as be- 
ing purely legislative, but the senate 
has three functions, legislative in the 

Mary's School, Coucord. 



transaction of its usual and ordinary 
business; executive, or in the nature 
of executive, when it acts in confirm- 
ing the nominations of federal offi- 
cials sent to it by the president, and 
when it approves treaties ; judicial 
when it sits as a court to hear 
and decide a case of impeachment 
brought before it by the house, and 
at such trials the chief justice of the 
supreme court presides over the sen- 
ate, not the vice-president of the 
United States. 

When the house brings a bill of 
impeachment, it accuses an official of 
wrongdoing, and proceeds to make 
out a case against him, or to try to, 
and in so far and for the time being 
acts as a public prosecutor, and per- 
forms acts more analogous to those 
of the judiciary department than of 
the legislative. 

In a general way it may be said 
that congress makes the laws ; the 
president executes them, and the 
supreme court interprets them when 
they are misunderstood or when 
there are differences of opinion as 
to their meaning, and compels obe- 
dience to them when the}* are dis- 

Under the Confederation there had 
been no judicial means of enforcing 
treaties or other congressional action, 
because there were no federal courts, 
and the state courts were under no 
obligation, and had but little incli- 
nation, to sustain the then feeble 
congress. After the adoption of the 
constitution a federal judicature was 
necessary to interpret and apply the 
laws passed by congress, and to com- 
pel obedience to them. The state 
courts were not designed and not 
qualified to pass upon questions of 
an international character, such as 

matters of admiralty law, and rights 
and wrongs acquired or suffered under 
treaties. Obviously it was inexpedi- 
ent, if not unwise, to allow a state 
court to settle controversies between 
its own state and another state, or 
between its own citizens and the citi- 
zens of another state. Furthermore, 
each being created and controlled by 
the government of its own state, the 
state courts might fail to rigidly and 
strictly enforce an}* federal law* with 
which their state was not fully in 
sympathy. In any event, the author- 
ity of each state court was coordi- 
nate with, and independent of, all 
the other state courts, and there 
was always the possibility, if not 
the probability, that they would dif- 
fer from, and perhaps in some cases 
directly refute, each other in their 
several interpretations and applica- 
tions of the constitution and the 
federal statutes, thus rendering the 
law of the land uncertain and com- 
plex, if not in many instances prac- 
tically nugatory. All these condi- 
tions pointed imperatively to a com- 
mon court of appeal and of last 
resort. The result was our several 
federal courts, substantially as they 
exist to-day. We are more par- 
ticularly considering the supreme 
court of the United States, estab- 
lished under Article III of the con- 
stitution, which provides that 

■'The judicial power of the United 
States shall be vested in one supreme 
court and such inferior courts as con- 
gress may from time to time ordain 
and establish. The judges, both of 
the supreme and inferior courts, shall 
hold their offices during good behav- 
ior, and shall at stated times re- 
ceive for their services a compensa- 
tion which shall not be diminished 


29 r 

during their coutinuauee in office." 
(The justices now have the privilege 
of resigning with a pension when 
they are seventy years old, but they 
are not obliged to retire then.) 

"The judicial power shall extend 
to all cases in law and equity aris- 
ing under this constitution., the laws 
of the United States, and treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under 
their authority : to all cases affecting 
ambassadors, other public ministers, 
and consuls ; to all cases of admi- 
ralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to 
controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to con- 
troversies between two or more 
states; between citizens of different 
states ; between citizens of the same 
state claiming lands under grants of 
different states ; and between a state, 
or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens or subjects." 

"In all cases affecting ambassa- 
dors, other public ministers, and 
consuls, and those in which a state 
shall be a party, the supreme court 
shall have original jurisdiction. In 
all other cases before mentioned, the 
supreme court shall have appellate 
jurisdiction, both as to law and 
fact, with such exceptions and under 
such regulations as the congress 
shall make." 

In commenting upon the juris- 
diction of the federal courts over 
controversies between two or more 
states, an eminent French writer 
said, '* In the nations of Europe, 
the courts of justice are only called 
upon to try the controversies of 
private individuals ; but the su- 
preme court of the United States 
summonses sovereign powers — the 
states — to its bar." And John Stu- 
art Mill declared that " this substitu- 

tion of judicial determination for war 
and diplomacy as the means of set- 
tling disputes between the states is 
the first example of what is now one 
of the most prominent wants of civi- 
lized society, a real International Tri- 

Original jurisdiction in the, su- 
preme court is also exclusive juris- 
diction, because it is the court of last 
resort ; a case begun there must end 
there, for there is no higher tribunal 
to which it can be appealed or trans- 
ferred. But so peaceful has been the 
tenor of diplomatic life in this coun- 
try that the original jurisdiction of 
the court has never been invoked by 
an ambassador or any other public 
minister, and direct controversies be- 
tween the states are comparatively 
infrequent. It is the appellate juris- 
diction which brings before the su- 
preme court contending suitors from 
every circuit and district court in 
the country, and from every state in 
cases where federal questions are in- 
volved . 

Supplementing and confirming all 
these powers conferred by the III 
Article of the Constitution, is Article 
VI, which declares that, 

"This Constitution and the laws 
of the United States which shall be 
made, in pursuance thereof ; and all 
Treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the authority of the 
United States, shall be the Supreme 
Law of the Land ; and the Judges in 
even' State shall be bound thereby, 
anything in the constitution or laws 
of any State to the contrary, notwith- 

The jurisdiction of a court is its 
power to hear and determine a cause, 
but that power can rightfully be 
exercised only for the determination 



of an actual controversy brought be- 
fore the court in the form, and 
through the channels, prescribed by 
law ; and the judicial power of the 
United States extends to only such 
cases or controversies as are specified 
in Article III of the constitution, or 
in some act of congress pursuant 
thereto. These points have been 
illustrated and maintained through- 
out the whole history of the supreme 

In 1792 Chief Justice Jay and his 
associates declined to execute an act 
of congress because it assigned to 
the circuit courts certain duties not 
of a judicial nature; in 1851 an act 
passed in 1S49 was construed upon 
the same principle. In 1793, Wash- 
ington, who was being greatly em- 
barrassed by the audacious intrigues 
of the French Minister Genet, upon 
the advice of his cabinet requested 
the opinion of the supreme court 
upon the proper construction of the 
treaty with France ; but the court 
declined to answer upon the ground 
that they could not give an opinion 
upon any controversy which had not 
come before them through and by 
legal forms and processes. 

And in cases properly before it, so 
far as the manner of their getting 
there was concerned, the court has 
always disclaimed any power to deter- 
mine' questions of a political nature, 
or which involved the exercise of 
executive or legislative discretion, or 
the powers rightfully reserved to the 
states ; and the court has uniformly 
held itself to be concluded in all 
purely political matters by the politi- 
cal acts of the executive and legis- 
lative departments. 

Chief Justice Chase said, "Judicial 
duty is not less fitly performed by 

declining uugranted jurisdiction than 
in exercising firmly that which the 
constitution and laws confer." 

The case of the United States v. 
Peters, decided in 1S09, first brought 
into conflict the judicial power of the 
United States and the legislative and 
executive power of a state resisting 
the process of the federal courts. 
This case was a legacy from the 
feeble days of the Confederation, 
thirty years before. The supreme 
court ordered the circuit court to 
enforce its own judgment in favor of 
the plaintiff in the original action, 
one Olmstead, who was a citizen of 
Connecticut. The state of Pennsyl- 
vania was the real defendant ; that 
state under an act of its own legisla- 
ture not only claimed the fund to 
which the controversy related, but 
relying upon the XI Amendment 
to the Constitution, which provides 
''that the judicial power of the 
United States shall not be construed 
to extend to any suit, in law or in 
equity, commenced or prosecuted 
against any of the United States, by 
citizens of another state, or by citi- 
zens or subjects of any foreign 
state ; " denied the jurisdiction of the 
federal court and the validity of its 
judgment, and required the governor 
to resist its execution. 

The supreme court said "The fact 
that a state has an interest in the 
subject-matter of a suit between in- 
dividuals, which it may choose to 
assert, does not oust the courts of 
the United States of jurisdiction ; 
and an act of a state legislature 
cannot determine whether a court of 
the United States has jurisdiction." 
The district court issued its writ as 
ordered by the supreme court. Its 
execution was obstructed by an 



armed force of state militia ordered 
out by the governor. The United 
States marshal summoned a posse 
torn Hat us of 2,000 men, but gave 
time for reflection. The state au- 
thorities yielded, the militia was 
withdrawn, the judgment was peace- 
fully enforced, and the supremacy of 
the court vindicated, notwithstand- 
ing popular sympathy was aroused 
by the prompt indictment and con- 
viction of the militia officers for 
unlawful resistance to civil process, 
although their sentences of fine and 
imprisonment were wisely remitted 
by the president on the ground that 
the)- had acted under a mistaken 
sense of duty. 

Still more important upon the 
question of jurisdiction was the case 
of Cohens v. Virginia, decided in 
182 1, the greatest, perhaps, of those 
great earlier judgments in which 
national supremacy, within the limits 
of the constitution, was maintained 
by the judicial power of the United 
States. It directly involved the 
right and power of the supreme 
court, in the exercise of its appel- 
late jurisdiction, to review and con- 
trol the judgments of the state courts 
in cases arising under the constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States. 

Cohens had been fined by the 
courts of Virginia for selling lottery 
tickets, such sale being contrary to 
the state law, but Cohens claimed it 
was authorized by an act of con- 
gress. The case was appealed to the 
supreme court of the United States, 
the attorney-general of Virginia 
claimed that court had no jurisdic- 
tion, and thus the question was 
raised. One passage from the opin- 
ion sets forth with clearness and 
simplicity, but unmistakably and 

conclusively, the relations of the gen- 
eral government to the states. Chief 
Justice Marshall said, " That the 
United States forms, for many, and 
most important purposes, a single 
nation, has not yet been denied. In 
war, we are one people. In making 
peace, we are one people. In all 
commercial relations we are one and 
the same people. In many other 
respects the American people are 
one ; and the government which is 
alone capable of controlling and man- 
aging their interests, in all these 
respects, is the government of the 
Union. It is their government, and 
in that character they have no other. 
America has chosen to be in man} 7 
respects, and to man) 7 purposes, a 
nation ; and for all these purposes 
her government is complete ; to all 
these objects it is competent. The 
people have declared, that in the 
exercise of all powers given for these 
objects, it is supreme. It can, then, 
in effecting these objects, legi- 
timately control all individuals or 
governments within the American 
territory. The constitution and laws 
of a state, so far as they are repug- 
nant to the constitution and laws 
of the United States, are absolutely 
void. These states are constituent 
parts of the United States. They 
are members of one great empire — 
for some purposes sovereign, for 
some purposes subordinate." 

The establishment of the supreme 
court was the crowning marvel of the 
framers of the constitution and of 
American statesmanship. No other 
conception of any plan of govern- 
ment equals it. In its sphere it is 
absolute in authority ; from its de- 
cisions there is no appeal ; from its 
mandates no escape ; its decree is law. 



Its dignity and moral influence 
outrank those of any other tribunal 
in the world, and none other has 
such high prerogatives. It can 
annul the statutes of a state when- 
ever they are in intent or effect ( 
against the civil rights, the con- 
tracts, the currency, or the inter- 
course of the people, and it restricts 
congressional action to constitutional 
bounds. Yet it cannot encroach up- 
on the rights of states, or abridge 
the privilege of local self-govern- 

The fathers of the constitution 
were extremely anxious to secure 
the perpetual independence of their 
judiciary, and its history shows that 
they succeeded. Although nomi- 
nated by the president and con- 
firmed by the senate, the judges are 
independent of both, and are re- 
moved from the passions, the prej- 
udices, the temptations, and the 
ambitions that assail and sway the 
other branches of the government, 
or that affect courts in other lands 
where they are dependent on sov- 
ereign power. The justices being 
appointed for life, or during good 
behavior, are free from the uncer- 
tainties of tenure incident to other 
federal offices, and have nothing to 
fear from political or administrative 
changes ; they are answerable only 
to their own consciences, but if they 
abuse their office, or do wrong in it, 
or with it, they can be removed by 

But what a remarkable certificate 
to the integrity and purity of the 
supreme court of the nation, both as 
men and as judges, is the fact that 
during all the no years of its exist- 
ence only one attempt has been made 
to impeach a member of it — Samuel 

Chase, of Maryland, in 1S04 — and 
that attempt was a failure. 

The appointments of the first 
supreme court, — John Jay, of New 
York, chief justice, and five asso- 
ciate justices, were confirmed Sep- 
tember 26, 17S9. The number of 
the court remained at six for eighty 
years, until the act of 1S69 increased 
it to nine, the present number. 

The first court convened in New 
York, that city being then the seat 
of the federal government, on Mon- 
day, February 1, 1790, and the 
earlier sessions were held in an up- 
per room in the exchange building. 
During the ten years from 1791 to 
1S01 the court met in Philadelphia, 
sitting in the south chamber of the 
city hall, at the corner of 5th and 
Market streets. Upon its removal 
to Washington the court sat first in 
what is now the law library of con- 
gress, a basement room on the east 
side of the north wing of the old 
capitol. The supreme court of the 
United States has "no guards, 
palaces or treasures ; no arms but 
truth and wisdom, and no splendor 
but the justice and publicity of its 
judgments." Since the days of Chief 
Justice Taney the sessions of the 
supreme court have been held in the 
old senate chamber. It is a semi- 
circular room, small but imposing, 
and the associations and traditions 
that gather about it are such as 
attach to no other place. 

Here Webster and Clay contended 
against Calhoun, Hayne, Benton, 
and Wright ; and here, on the first 
day of February, 1865, Charles Sum- 
ner moved that John S. Rock, a 
colored man, be admitted to prac- 
tice before this court that less than 
ten years before (but by the lips of 


! 95 

a chief justice who had since de- 
ceased), declared in the Dred Scott 
case that the negro was not a citizen 
of the United States and had no 
standing before the courts, even as 
a client. 

The court is in session from each 
October usually until the next July, 
and the presence of six judges is 
required to pronounce a decision. 
The judges sit in a row, behind 
their long desk, upon a platform 
some two feet higher than the floor 
of the chamber, the chief justice in 
the center, with four associates upon 
either hand, the senior, in point of 
service, upon his right. They wear 
black silk gowns, and are about the 
only non-ecclesiastical body in the 
whole United States who use any 
official dress. Gowns are worn by 
the judges in the federal circuit 
courts, and in the Xew York state 
courts ; also in some of our univer- 
sities academic gowns are worn on 
great occasions. 

In 1S01, when Marshall was ap- 
pointed chief justice, the number of 
cases brought before the court was 
only ten, and during the next five 
years the whole number was only 
1 20, — 24 a year. From 1S26 to 
1830 the aggregate number was 
2S9, about 5S a year. In 1836, 
when Taney succeeded Marshall, 
the. number was only 37. In 1850 
the average was about 70 each year, 
and the court was able to dispose of 
its entire docket in a session of three 
months. Since then the increase 
has been very large. For the five 
years ending with 1SS0 the number 
of new cases was 1,953, an average 
of 390 a year, and the court now 
is, and for 20 years has been, 
over crowded and over worked. At 

the session ending May 25, 1S91, it 
disposed of 617 cases, 470 being the 
largest number ever disposed of at 
any previous term. 

Marshall was on the bench 35 
years; Stanton, an associate justice, 
four days ; he was appointed Decem- 
ber 20, and died December 24, 1S69. 

There have been eight chief jus- 
tices of the supreme court, — Jay, Rut- 
ledge, Ellsworth, Marshall, Taney, 
Chase, Waite, and Fuller, the pres- 

r -£ : M 


h ! 

Chief Justice John Jay. 

ent incumbent. Most of them were 
appointed in the prime of life ; Taney 
at 59 was the oldest, Jay was only 
50 when he resigned. 

The judicial life of Jay, Rutledge, 
and Ellsworth was short, and the 
interest attaching to them as chief 
justices is diminished by admiration 
for them as statesmen and leaders 
of the Revolution. All three were 
appointed by Washington, and two 
of them, Jay and Ellsworth, were 
sent upon foreign missions while 
holding the office of chief justice. 



The two grand figures in the 
judician- of this country are Marr 
shall and Taney. These two men 
presided over the supreme court for 
sixty-three years, Marshall for 35 
years, from 1S01 to 1S36 ; Taney for 
28 3 T ears, from 1S36 to 1S64. 

Marshall was appointed by John 
Adams about a month before the 
inauguration of President Jefferson, 
and. it was said he owed his appoint- 
ment to his defense of the administra- 
tion in the case of Jonathan Robbius, 
who claimed to be an American citi- 
zen, but the British government de- 
clared he was a deserter, and the 
president ordered him to be turned 
over to them, and he was executed. 

Taney was appointed by Andrew 
Jackson shortly before the accession 
of Van Buren, and it was said his 
appointment was due to his support 
of Jackson in the Bank cases, and 
for removing the government de- 

Marshall was a legacy left by the 
defeated Federalists to the victorious 
Republicans of that day ; Taney was 
a legacy left by General Jackson to 
the people of the United States. 

Marshall was born on the Virginia 
side of the Potomac in 1755 : Taney 
on the Maryland side in 1777. 

Marshall was a Churchman ; Taney 
a Romanist. 

Marshall was assailed by the Re- 
publicans of his day because of his 
acts in connection with the trial of 
Aaron Burr and his decision in the 
case of Marbiny v. Madison. Taney 
received like treatment from the Re- 
publicans of his day because of his 
decision in the Dred Scott case, and 
in the Merryman habeas corpus case. 

With Marshall ended the chief 
justices who had participated in the 

Revolution. Taney, though born 
during the Revolution, was but 22 
when Washington died. 

Marshall was a jurist of remark- 
able abilities and great attainments. 
In public strong, firm, and cour- 
ageous ; at home gentle, tender, and 
affectionate. His wife was a Miss 
Ambler, a belle of Williamsburgh. 
He was her devoted lover every day 
of their forty years of married life, 
and after her death he wrote to a 
friend that "with the loss of her I 
lost the solace of my life, yet she 
remains the companion of my retired 
hours, and still occupies my inmost 
heart." One of his descendants 
wrote that the family knew full well 
she would learn from others he was a 
great man, — the}* told her "he was 
only a good one." Marshall was a 
devout Churchman, a sincere Chris- 
tian, and all through his manhood 
and declining years never failed to 
nightly say the little prayer, "Now 
I lay me," which he, like so many 
of us, learned at his mother's knee. 

Taney was a man of will and cour- 
age a thoroughly trained lawyer, a 
classical scholar, and a constant stu- 
dent. The touch of romance in his 
nature is shown by his fondness for 
flowers and his beautiful devotion to 
his mother. He married Miss Key, 
the sister of the author of the " Star 
Spangled Banner," January 7, 1S06, 
and on the anniversary of their wed- 
ding, in 1S52, he commenced a letter 
to her from Washington by saying, 
"I cannot, my dearest wife, suffer 
the seventh of January to pass with- 
out renewing to you the pledges of 
love which I made to you forty-six 
years ago, and now pledge to you 
again a love as true and sincere as 
that I offered on the' 7th of January, 



1806." Aiid four 3'ears later, upon 
her death, after they had been mar- 
ried half a century, he said in writ- 
ing to a friend, "I shall meet you 
with a broken heart and a broken 

What a rebuking commentary upon 
the divorce courts, the laws, 
and the divorce seekers of to-day is 
the attitude toward his wife of each 
of these two magnificent men, these 
two chief justices of the supreme 
court of the nation. Marshall, a de- 
voted lover for forty years of married 
life, and after his wife's death declar- 
ing that she still remained the com- 
panion of his retired hours and still 
occupied his inmost heart. Taney, 
writing his wife that sweet and faith- 
ful love letter upon the forty-sixth 
anniversary of their marriage, and 
after her death, four years later, tell- 
ing his friend that her loss had left 
him with a broken heart and a 
broken spirit. 

Salmon P. Chase succeeded Taney 
as chief justice upon the latter's 
death in 1S64. Chase was a son of 
New Hampshire, born in Cornish. 
In face, figure, and presence he was 
more distinguished than either Mar- 
shall or Taney. He was less of a 
lawyer than Taney, but he brought 
to the bench an amount of learning 
equal to that with which Marshall 
began. When appointed he had 
been for many years engaged in po- 
litical affairs, and it was difficult for 
him to throw off the aspirations and 
love of power which political life 
engenders. During this period his 
legal studies had been laid aside, 
and when he went upon the bench 
he found himself fifteen years be- 
hind his associates in knowledge of 
the decisions, and familiarity with 

the practices, of the courts. To 
repair these deficiencies he applied 
himself to study and research, and 
at the same time performed all the 
duties of his office. This double 
demand upon his strength destroyed 
his health ; he was stricken with 
paralysis in 1S70, and died May 7, 
1S73. His senior associate at that 
time, Nathan Clifford, was also a 
native of this state, born in Rumney. 
As chief justice, Chase presided 







Chief' Justice Salrron P. Chase. 

over the senate during the trial of 
the impeachment of Andrew John- 
son. In the case of the state of 
Texas v. White, in which the point 
was raised that Texas had with- 
drawn from the Union and had not 
been rehabilitated, Chase, as chief 
justice, declared that "the constitu- 
tion in all its provisions looks to an 
indestructible Union, composed of 
indestructible states." 

Upon the death of Chase, the 
chief justiceship was first offered to 



Roscoe Conkling, who declined it, 
and Morrison R. Waite was ap- 
pointed January 21 , 1S74. Waite 
was a native of Connecticut, and a 
graduate of Yale, but removed to 
Ohio in early manhood and was 
appointed from that state by Grant. 

. ■ ■ 


Associate Justice Nathan Clifford. 

He was well trained in the ways of 
the law, and of the courts, and 
although his opinions may not con- 
vey the impression of a commanding 
intellect, yet they are clear, vigor- 
ous, and judicial. He was plain in 
manner, but genial and courteous in 
nature ; an upright judge and a 
Christian gentleman. 

In the case of one Reynolds, who 
married in Utah, knowing that he 
had a wife living elsewhere, and 
who attempted to justify his con- 
duct by an appeal to Article I of 
the Constitution, which secures civil 
and religious liberty, and thereun- 
der urging in his defense that the 
Mormon church of which he was a 
member, enjoined polygamy, Waite, 

as chief justice said, "That while 
marriage was a sacred obligation, it 
was also a civil cou tract regulated by 
law. lying at the foundation of so- 
ciety, and the source of social rela- 
tions, obligations, and duties, and 
although congress could not pass a 
law prohibiting the free exercise of 
religion, yet it was w-ithiu the power 
of every civil government to deter- 
mine whether polygamy or mono- 
gamy should be the law of social life 
under its dominion. Those who are 
by religion polygamists cannot com- 
mit a crime and go unpunished for 
that which would make those who 
are not polygamists answerable to 
the criminal courts. Suppose," 
said he, "that one sincerely believed 
that human sacrifices were a neces- 
sary part of religious worship, could 
it be seriously contended that the 
civil government under which he 
lived could not interfere to prevent 
a sacrifice ? " 

Waite died March 23, iSSS, and 
was succeeded as chief justice by 
Melville Weston Fuller, who w r as 
commissioned the 20th of the next 
July, and is still the incumbent. 

Fuller was born in Augusta, Me., 
in 1833 J graduated from Bowdoin 
college in 1S53 ; studied law; was 
admitted to the bar in Maine ; prac- 
tised there a short time, and removed 
to Chicago in 1856, where he was 
engaged in active practice until his 
elevation to the place he now holds. 

Fuller's eight associates to-day are 
John Marshall Harlan, appointed 
from Kentucky in 1877; Horace 
Gray, from Massachusetts, in 1881 ; 
David Josiah Brewer, from Kansas, 
in 1S89; Henry Billings Brown, 
from Michigan, in 1891 ; George 
Shiras, Jr., from Pennsylvania, in 



1S92 ; Edward Douglass White, from 
Louisiana, iu 18.94 : Rufus W. Peck- 
ham, from Hew York, in 1S95 ' and 
Joseph MeKenna, from California, 
in 1S97. 

The salary of the chief justice is 
$10,500, aud of each of his associates 
Sio,ooo per year. 

Several women have been admitted 
to practice before the supreme court. 
Belva A. Lockwood, in 1S79, was 
the first; Marilla M. Ricker, of 
Dover, X. H., in 1S91, was the 
eighth, and I think there have been 
two or three since. 

The temper and tendencies of the 
court change slowly aud rarely, be- 
cause vacancies are infrequent, and 
it often represents the political pre- 
dominance of the past rather than 
that of the present. From its estab- 
lishment in J7S9 to the death of Mar- 
shall in 1835, it inclined to the ex- 
tension of Federal power and its own 
jurisdiction, because the ruling spirits 
belonged to the old Federalist party, 
although that party fell in 1800, and 
disappeared in 18 14. From 1S35 to 
1 86 1, when Taney was chief justice, 
the sympathies of the court were 
with the Democratic party, and it 
was disinclined to any further exten- 
sion of either the Federal power or 
its own. During and after the war 
the tendency of the court was again 
toward centralization of government. 
The vast powers asserted by congress 
in connection with the war were gen- 
erally sustained by judicial decision ; 
the rights of the states were main- 
tained as against private interests, 
but for a time were less favorably re- 
garded when they seemed to conflict 
with those of the Federal govern- 
ment. But in none of the three 
periods did the court allow private 

prejudice or political sympathy to 
control its judicial action for party 

The history of the court as a part 
of the history of the government is in 
its decisions ; they are the record of 
the work it has accomplished and 
the results it has secured. Many of 
those decisions are not of general or 
public interest, but some of them de- 
note the progress of the rights aud 
liberties of the people under our form 
of civil government, and others are 
identified with marked events in the 
history of our country. 

Three leading and famous cases 
decided before the war were Mar- 
bury v. Madison, in 1803 ; the Dart- 


1 . 

Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller. 

mouth College case, in 18 19, aud the 
Dred Scott case, in 1856. 

Marbury v. Madison involved a 
trial of strength between Marshall, 
as chief justice of the supreme court, 
and Jefferson, as president of the 
United States, as well as a legal 
question of fundamental importance. 



President Adams had nominated 
Marbury a justice of the peace for 
the District of Columbia. The 
nomination had been confirmed by 
the senate, and the commission was 
duly signed and sealed, but had not 
been delivered to Marbury when Jef- 
ferson came into the presidency, and 
he directed that it be withheld. Mar- 
bury petitioned the supreme court to 
order Madison, the then secretary of 
state, to deliver to him the commis- 
sion. The court declined to issue 
the order on the ground that in pass- 
ing the act under which Marbury 
claimed the court had the right to 
make the order congress had ex- 
ceeded its constitutional powers. 
The legal point and importance of 
the decision is that it was a decla- 
ration, and the first one in that re- 
gard, by the supreme court that it 
had the right and power to declare 
null and void any act of congress 
passed in violation of the constitu- 
tion, or not within the limit of its 
constitutional powers. In so far as the 
case was a contest between Jeffer- 
son and Marshall, the president was 
defeated, his object being to prevent 
Marbury from becoming a justice of 
the peace, for, although the court 
decided that it could not order Madi- 
son to deliver the commission, it, at 
the same time held that Marbury's 
nomination being confirmed by the 
senate, and his appointment being 
signed and sealed, duly constituted 
him a justice of the peace in law and 
in fact, and that the delivery of the 
commission was not necessary to con- 
firm him in the office. 

The Dartmouth College case is of 
interest to us, because, if it had not 
been decided as it was, the fame and 
future of old Dartmouth might have 

been very different, and the state of 
New Hampshire would have been 
responsible therefor. Dartmouth col- 
lege, as a corporation, existed under 
a charter granted by the British 
crown in 1769. The charter con- 
ferred upon the trustees the entire 
governing power of the college, in- 
cluding the right to fill all vacancies 
occurring in their own body ; it also 
declared that the number of trustees 
should forever be twelve and no more. 
After the Revolution the legislature 
of New Hampshire passed an act to 
amend the charter ; to improve and 
enlarge the corporation, and to in- 
crease the number of trustees, giving 
the appointment of the additional num- 
ber to the governor of the state ; also 
creating a board of twenty-five over- 
seers, twenty-one of whom were also 
to be appointed by the governor, and 
these overseers were to have power 
to inspect and control the most im- 
portant acts of the trustees. The 
effect of all this would have been to 
take the college, its property and 
funds, out of its own hands and place 
it and them in the hands of the state, 
or more immediately in those of the 
governor. The legal controversy 
turned upon the question whether 
the charter was a grant of political 
power which the state could resume 
or modify at pleasure, or a contract 
for the security and disposition 
of property bestowed in trust for 
charitable educational purposes. 
The supreme court held it to be the 
latter, that it was a contract, that 
the college was a party to it, and 
that it made no difference if the 
other original party to it was George 
III instead of the United States, it 
was none the less a contract, and 
that as Section 10, Art. I, of the 



constitution declares that " Xo state 
shall make any law impairing the ob- 
ligation of contracts/' the act of the 
New Hampshire legislature was un- 
constitutional and void, and accord- 
ingly Dartmouth college was saved 
to itself. 

The. Dred Scott case was the last 
and longest step in that procession of 
events the end of which began with 
the nomination of Lincoln in iSoo, 
and concluded with the fall of Rich- 
mond and the surrender of Lee, and 
on that account its name is probably 
more frequently seen or heard by 
those who are not lawyers than that 
of any other decision of the supreme 
court, although its legal significance. 
if any it ever had, was destroyed 
by the Xlllth, XlVth, and XVth 
amendments to the Constitution, for 
the Xlllth amendment made the 
negro free, the XlVth made him a 
citizen, and the XYth made him a 
voter. This case raised the chief 
question at issue in the presidential 
campaign of 1S60, when Lincoln was 
elected the first time, and that ques- 
tion was whether the legal doctrine 
of. the case, which opened all our 
territories to slavery and denied to 
colored persons any standing before 
the federal courts, should be main- 
tained as the true construction of 
the Constitution. Four years of 
civil war answered finally and con- 
clusively in the negative. 

Dred Scott was a colored man 
whose ancestors were of pure Afri- 
can blood and had been brought into 
this country and sold as slaves. In 
1834 Scott was himself a slave owned 
by Dr. Emerson, a surgeon in the 
army, and then living in Missouri 
where slavery was at that time law- 
ful. In that vear Emerson removed 

to Illinois, stayed there two years, and 
in 1S36 went to Fort Snelling and 
stayed there two years. He took 
Scott with him to both places, and 
regarded him as a slave during all 
.the four years. Harriet, the colored 
woman who became Scott's wife, was 
a negro slave owned by a major in 
the army, who in 1835 took her 
to Fort Snelling, above mentioned, 
where he soon sold her to Emerson, 
the owner of Scott. Scott married 
Harriet in 1S36, and they remained 
at Fort Snelling until 1838, when 
Emerson took both of them back to 
Missouri, which was still a slave 
holding state, and where he after- 
wards sold Scott, his wife, and two 
little girls to John F. A. Sandford, 
the defendant in the case. 

Sandford restrained Scott, his wife, 
and children of their liberty, im- 
prisoning them, which he had the 
legal right to do if they were slaves. 
But Illinois was a free state, one in 
which slavery was not lawful. Fort 
Snelling was on the west bank of 
the Mississippi river in the then 
territory of upper Louisiana, and 
being north of latitude 36 and 30', 
and outside the state of Missouri, it 
was in that part of the Louisiana 
purchase which under the Missouri 
Compromise Act congress had de- 
clared should be free soil, and slav- 
ery should not be allowed within its 
bounds. Scott claimed that by be- 
ing taken into Illinois, a free state, 
and by the residence of himself and 
family at Fort Snelling, in free ter- 
ritor}', he and they were entitled to 
freedom and the rights of citizenship. 
Accordingly he sued Sandford for 
imprisoning them, and so the case 
was before the courts. The princi- 
pal legal questions were : 



i. Had congress constitutional au- 
thority to exclude slavery from the 
territories of the United States, or in 
other words, whether the Missouri 
Compromise Act was constitutionally 

2. Whether a free negro of African 
descent, whose ancestors had been 
brought into this country and sold 
as slaves, could be a citizen of the 
United States within the meaning of 
the Constitution, and if yes, whether 
he could sue in the United States 

3. Did the residence of Scott and 
his family in a free state, and a free 
territory, as above stated, entitle him 
and them to freedom ? 

All of these questions the court 
decided in the negative. 

That is the gist of the famous 
Dred Scott case. For the reasons 
before mentioned it is no longer of 
account in the law, but as a factor, 
and a very important and potential 
one, in the anti- slavery agitation, it 
is and always will be a notable fea- 
ture in our history. The decision 
aroused a storm of protest, and 
brought upon Taney, who rendered 
it, a flood of adverse criticism. In- 
justice was done him in forcibly de- 
taching from the context of his opin- 
ion the phrase "that they (the ne- 
groes) had no rights which the white 
man .was bound to respect," and 
quoting it as if it were an expres- 
sion of his own individual view on 
that point, when in fact it was only 
a part of his description of the con- 
dition of the colored race in this 
country at the time of the adoption 
of the Constitution, as he understood 
it to be. Taney had owned slaves 
himself, but he set them all free 
several years before this, therefore 

we must presume that lie did believe 
the negro had some rights the white 
man was bound to respect, for other- 
wise his action would have been 
without reason, because he was not 
the man to cater to public sentiment 
by manumitting his slaves, and even 
if he had been, that contention would 
be spoiled by the fact that slavery- 
was not then unpopular in Maryland. 
Where the chief justice did err was 
in discussing and attempting to set- 
tle questions that were really politi- 
cal and not judicial. After the court 
had decided that Scott was not a 
citizen of the United States within 
the meaning of the Constitution, and 
therefore the circuit court, in which 
his suit was commenced, had no ju- 
risdiction, they should have stopped, 
and not indulged in further discus- 
sion that had no legal validity or 

There is one case decided since 
the war which we mention to show 
that the supreme court did not allow 
secession to modify the constitutional 
rights of the states as such after 
they had been received back into 
the Union. 

The legislature of Louisiana, on 
March 8, 1S69, passed an act grant- 
ing to a corporation chartered by it, 
the exclusive right for twenty-five 
years to maintain stock-yards and 
their appurtenances for inclosing and 
preparing for market cattle intended 
for sale or slaughter within a speci- 
fied territory which included the city 
of New Orleans, and prohibiting all 
other persons from maintaining like 
establishments within that territory 
during that time. The act was 
guarded by proper limitations of the 
prices the company should charge 
for the use of its facilities and re- 


quired that ample accommodations 
should be provided, and the use of 
them permitted to all who desired it. 
The butchers of the city, in -any of 
whom were negroes, claimed that . 
this exclusive privilege was an in- 
fringement and curtailing of their 
rights under Arr'ele XIY of the 
amendments to the Constitution, 
which provides that "no state shall 
make or enforce any law which shall 
abridge the privileges of citizens," 
and, as we have before noticed, the 
colored man had become a citizen 
by virtue of this same amendment. 
The case finally reached the supreme 
court of the United States, and it 
was there held that the charter was 
in the nature of a police regulation 
for the health and comfort of the 
people of New Orleans, and a law 
entirely within the power of the state 
legislature to make ; it was one of 
the "state rights" which were not 
affected by the Constitution or any 
of its amendments. And continuing 
and confirming this doctrine, Chief 
Justice Fuller said, in Rahren's case, 
decided in 1S90, that " The power of 
a state to impose restraints and bur- 
dens upon persons and property, in 
conservation and promotion 6i the 
public health, good order, and pros- 
perity, is a power originally and 
always belonging to the states, not 
surrendered by them to the general 
government, nor directly restrained 
by the Constitution of the United 
States, and essentially exclusive. 
And this court has uniformly recog- 
nized state legislation, legitimately for 
police purposes, as not, in the sense 
of the Constitution, necessarily in- 
fringing upon any right which has 
been confided, expressly or by impli- 
cation, to the national government." 

There were three men whose lives 
covered the first century of the su- 
preme court of the United States and 
who had opportunities to observe, 
and were well qualified to judge of, 
its purity and integrity ; to estimate 
its worth and power ; to discern its 
vital necessity as a component part 
of our government, and to appreciate 
the value and importance of its de- 
cisions in defining and sustaining the 
powers and purposes of that govern- 
ment, and the rights and privileges 
of the people under it. 

The first was the venerable Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, the last sur- 
vivor of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, a man who 
knew this government in its infancy, 
and who took an active part in the 
important events of its earlier years. 
And while speaking of Carroll, let 
me say that he, like Taney, was a 
Romanist, and the lives of these two 
illustrious men would seem to refute 
the suggestion one sometimes hears, 
that "a Romanist does not make a 
good citizen." That some Romanists 
are poor citizens is not because of 
their religious belief but rather in 
spite of it; they would be much worse 
if they had none, and an environ- 
ment of the same secular conditions 
and circumstances that tend to make 
a Romanist a bad citizen would have 
much the same effect upon a person 
of any other faith. In writing to 
Judge Peters, in 1S27, Carroll said, 
11 I consider the supreme court of the 
United States as the strongest guar- 
dian of the powers of congress and 
the rights of the people. As long 
as that court is composed of learned, 
upright, and intrepid judges, the 
Union will be preserved, and the ad- 
ministration of justice will be safe in 



this extended and extending em- 

The second was Chief Justice 
Taney himself, who declared from 
the bench that "so long as this Con- 
stitution shall endure, this tribunal 
(the supreme ceurt) must exist with 
it, deciding in the peaceful forms of 
judicial procedure the angry and irri- 
tating controversies which in other 
countries would be decided by the 
arbitrament of force." 

The third was John S. Wise, of 
Virginia, one of the strong and able 
men of a state rich in strong and 
able sons. He had seen the War of 
Rebellion, and came from a section 
that had done as much, or more, 
than any other to aid and abet the 
cause of secession, yet his confidence 
in the supreme court was unshaken, 
his respect for its integrity and 
wisdom undiminished. In respond- 

ing to the toast, "The American 
Lawyer," at a breakfast given to 
the justices of the supreme court by 
the bar of Philadelphia, September 
15, 1887, Wise referred to 'the New 
Orleans case, above mentioned, and 
said : 

"We owe more to the American 
lawyer than to the American soldier, 
for not all the victories of Grant, or 
all the marches of Sherman, did as 
much to bulwark this people with 
the blessings of constitutional liberty 
as that decision of the supreme court 
declaring what of our ancient liber- 
ties remained. When the war had 
ceased, and the victor stood above his 
vanquished foe, the supreme court 
of this nation declared in this great 
decision that that victory was not 
an annihilation of state sovereignty, 
but a just interpretation of Federal 
power. ' ' 

By Fred Lewis Pattee. 

Brave-hearted little flower. 
That comes when heavens lower 

And nights are cold, 
When sullen tempests blow, 
And winter-sodden snow 

Is on the wold. 


The treasures of the year 
To me are not so dear 

As one sweet spray. 
Plucked in the leafless wood, 
In shivering solitude, 

This April day. 

Why tempt the winter blast 
His sullen rage to east 

Upon thy bower, 
When June will soon be here 
With birds and summer cheer, 

Impatient flower ? 

Thy sweets will all be fled 
And all thy beauties dead 

Before the May : 
Forgotten wilt thou be 
When meadow, field, and tree 

Are bright and gay. 

Ah, earliest of the spring, 
You come glad news to bring 

Of brighter sky ; 
The winter- weary bee 
Finds his first sweets with thee, 

And so do I. 

What though the gale is cold 
That drives adown the wold 

And o'er the lea, 
The winter-tattered leaf, — 
I know its day is brief, 

'Tis sweet of thee. 

And even so would I 
Dead and forgotten lie 

Through all the year, 
If on some dreary day 
I might but cheer away 

One bitter tear. 

xxvi— 20 

is (c 

By Lona Bertell Mitchell. 

ACOXIA, N. PL, can be justly 
proud, not only of its beauti- 
ful scenery, its lovely lake, 
and fine residences, but also 
of being the birthplace of one who 
has already taken a place in the lit- 
erary world as a poet of great promise 
and a story-writer of no mean ability. 
Adelbert Clark was born in La- 
conia, February 27, 1870, where he 
spent a greater part of his life. He 
received his early education at the 
village school at Eakeport and it 
was here that his thirst after books 
first became apparent. Ever of a 
studious nature and unlike most lads 
of his age, he cared more for his 
studies and books than of the games 
and out-door amusements common to 
childhood. His school days were 
over at the early age of fourteen, but 
his education did not end there, how- 
ever, for he gave much of his spare 
time to the perusal of standard works, 
both prose and poetry. 

From boyhood Mr. Clark has been 
a close student of erudite authors, a 
dreamer, an idealist. At first he 
wrote only for practice and his own 
amusement ; stories and poems were 
composed only to be consigned to 
the wastebasket before other eyes 
should see or other tongues criticise. 
About four years ago, however, he 
submitted one of his poems to the 
Waverly magazine of Boston, which 
they accepted. Since then, he has 
written many verses for that periodi- 
cal. His poems are especially noted, 

not only for the beautiful thoughts 
expressed in them, but for the way 
they are expressed. He, like our 
beloved Longfellow, makes great use 
of similes and metaphors. Mr. 
Clark's poems are all of a serious na- 


j-3T*v-rr^-r.-_ •*. ^^^■y^^^r^^r^:-:^^~>:- 



Adelbert Clark's Home. 

ture ; it is said that he never wrote but 
one comical piece in his life, and that 
was done wholly on a wager. Among 
some of his best verses, and of which 
he has a right to be proud are, " The 
Green Pitcher," a little poem of great 
beauty, "Cinnamon Roses," "At 
Twilight, " " The Chinese Vase, ' ' 
and " Blue Swamp Lilies," also a 
few Egyptian poems entitled, " Isodel 



the Egyptian Lily," "An Evening 
on the Nile,'' "The Death of Afelea," 
and "A Lily from Charmiarfs Bier." 
According to his ability Mr. Clark 
has had great success as a writer. 
He has contributed for Gvdey*s mag- 
azine, the Midland Monthly, the 
Army and Navy Journal, the Phil- 
adelphia Tunes, the Saturday Globe, 
the Manchester Union, and many 
others. For a year he has written 
for the News and Critic, a Laconia 
local paper. 

His short stories are excellent, 
possessing good plots, interesting 
characters, and fine descriptions. 
"Little Forgetmenot" "The Vil- 
lage Pastor's Daughter," and " More 
than Forsaken " are three of his best 
productions in prose. The first story 
mentioned is a very pathetic one. 
The simple life of Forgetmenot, the 
little rustic maiden, whose home was 
in the northern part of the old Gran- 
ite state; the love and apparent de- 
sertion of Basil, the wealthy young 
New Yorker ; the watching and 
waiting of Forgetmenot for his re- 
turn to claim her as his promised 
bride ; her death, and Basil's coining 
at last, only to find the cabin deserted 
and the wild flowers growing o'er the 
grave of the little maid who had loved 
him so well ; his terrible grief, and 
lastly his death are all simply, yet 
touchingly, told. And this is only 
one of many bright, interesting stories 
from the pen of this gifted young 

Rev. Amos B. Russell, of Laconia, 
a learned and well-read gentleman, 
and one who has himself written to 
quite an extent for the press, com- 
posed the following lines as a fitting 
tribute to the genius of our young 


Another poet steps upon the stage, 
A child of promise, now a youth in age, 
Though yet a fledgling, still in point of time, 
His measured lines are something more than 

As he is midway up the hill of fame, 
In honor men already speak his name ; 
He has already written clever verse, 
More noted bards at times have written worse ; 
Whoever reads his " Knight of Silver Mail " 
Will hardly dare his genius to assail. 
His " Lines on Autumn," vigorous and strong, 
Are gold and crimson woven into song ; 
Should other nightingales soar high and sing, 
He may continue longer on the wing ; 
He 's no stylish glow worm with his spark, 
A something dimly shining in the dark ; 
While other stars will set at dead of night, 
His rays will twinkle in the morning light, 
His orbit may elude the prophet's ken, 
Yet later will be written with a pen. 
May no dark veil his honored name enshroud, 
And then of him his peers may well be proud ; 
Sing on sweet songster like the morning lark. 
This is our tribute to Adelbert Clark. 

A few years ago Mr. Clark began 
to collect autographs until now he 
has the largest and finest collection 
in New England, comprising the 
names of celebrated poets, authors, 
statesmen, musicians, navy and army 
officers, actors, illustrators, presi- 
dents of the United States, and many 
others. He has just reason to be 
proud of such a fine collection of 
illustrious names. A short time since 
he was presented with an old war 
relic, which he prizes very highly, a 
sword from Bunker Hill. The fol- 
lowing is a clipping from the News 
and Critic, in regard to it : 

"Adelbert Clark, Laconia's young poet, was 
presented a few days ago with a relic, a sword 
from Bunker hill, by an admirer of his work, 
which was seen in the Critic. The sword was 
owned by a brave lieutenant and has been 
handed down from generation to generation. 
The scabbard is worn and shabby, and the 
blade is tarnished and shows deep scars re- 
ceived in the combat." 

What is more beautiful in life than 



to see a soul in heart-touch with those 
whom misfortune seems to be tramp- 
ling into the dust? Mr. Clark is 
continually showing his Christian 
spirit by acts of kindness to his fel- 
lowmen, and at the same time lives 
up to that portion of the Bible which 
says, "'Let not thy left hand know 
what thy right hand doeth." He 
has won the love of many a family 
in Lakeport and Laconia on account 
of his generous gifts to them which 
drove away the wolf of want from 
their door. They love him and will 
never forget him. 

While our boys of Company K 
were at Chickamauga, he was look- 
ing towards them with deep interest, 
aud when he heard that several of 
them were ill with that dreadful dis- 
ease, typhoid fever, it touched the 
tender cord of sympathy within him. 
So night and day he worked steadily 
with his pen. weaving rhymes and pub- 
lishing them in booklet form to sell 
among Company K's many friends, to 
secure a little fund for the relief of the 
sick ones. The booklet sold for fif- 
teen cents, and met with great suc- 
cess, and in two weeks' time the ex- 
penses were paid for publication, and 
$25 was sent to the boys in care of 
Captain Sanborn, but owing to his 
illness at the time, the money was 
placed in the hands of Lieutenant 

Here is a tribute of praise which 
appeared in the News and Critic, by 
its editor, when they learned of Mr. 
Clark's generous gift : 

" Monday morning: Adalbert Clark, the I,ake- 
port poet, took $?$, the profits from the sale of 
his poems, and mailed it to Company K, for the 
benefit of its sick members. The Critic has 
yet to hear of a more timely piece of patriotic 
enterprise than this. Mr. Clark has no rela- 
tives in the camp, and therefore his praise- 

worthy deed is unlike that kindred interest 
that causes the mothers and the wives and 
sisters, the fathers and brothers to send pres- 
ents 10 their children, their brothers. His is 
only that of a man filled with love and admira- 
tion for the boys of Company K, and the spirit 
that inspired them to leave fair Laconia aud go 
into camp in that sultry Southern clime, there 
to be repdy to fight their country's battles. 
Mr. Clark has accomplished much in this effort 
of his. His means are limited, he is but yet a 
student in the great achievements of men, still 
the deed is measured by the spirit that inspired 
him in his work. His candle may be small 
and yet ' How far that little caudle throws its 
light ! ' says the poet, ' So shines a good deed 
in this world of ours.' " 

Here is also a letter from Lieuten- 
ant Foss after receiving the amount 
from the young poet : 

" Camp Geo. H. Thomas, Ga. 
" 1st Regiment, N. H. V. Inf., 

"August 2S, 1S9.S. 
"Mr. Apelbert Clark, 

"Dear Sir. — Your generous and timely gift 
of S25 for the use and relief of the sick of Corn- 
pan}' K is at hand (many thanks) and will 
prove a blessing to our many sick members 
who are suffering not a little for some of the 
simple necessities so indispensable to their 
comfort and relief, such as milk, eggs, oranges, 
and a few canned delicacies, which, up to date, 
have not been furnished by the government. 
Owing to the fact that we have no company 
fund, we have been unable to procure such 
articles, but now your generous gift has ar- 
rived, our conditions are reversed, and the 
sick can enjoy many of the above-mentioned 

"And I take this opportunity to extend to 3'ou 
the heartfelt thanks of every member of the 
company and assure you that we will ever hold 
you in gr?teful remembrance as the truly noble 
young friend who has contributed more than 
any other one person to the relief of the sick 
members of Company K. 

"Gratefully yours, 

" R. S. Foss, 
" Lieut. Co. K, 1st N. H. Vol." 

Mr. Clark has a few of the booklets 
on hand. Should any one care for 
one, his address is Lake-port. 

Mr. Clark's pleasant disposition 
and pleasing ways win him hosts 
of friends, and a lasting friendship 
exists between him and the officers 



of Company K. When the news 
came that death had entered the 
camp and taken away one of their 
beloved lieutenants, Mr. Clark, wish- 
ing to show forth in some decree the 
sorrow and heartfelt sympathy which 
he felt, wrote a few verses in mem- 
ory of the departed soldier. Then 
later, as one by one three more of 
their number laid down life's cares 
and crossed the dark river of death, 
he felt that he must write in memory 
of them also. And so he did, ten- 
der, loving verses in commemoration 
of those men who had given their 
lives for their country's sake. 

Mr. Clark is a great lover of nature ; 
every leaf and flower, each bird and 
golden sunset is to him a symbol of 
all that is beautiful, and in it lie sees 
the hand of God. He lives not 
wholly for himself alone, he lives to 
help others, and his daily life and 
habits are, altogether, above re- 
proach. Ma}- the years of his life 
be man}*, all well-filled with golden 
deeds, success, and honored fame. 
That when at last his days are all 
numbered and he departs this life, 
he may hear the Master say, " Well 
done thou good and faithful servant, 
enter into the ]oy of thy Lord." 

By Adelbert dark. 

Deserted in the lonely hills 

The house is old and gra)*, 
Its chimneys once so tall and strong. 

Are tumbling to decay. 
But spinning by the low* front-door, 

I hear sweet Iva say — 
" The fairest time of all the year 

Is still the month of May." 

I seem to hear the silver laugh 

Come bubbling from her throat, 
And the songs she sung at eventide 

Among the lilies float. 
And in the darkness of the night 

I dream I hear her say — 
" The fairest time of all the year 

Is still the month of May." 

Beside the winding amber brook 

That babbles to the sea, 
They laid her in the long ago 

Beneath an apple-tree. 
Yet spinning by the low front-door, 

Methinks I hear her say — 
" The fairest time of all the year 

Is still the month of May." 


i . 

/ ,/ 

i ' i 

| I 

j '..r'--x 


! hi- 



:ts»» I*vM 

Z>> Adelbert Clark. 


T is seldom anyone ever goes to 
the Crawfords without giving 
Jack a call at his rustic little 
home, nestling close to the 
base of one of the great mountains, 
surrounded by trees and wild flowers. 
More than thirty years have rolled 
into eternity since he came to the 
Crawfords and took up his hermit 
life among the lonely wooded hills 
where he seldom sees anyone save 
during the hot summer months when 
the city folks crowd to the mountains 
away from the burning wrath of the 
sun that pours down its intense heat 
on the brick and stone pavements, 
that seems to burn into the very life 
of man itself. 

Long ago he had grown weary of 
all the beauty and charm this world 
could give, so he sought out this 
lonely life among the wooded peaks 
of the White Mountains, where he 
is waiting patiently for the boom of 

death. Many have sought him, ask- 
ing for the, story of his life, and up to 
the year 1S91 he had made no reply. 

One bright summer day in the year 
I have already mentioned, a man, 
James Mitchell by name, found him- 
self seated in Jack's humble little 
home listening to a brief sketch of 
his sad and sorrowful life. 

His parents died when he was only 
twelve years of age, leaving him to 
battle the storms of life alone. Re- 
member he was very young and very 
romantic, and like thousands of boys 
at his age his head was filled with 
many curious ideas. The greatest 
desire of his heart was to be a sea- 
man, so his whole ambition was to 
go to sea. For weeks he went about 
the docks in London in search of 
employment, but found it not. One 
day, weary, faint, and nearly heart- 
broken, he sat down in a doorway to 
cry, when his heart's angel came to 



hinr, a little child, who was Just in 
that great city. The sweet little 
face of the frightened child, from the 
day she came into his life up to this 
day, has never been blurred from his 
memory, and never can be, until God 
bids his life in this world to cease, 
until his lips are mute, and ears are 
deaf for all eternity, for she became 
the center of his heart. They were 
firm friends at once, so together the}* 
set out hand in hand, for he was de- 
termined to find her parents. For 
days they walked the streets weary 
and foot-sore, but at last the little 
girl's parents were found, and while 
clasped in her father's arms she 
breathed Jack's little story which 
w 7 ent straight to the heart of the 
kind parent, who as luck would have 
it, was a sea captain. 

He promised Jack he would take 
him with him and always be his 
friend, and he was as good as his 
word. He had lived with the cap- 
tain several years and had been on 
man}' voyages with him, when, one 
day, the captain came home with the 
news that he was to go on a voyage 
around the coast of Africa to Cey- 
lon, and Jack was to go with him. 
At first the leave-taking was hard 
to bear, but Jack and the captain 
laughed it away as they unclasped 
the clinging arms. 

" Little Mary, we will soon be at 
home again. You must be brave, 
my little girl ! " whispered her father. 
Oh, how many times he thought of 
those words in the dark, dark days 
that lay before him, like a great 
yawning gulf, unseen. 

On the morning that the Nelson set 
her sail seaward not a cloud was to 
be seen. All was warmth and sun- 
shine. The little ripples of the 

mighty deep lapped the sides of the 
huge ship like the sound of little, 
silver, tinkling bells. The dock was 
crowded with friends who had come 
to wave a last good- by, forever, 
though, of course, they knew it not. 

Jack leaned over the railing and 
watched little Mary until his eyes 
were blurred with tears, and her lit- 
tle, slender form was lost in the dis- 
tance. Then he went below and did 
not appear on deck again until the 
next day. He found the sailors rude 
and rough, but he soon became ac- 
quainted with them, and in a short 
time found himself quite at home, 
though it was several days before 
he entirely recovered from his home- 

The sea had beeu calm until they 
rounded the Cape and well past 
Madagascar, and was headed toward 
Ceylon. When far in the northeast 
the sky was leaden w T ith inky clouds, 
and now and then came the hoarse 
muttering of thunder followed by 
sharp flashes of lightning. Nearer 
and nearer it came aud louder rolled 
the thunder. Soon the storm broke 
upon them in all its fury, as if the 
imps of hades were set free. Three 
days and three nights the rain dashed 
in blinding sheets and the sea roared 
and beat against the poor ship like 
hounds at the throat of a hunted 
deer, and on the night of the third 
day, shortly after midnight, the ship 
was wrecked on a lonely island, 
miles away from the mainland, and 
only fifteen men out of the forty- 
two were saved, among whom were 
the captain and Jack. The island 
on w r hich they were wrecked was 
scarcely a mile in length, but they 
found a spring. 

Nineteen months elapsed, and out 



of the fifteen men only four were 
alive. The others died of fever or 
starvation. They ate whatever they 
came across, a snail, snake, or a 
crab, for nothing came amiss. Their 
eyes became bloodshot, their cheeks 
hollow, and those who could, wan- 
dered about the island in search of 
food, which they equally shared 
among the others. And thus time 
went by. still hope had not died 
within. But at last the rainy season 
set in and death spared onl\- two, 
the captain and Jack, and one day 
the captain called him to his side : 

"Jack," he said, "it is all up with 
me, I am going, good-by. My time 
is short ; 1 have tried to stick it out 
as well as I could, but it is all up. 
Give me your hand, lad. One more 
shake, for something tells me you 
w T ill be free. You will see my wife 
and little Mary once more. Oh, how 
I wish I could see them ! Good-by, 
my lad.' 1 

A slight struggle in the last con- 
vulsion of the death agony, and it 
w T as all over. Jack's best and truest 
friend was dead, and he was left 
alone. He hollowed a grave near 
the beach with his hands, placed 
the form he loved better than his 
own life, within, and kissed the pale, 
wan brow ; then he placed a hand- 
kerchief over the face and hid him 
away from the world forever. Jack 
heaped a pile of rocks over his grave 
and made a cross of wood to mark 
the resting place of the beloved 

A week passed 'mid the roar of a 
mighty storm, but when it cleared 
away he went out of doors, for the 
sun was shining brightly, just as it 
did on that morn months before, 
when they left home with little Mary 

and her mother bidding them good- 
by on the dock in the harbor of Lou- 
don. Heavens of glory ! could his 
eyes be deceiving him? His signal 
had been seen and a vessel was 
making for the shore. Suddenly it 
stopped and let down a boat. Yes, 
they were coming for him. He ran 
down the beach laughing and danc- 
ing with delight, but just before he 
left the island he went to the cap- 
tain's grave and kissed the bare, 
black rocks. Some may think it 
was foolish, but he loved him so ! 

The vessel took him back to the 
Cape, and from there he found a ship 
bound for London. He took it, and 
a few weeks later he reached home, 
but Mary and her mother were not 
there. The mother had died and 
Mary had gone to the workhouse, 
but he soon found her to his great 
joy, and amid their tears he told her 
his story and his life on that lonely 

Time went by and they were very 
happy together. The owners of the 
A T elson heard his story and paid him 
his wages back from the time when 
he left the harbor months before. 

But this was not the end of Jack's 
life on the high seas. For, after a 
time, he went to sea again, after 
placing Mar}- in a boarding-school 
for a year. On his return it was well 
calculated that they were to be mar- 
ried. Many were the beautiful pres- 
ents he had bought her while in Cal- 
cutta and other foreign ports. He 
had received many letters from her, 
but after a time they ceased to come. 
So when he once more reached Lon- 
don, he hastened to the school in 
search for her, when pitying friends 
told him the dreadful truth which 
has changed his whole life, and made 



him a hermit, praying always to God 
for the boon of death. Mary, his lit- 
tle queen, his heart's idol, was dead. 

Dead ! oh, how much meaning 
there is in that little word. It means 
heart-break, a life of sorrow, the 
blackness of grim despair. Yet, 
there are people in this world who 
go hand in hand with sorrow, who 
have held the hand of death upon 
their hearts and have made no moan. 
These know how to bear the burden 
of their grief ; but when the grim 
destroyer lays his cold touch upon 
the hearts of the young, and those to 
whom young hearts cling, none but 
God can know the bitterness of it. 

Mary's death was a great blow to 
poor Jack, from which he never re- 
covered. All the shining silks and 
laces and costly jewels he had bought 
her were brushed aside, and he left 
his home in London forever, never to 
return. He cared not what became 
of himself. He has faced man}- dan- 
gers. He was in the Crimean War 
and fought on both land and sea, but 
yet his life was spared. He also 
went to India when a call came for 
volunteers to fight the mutineers. In 
those fierce battles he received many 
scars, but the deepest one was in his 

Later he came to America and 
found his way up among the White 

Mountains. But how he ever came 
to get there I have not been able to 
learn, though it has been rumored 
that he was sent there by the rail- 
road company by 'whom he was em- 
ployed. The entrance to his home 
is at the gateway of the notch. A 
large sign which reads as follows, 
points out the way: "The House 
That Jack Built." 

A plank walk leads the way 
through the giant trees that form 
a beautiful arch of living green, 
through which the sunbeams softly 
filter, and where the song-birds pour 
forth their melody the live-long day, 
fluttering down and around the old 
man as if they loved him and wished 
to bring a little sunshine into his sad 
and lonely life. He sits before his 
little home and makes canes with 
twisted branches and dainty little 
baskets of sweet grass. He is al- 
ways glad to welcome visitors and is 
very pleasant. I first learned of him 
through a friend of mine and have 
never regretted that I made him a 
visit last summer, though I never 
think of him but what a tinge of 
sadness creeps through my whole 
being. A soul, which God has 
made, shut out from the world for- 
ever, forlorn, and heart-broken. To 
me, it is more sorrowful than any 
language can express. 






Ex.-Gov. Frederick Smyth died April 22, at his winter home in Hamilton, 
Bermuda. He was born in Candia, March 9. 18 19, and his early years were spent 
on his father's farm. His education was received in the common schools of his 
native town, supplemented by a short course at Phillips Andover academy, and 
with a view to pursuing a college course he taught school several winters. Cir- 
cumstances, however, induced him to relinquish his plan, and after working for a 
while in a store at Candia, he went to Manchester and entered the employ of 
George Porter, who carried on a general merchandise business on Elm street, sub- 
sequently becoming a partner. 

This connection lasted until 1849, when his l° n £ official career began. In 
that year he was elected city clerk, and so popular was he in this capacity that he 
was reelected the following year, although two thirds of the members of the city 
government were oppoed to him politically. In 1S51 he was again chosen to the 
same office. His service as city clerk was followed by three terms as mayor of 
Manchester, being elected in 1S52. and reelected in 1S53 and 1854. Among the 
measures advocated by him while mayor was the establishment of a free library. 
His recommendation of a public library was somewhat in advance of popular sen- 
timent, the city government being composed of men who had little faith in the 
value or necessity of literary culture, but the plan was finally carried out, and the 
library is an enduring monument to the name of Mayor Smyth. 

After the close of his term of office he was appointed chairman of the com- 
mission to locate and build the Industrial school. This institution was very unpopu- 
lar at the time, but he was its staunch advocate, and has lived to see his views 

He .was early a Whig, and always since a Republican in politics. In 1857— '58, 
Mr. Smyth was a member of the legislature from Ward 3. About the same time 
he was elected treasurer of the New Hampshire Agricultural society, holding the 
position for ten years. He was albO a director in the United States Agricultural 
society, and was manager of the three great fairs held at Richmond, Chicago, and 
St. Louis. He was also vice-president of the American Pomological society.' In 
1 86 1 he was appointed one of the agents on the part of the United States to 
attend the international exhibition at London, where he was chosen a juror. It 
was mainly through his efforts that the exhibits there of the Langdon mills and 
the Manchester Print Works were recognized and received medals. 

After returning home he devoted his time to the banks with which he was con- 


nected and taking active part in the measures calculated to strengthen faith in the 
national administration. He went to the front after the battles of Gettysburg and 
the Wilderness, and gave efficient aid in caring for the sick and wounded. In the 
same year he was for the fourth time elected mayor of Manchester, and practi- 
cally without opposition. The following year (1S65) he was chosen governor of 
the state by a majority of more than 6.000, at the time, that being the highest 
given to any candidate for nearly a quarter of a century. 

The state debt, which heietofore had seldom exceeded a few thousand dollars, 
had risen to millions, and loans had to be made in competition with other states 
and with the national government. State bonds were hard to sell at any price, 
but notwithstanding these difficulties, within three months after his inauguration, 
Governor Smyth had raised over a million dollars, largely through personal solici- 
tation and mostly from the Manchester banks, and the result was that the credit 
of the state was firmly established. 

In 1S66 he was reelected governor by a handsome majority. During his first 
term as governor he was made one of the corporate trustees of the national homes 
for invalid soldiers, and served with General Grant, jay Gould, General Butler, 
and others on the committee whose duty it was to arrange the details. During 
his second term the first steps were taken toward the foundation of a state agricul- 
tural college, a measure which he warmly advocated. He had been treasurer of 
the college for twenty-five years. He also urged the restocking of the streams of 
the state with fish, a purpose which more recent legislative action has carried into 

In 1866 he was chosen by congress one of the managers of the military homes, 
and was later made vict -preside nt of the board. In 1872 he was a delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national convention. President Hayes appointed Gover- 
nor Smyth honorary commissioner to the International Exposition at Paris in 1878, 
and while abroad he visited many European countries. He was trustee of the 
New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, in which he founded a scholar- 
ship. Dartmouth college conferred upon him the degree of A. M. in 1866. 

Besides his numerous other financial interests, Governor Smyth was president 
and one of the heaviest stockholders of the Concord & Montreal railroad. Gen- 
erous and benevolent in a high degree, he gave cheerfully of his abundance, and 
his public charities have been- large. He succeeded the late George W. Nesmith 
as president of the New Hampshire Orphans' Home at Franklin. He was presi- 
dent of. the Franklin-street Congregational society in Manchester for nineteen 
years, resigning that position in 1S94, and was a member of that church, taking 
deep interest in its work. 

Governor Smyth was twice married; in 1844 to Miss Emily Lane, daughter of 
John Lane of Candia. Mrs. Smyth died in 1884, and the following year, while in 
Scotland, he married Miss Marion Hamilton Cossar, a Manchester lady visiting 

Nearly five years ago, Mr. Smyth sustained a paralytic shock, which somewhat 
incapacitated him for active duties. Attended by his devoted wife, he passed the 
time alternately at his beautiful home at The Willows, in Manchester, and at 



Col. Charles A. Sinclair, of Brookline. well known in political and business life, 
died April 22. at his residence in Brookline. Mass. "He was born in Bethlehem'. 
N. H., August 2 1 . 184S. and was the son of John G. Sinclair, who was for twenty-five 
years the leader of the Granite State Democracy. He fitted for Dartmouth at 
Phillips Exeter academy, and upon leaving college entered upon the study of law 
in the office of the Hon. Harry Bingham at Littleton. Finding the law uncon- 
genial, he engaged in business until his removal to Portsmouth. He was an 
ardent Democrat, representing his town in both branches of the legislature, and in 
1S91 his party honored him as their nominee for United States senator. He 
served on Governor Weston's staff with the rank of colonel, during 1S71 and 1S72. 

Col. Sinclair was a man of many enterprises. For many years he was a'ctively 
interested in the hotel business in Boston, and was a director, and subsequently 
president of the Boston »Sc Maine railroad. He was represented in many corpor- 
ate interests in all parts of the country, and was a 33d degree Mason. He is sur- 
vived by a widow, the daughter of the Hon. Frank Jones of Portsmouth, and four 


Amos Brown, of Seattle, who died recently in San Francisco, was a native of 
Bristol, having been born there June 29, 1S32. In 1SS5 Mr. Brown retired from 
active business and became a successful speculator in real estate. He leaves a 
family of five children, one of whom is a prominent lawyer in Seattle. 


Capt. A. YV. Bartlett, a prominent lawyer and a brave military officer, who 
died at his home in Pittsfield, recently, was born in Epping, August 29, 1839, an< ^ 
was the son of Richard and Caroline O. (Williams) Bartlett. He attained his 
education in the public schools of his town, and in i860 began teaching in the 
West, at the same time studying for his chosen profession, the law. He was a 
ready speaker, and while in the West took an active part in the exciting political 
campaign of 1S60, in behalf of Abraham Lincoln, and gained a favorable reputa- 
tion as an eloquent campaign speaker. 

Jn 1862 he enlisted as drummer boy in Co. F, 12th N. H. Volunteers, but prov- 
ing his ability for a higher position, he was soon detailed as company clerk, rising to 
the rank of sergeant-major of his regiment. March 3, 1864, he was made second 
lieutenant of Co. G, later promoted to first lieutenant, and finally was commis- 
sioned as captain of the same company. He fought with conspicuous gallantry 
in the terrible battles of Chancellorsville, Swift Creek, and many others. 

After only three weeks of instruction, he was selected by General Wister as 
chief signal officer of the James. Pie was given charge of the transmission and 
observation station on the Bermuda front, known as Butter's or Cobb's tower, 
and later was given charge of Crow's Nest tower near Dutch Gap, where, at one 
time, for several hours he was under fire of the enemy's guns, and the terrible 
storm of shot and shell hurled at him is evidenced by the fact that hardly a por- 


.tion of the original structure remained that was not shattered by flying pieces of 

He served as judge-advocate on General Wister's staff, and was recommended 
by that officer for past judge-advocate, with the rank of lieutenant, but preferred 
the position of signal ofiicer, which he held, until, by reason of sickness and meri- 
torious services, he was granted a furlough. Failing to regain his health when 
his leave of absence expired, lie resigne'd his position. After his return to health 
he began the practice of Law, and has been well-known at the bar of Hillsborough 
and Merrimack counties as an able and honorable advocate. He was a charter 
member of the G. A. R. post of Pittsrield, and his services were often in demand 
as Memorial Day orator, until failing health obliged him to give up public speak- 
ing. He was a versatile and graphic writer, and was the author of the history of 
his regiment. 

As a citizen, friend, and counselor he was universally respected, and his death 
called forth many expressions of sorrow from a large circle of friends. He is sur- 
vived by one son, Richard Bartlett. 


April 23, just as the Sabbath was ushered in, with every premonition of a bright 
and beautiful day. the spirit of Edward YVinslow Cross, the beloved son of Judge 
and Mrs. David Cross, passed from its casket of clay and entered into immortal- 
ity. At his deathbed were present the members of his family, whom he recognized, 
and to whom he spoke words of endearment and farewell, "God bless you all," 
being almost the final syllables that fell from his lips. His brother had not been 
permitted to see him during his illness, so that the parting with him was a greet- 
ing as well as a good-by. The end came peacefully and beautifully, and the 
remembrances of it, although full of pain, are brightened by the knowledge that 
the loved one realized his condition, was not wandering in his mind, had faith 
in the life hereafter, tenderly spoke to the different members of his family and 
sought to lighten the shadow of the approaching bereavement. 

The announcement of the sad tidings of the death of this highly cultured 
young man bears with it profound sorrow and deep regret to a large circle of 
friends and acquaintances. Possessed of a disposition which was the reflection 
of a sunny and genial nature, he won friends wherever he went. He was an 
ardent admirer of Nature, being an entomologist of rare and skilful ability, and it 
was. one of his greatest pleasures to be in the fields, or in the roads, or grass- 
grown ways, day after day, seeking and gathering moths, which he took intense 
pride in studying. His passionate love for Nature and her wealth of insect life 
never ceased, and he was the possessor of one of the finest collections of geome- 
tridae in this country. In fact, it is authoritatively stated, that the only collection 
of this kind that eclipses the one he leaves is owned by Dr. G. Hultz of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. He began to collect moths when a student at the high school, and he pur- 
sued it for years with intense enthusiasm, and became known as an authority in 
certain lines. He had written articles for the Entomological News, of Philadel- 
phia and the Canadian Entomologist. He lately became a member of the Agas- 
siz Entomological society of Cambridge. 


. Adept as he was in this science, he was also making brilliant progress in the 
study of law, which he had chosen as a life vocation. He labored untiringly and 
zealously over his books, and his talents and studious habits gave promise of a 
brilliant future in his preferred profession. With him the study of law seemed to 
be hereditary, and he entered upon the work- with zeal, perseverance, and deter- 
mination. Judge Cross was very desirous that one of his sons should become a 
lawver, and it was a loyalty to this wish and a devotion to his father's hope that 
directed Mr. Cross's choice of a profession. He was the youngest son, born 
in Manchester, educated there, a student at Phillips Andover academy for a 
year, where he took a preparatory course, after which he entered Amherst col- 
lege, graduating from that institution in June, 1S97. After completing his course 
at Amherst he entered the office of his father, remaining but a year, and then 
becoming a student at the Harvard law school, where his last sickness befell him. 
His college life was full of interest and one that his many associates can look 
back upon with respect and admiration. While mingling with his companions in 
those classic halls his display of a sunny disposition and winsome qualities won 
for him the love of all who daily came in contact with him. He was interested 
in college fraternities and was a member of Phi Gamma Delta of Amherst college. 
The right to save his life was one of the bravest imaginable. Stricken with 
pneumonia the dread enemy was recognized at once, and all that two of Manches- 
ter's ablest physicians could do to combat the direful effects of the disease was 
zealously and untiringly performed, their efforts being supplemented by one of 
P>oston's most skilful doctors. Four trained nurses were employed, and two of 
these were constantly near him. The same methods so successful in supplying 
air to the lungs in the case of Kipling were resorted to in this case, but young 
Cross had not the constitution and vitality to enable him to recuperate, and so 
the sad end came. The nearest relatives of the deceased are his parents and one 
brother, the P.ev. Allen P2astman Cross, of Springfield, Mass., and a grandmother, 
Mrs. Ira A. Eastman. The deepest sympathy is extended to the grief-stricken 
family in their hour of affliction, and the irreparable loss which they have sus- 
tained. Judge and Mrs. Cross have lost four children. 


Postmaster William O. Sides died at his home in Portsmouth, April 27. He 
was born in Exeter, January 17, 183 1. The family removing a few years later to 
Portsmouth, he attended the public schools of that city. In his youth he was 
employed as a mule spinner in a cotton mill. For several years he was proprietor 
of a livery stable, a business he gave up to enter the army. He was credited with 
being the first man to enlist in New Hampshire for service in the Civil War. 

He was appointed recruiting officer at Portsmouth, and in five days enlisted 
105 men. Of this company, which became Company K, 2d New Hampshire 
Volunteers, he was commissioned captain. He fought in the first battle of Bull 
Run ; was severely injured, and forced to resign his commission. Subsequently, 
however, he was appointed a captain in the Veteran Reserve corps, and was on 
duty in Albany and Elmira, X. Y., and Alexandria, Va., and afterwards at Fortress 
Monroe and Fort Snelling. He was mustered out June 30, 1866. 


Mr. Sides served for a time as messenger of the national house of representa- 
tives, was later an inspector in the Boston customs house, and also at Portsmouth. 
In the Blaine campaign he started the Penny Post in the interest of the Maine 
statesman. President Harrison appointed him postmaster of Portsmouth, and his 
second appointment to this place was made by President McKinley in Septem- 
ber, 1897. 

Mr. Sides had served in the legislature and had held a number of public 
offices. He was a member of the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, being a 
past grand chancellor of the latter order. In 185S he married Margaret A. Bad- 
ger. They had four children, Antoinette C, Annie B. (now Mrs. Garrett), Grace 
A., and Walter Herman Sides. 


Col. John J. Dillon died of apoplexy in his office in Manchester, April 29. 
He was born in Ireland but came to America in 1863 and served two years in the 
4th Regiment, N. H. Volunteers, one half of which time was spent in Rebel 
prisons. After the war he located in Bristol and was for a time employed in the 
blacksmith shop of Lovejoy & Kelley. While here he was prominently connected 
with the Good Templars, and was sergeant in the Head Rifles. On going to 
Manchester he continued his connection with the militia and rose to the colonelcy 
of the 3d Regiment. Colonel Dillon did an extensive business in life insurance, 
and was one of the best known and most active Grand Army men in New Hamp- 
shire. His age was 58, and he leaves a widow, a sen, and a daughter. 


The death of Hon. John H. Oberly, editor of the People a?id Patriot, occurred 
at his home in Concord, April 15. After the expiration of the first Cleveland 
administration, Mr. Oberly engaged in publishing enterprises in Washington with 
Mr. Stilson Hutchins, and also became interested in the People and Patriot in 
Concord. In 1896 he edited the Richmond State. In 1897 he became the edi- 
tor of the Washington Times, and remained with that paper in various capacities 
until last January, when he left to devote himself to the Concord paper. 

He -was in the South when the Civil War broke out, and came North upon the 
opening of hostilities. From first to last he was a staunch supporter of the Union 
cause. Mr. Oberly was an upright, broad-minded, scholarly man. The informa- 
tion -of his death will be received with deep regret, not only in New Hampshire, 
but by his many friends in Washington and the West. He leaves a wife and 
several daughters, one of whom is the wife of ex-Comptroller Eckles. 


Judge John Robinson Cleveland, who died in Pompanoosuc, Vt., recently, 
was a native of Lebanon, being born there May 6, 1S20. In 1856 he went to 
'Brookfield as register of probate, and later was elected judge of probate for Ran- 
dolph district of Orange county, a position which he held for ten years, resigning 
on account of ill health. He was well known in social and political circles, hav- 


ing served the town of Brookfield as clerk and treasurer. He represented the 
town in the general assembly of Vermont in 1867, '6S; and '69, and also as a 
member of the constitutional convention. Judge Cleveland was a member of the 
Masonic lodge of Brookiield, and an earnest helper in all religious and temper- 
ance work. 


Mrs. Susan Ellen Sawyer, wife of ex-Gov. Charles H. Sawyer, died in Boston, 
April 20, at the residence of Mr. Henry Sawyer, nephew of the governor, aged 59 
years, having been born in Dover, August 13, 1S39. She was president of the 
Woman's Auxiliary, V. M. C. A., regent of the Dover chapter of the Society of 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and was a member of the Society of 
Colonial Dames. She was united in marriage to Charles Henry Sawyer, gover- 
nor of Xew Hampshire from 1887— '89, on February 8, 1S65, and is survived by 
her husband, four sons, and a daughter. 


- 3 k> ,^—\ V NT v. 


Rcad to Camp Weetamoo. 

c ■ 1- 

Tfl i Wittily 


• * % JL JL 

NEW "1898-1899 STYLES, 

© e o 






YotjL .will L/ike a Presoott 

Because the tone is both sweet and brilliant. 

You oo.« ^Lffoi^cl ol Presoott 

Because the terms are easy and prices are reasonable. 

Yot.i ^v^rill Bttijr a Prescott 

As soon as you are fully aware of its merits. 


Our new Cata^gut pives >ui« lutth'V -nformation. Write for one, or ca!I at factory, 

1«1. I^or-tliL IVI^iii Street, 





r * y- r- 




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J?.** ' 

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' - J 


.-: J?,<» .'J *~ 

The Granite .AIortmim 

Vol. XXVI. JUNE, 1899. No. 6. 

... - .. .,. -^.^^B^rt- 


A Snowshoe S::de. 





/>> Elena Pi en 'ra A bad. 

ONCORD is fast becoming famous for her coun- 
elubs, and as the Outing club was the first, 
as far as we are able to learn, in this or any & 
other country to be organized, land purchased, and a $£ 
club house constructed exclusively through the efforts 
of women for their recreation and out-of-door enjoy- 
ment, its history may not be uninteresting. 

During the winter of i895-'96 a few of the young 
: women of Concord became interested in snow- 
shoeing, and in order that others might enjoy 
the sport, all those women who were known to be fond 

of exercise in the open air, f?J "^ such as wheeling, skating, 

snowshoeing, or walking, ' ^ were invited to meet at a 

certain time and place for \ organization. Some twenty- 

five young women, married | W and unmarried, responded to 

this call, and an organization ^^Ja^P^^, was effected bv the choice 

J" ii't^&sjfid* 



* . ., ,, 

•V :i 

. , a i 


of a president, vice-president, sec- 
retary, and treasurer. A constitu- 
tion was adopted later, declaring, 
among other things, that "the ob- 
ject of this club shall be the promo- 
tion of out-door exercise for women." 


The snow was late in appearing 
that winter, and long and anxiously, 
not patiently, did we wait for it. At 
last the "shoeing" was declared to 
be passable, and a trip was planned. 
The asylum grounds were named as 
the rendezvous. One young lady 
was so fortunate as to have access to 
some old campaign torches, and she 
had a sufficient number of them 
"trimmed and burning bright'' upon 

the arrival of the company. A few 
of the number had gotten up most 
elaborate blanket suits, and with 
shoes securely fastened in place, 
each with a flaming torch over her 
shoulder, we started south through 
the asylum fields entirely oblivious 
to the fact that the full moon was 
shining as bright as day until some 
one shouted from a passing street car 
that we really ought to have more 
light. But we pretended that we 
knew what we were about, and kept 
on with our torches until a clump of 
pines was reached, and there we ex- 
tinguished and deposited them until 
our return, but we trembled to think 
of the ludicrous story that would be 
circulated about town next day. 






; : " - 



On that trip we went as far as Mr. 
Charles Morgan's, the last house in 
Concord at the Bow line, and there 
hot coffee, sandwiches, and dough- 
nuts were kindly served. The re- 
turn home was uneventful, although 
the gait was not quite so rapid as at 
the start. 

But a few of us felt that we wanted 
a club home, although we did not 
dare mention it openly, even to the 
others, for they had already said 
that of course we could not have a 
club house such as the men had. 
But we said to ourselves, "If not, 
why not? " 


The two original promoters of the 

. . 



i I 

project constituted themselves a com- 
mittee to look about quietly for a 
suitable location for a club house. 
They wheeled all about the country* 
within a radius of eight or ten miles : 
Over Tebbett's hill, up the Contoo- 
cook, around Penacook lake, over the 
11 Mountain " in East Concord, along 
the bluffs east of the river, finding 
charming views at all these points, 
but always with some insurmounta- 
ble objection, chiefly that of inacces- 
sibility and lack of facilities for get- 
ting supplies. 

But they found one spot that 
seemed to combine all necessary fea- 
tures, — beauty of scenery, river and 
mountain ; good roads, and safe for 
any one alone ; good neighbors at 




■>, ? ■ y ■ /- 




. i 

"he Old Mill. 



. . . -_.•■.■ ■ : 

just the right distance ; a little store 
at the foot of the hill — and all just 
far enough from the city. They 
climbed to the highest point of the 
site, a rock hidden by shrubbery, 
and, pulling aside the bushes as best 
they could, looked out — and they 
knew that they had found the place. 

The next step was to obtain a vote 
of the club authorizing negotiations 
for the lot, which was brought about 
by a limited amount of argument, 
and a deed to two acres on the 
height of laud at Bow Mills, two 
miles and three quarters from the 
state house and overlooking the Mer- 
rimack river, was obtained of Hon. 
Henry M. Baker. 

Next we made very crude plans 
for our house, and contracted with 
a builder to erect the same, which 
was done most satisfactorily. But 
first we had to -be incorporated, in 

order to hold property, and each 
member was invited to present a 
name that seemed to her to be ap- 
propriate. From the number we se- 
lected " The Outing Club " for our 
corporate name, and the record was 
made in the office of the secretary of 
state, July 27, 1S96. Then the club 
house must be named, and for this 
we considered that some Indian term 
would be appropriate, inasmuch as 
the valley we overlooked was so re- 
plete with Indian lore. One mem- 
ber discovered in Bouton's History 
of Concord reference to a " Squaw 
Lot," and although it was not ex- 
actly in our locality, we could not 
but admit that it would be more or 
less appropriate ; but we were just a 
little careful about making public 
mention of the name, well knowing 
that it would be considered a great 
joke, and that it would stick fast 


to us. This same youiig lady pre- 
sented another name for considera- 
tion, — Weetamoo. Now there are 
within the limits of Concord two 
clubs bearing Indian names, "Pas- 
saconaway," named in honor of the 
grand old chief of the Penacooks, 
and " Wonolancet," and as Weeta- 
moo was a daughter of the former and 
sister of the latter, as well as princess 
of her father's tribe, we decided that 
that should be our name, for she was 

" Child of the forest ! — strong and free — 
Slight-robed, with loosely flowing hair, 
She swam the lake or climbed the tree, 

Or struck the dying bird in air. 
O'er the heaped drifts of winter's moon 

Her snowshoes tracked the hunter's way ; 
And dazzling in the summer noon 

The blade of her light oar threw off its 
shower of spray." 

So " Camp Weetamoo " is the name 
of our home. 

The camp is located upon the sum- 

mack, winding in and out, while the 
grand old mountains form a fitting 
background for the scene. Inside 
the camp everything is fitted up for 
comfort. The main room, 22 by 24 
feet, has a waxed floor for dancing, 
a piano, and an immense fireplace. 
The kitchen, 22 by 11 feet, is thor- 
oughly equipped, including a refrig- 
erator and a pump. On the floor 
above, and directly over the main 
room, is a dormitory of the same 
size as the latter, from which most 
glorious views are to be had. Sur- 
rounding the camp on two sides is a 
piazza eleven feet wide. Here we 
string our hammocks, and try to 
read, but our eyes will not stay fixed 
on the page, but wander to the ever- 
changing landscape again and again. 
Now there is a shower passing over 
Kearsarge ; is it coming our way, or 

mit of a hill overlooking the Merri- or will it pass to the north? Oh, see 

- . 

1 , • 






t . 

; • 


//ee-tarroo Pain. 



what a shower they are getting up in 
Concord, why the town is completely 
hidden from view ! 

Now the clouds clear away, and 
far off up the valley stand out, clear 
and plain, Moosilauke and Lafayette. 
And over there is Belknap, or Gun- 
stock, mountain, and do you remem- 
ber what a time the Wild Flower club 

of all is at sunrise. We have been 
known to be so enthusiastic as to 
arise as early as three o'clock to 
watch the approach of day here. The 
dawn was just breaking, and soon 
the clear amber of the sky took on 
faint streaks of crimson. Brighter 
and brighter it grows, and we get 
excited in trying who shall catch the 

- . T ,-v.-»<-.r .,--. •:,- — - ••v--r- ■-•. ■'...-- ;t»-..~ ;-.- .-^^r»-v--5,r> 






: ■ ' 




t a&i 

The Living-Room. 

had climbing it that hot day last 
August, and when we had finally 
gained the summit, not a mountain, 
not a lake was to be seen for the 
smoke that lay between us and them? 
Later comes the sunset, with its ever- 
changing and ever-marvelous effects, 
and as darkness hovers over all, one 
b} r one the stars appear and the whip- 
poor-wills begin their plaintive cry. 
But, perhaps, the most beautiful time 

first glimpse of the sun. Once he 
kisses the waters of the river, great 
banks of fleecy clouds roll up, as if 
to shut him out, and all the valley is 
veiled in mist, while we bask in the 
full sunshine, high above. By the 
time breakfast, al fresco, is finished, 
the day, as we ordinarily know it, 
has begun, and we mount our wheels 
for the city in ample season for the 
day's duties. 





; Y 

Miss Caroline S. Stewar 
President, i$q~. 

Mrs. Ma'^de 


Miss Mary Ni ! es. 
President, iSqq. 


One dav as we were taking a long 
wheeling trip "over there," about 
ten or twelve miles out, I noticed 
peeping over the top of an old board 
fence, under some pine trees, some 
beautiful lichen moss. " Wait a min- 
ute," I said to my companion, " I 
want to see what is on the other side 
of that fence " (we were on the south 
side, and I suspected something of 
what was to be found on the north 
side). So trundling my wheel along 
for her to hold up, I ran and looked 

over, and such a sight as was to be 
seen there! — boards a century old, 
and completely covered with the most 
luxuriant growth of moss in many 
varieties. Pine needles and cones 
were scattered over all. Of course 
we were delighted, and immediately 
set about fcrming a plan to possess 
ourselves of them for our camp. This 
is is what we did: 

We engaged a stable team, a demo- 
crat wagon, and with a rusty hatchet 
and an old claw hammer, left Con- 
cord sleeping behind us at three a. m., 
while the stars were still shining and 



'■s ..■■■■ 

1 ■> 

Miss Nellie S. Abbott. 
Secretary and Treasur 

Dr. Maude Kent. 
President, iSgG. 


the old moon bung not very high in 
the eastern sky, — that phase of the 
moon always seems uncanny and 
weird in some way, perhaps because 
it is such a stranger in that form. 
On a bridge (there is more than one 

y^-r<-.- - '"--^H^- 

A Bend in the Road. 

bridge out of Concord) we hailed for 
hot coffee, which we had brought 
with us and which had not yet cooled, 
and sandwiches ; but the stop was 
but short, for we had a long drive 
before us. Arrived at the place which 
we had carefully blazed, we found, to 
our consternation, that each board 
was held in place between two up- 
right posts, the latter being firmly 
bound together by spikes as large as 
your finger. But by dint of hard 
work with the claw hammer we finals- 
released the boards, only to be con- 
fronted by a new difficulty : the 
boards weie all of twenty- four feet 
in length and as sound as a nut, and 
we could not possibly load pieces 
more than twelve feet Ions:. What 
should we do ? We could make but 
little impression on them with our 
hatchet, and when I jumped on them 
I bounced like a rubber ball. But 
my companion was equal to the emer- 
gency, and said. " I will fix it. You 

roll a log up here, and we will place 
one end of the board on that and the 
other end on that rock, and then / 
will jump on it." Her instructions 
were carried out to the letter, then 
she mounted the board exactly in the 
middle, placing her two feet close 
together. She is no <; feather weight/' 
and I watched with bated breath, 
fearful of the result to her. " Now," 
she said, "one, two, three," and up 
she shot about two feet, — yes, exactly 
two feet — and coming down in just 
the right place, crash went the board, 
and the problem was solved ! 

In this way we loaded our prize, 
as many as we could accommodate, 
placing them lengthwise under the 
seat and allowing them to extend out 
behind. At nine o'clock a. m. we 
were driving down State street, as 
calmly as you please, if a little 
cramped, with our boards nicely done 
up in newspapers, to protect them 
from injury as much as possible, and 
landed them at the camp door. We 
had to make a second trip, but the 
next time we took a saw along, and 
it was easier. And that is where and 
how we got our moss frieze — ninety- 
six feet of it. It was not a very great 
transgression, because there were only 
three or four lengths of the fence 

Our camp will have been dedicated 
three years on the nineteenth of Sep- 
tember next, and in that time we shall 
have nearly, if not quite, liquidated 
our debt. We borrowed of one of our 
number a sum sufficient to pay for 
the camp and two acres of land, giv- 
ing a personal note as security. We 
have practically but one club rule : 
Xo member is at liberty to loan her 
key ; she may entertain as many 
guests there as she pleases, but she 



must accompany her key in every 
instance. During the two years and 
a half that the camp has been open, 
2,383. persons, by actual count, have 
registered there. 

There is the utmost harmony in 
our membership, which is limited to 
twenty-five, and all unite in pro- 

nouncing the project a grand success. 
There are many beautiful woodland 
paths and ravines in our vicinity, 
rich in flowers and rare ferns, and 
where the whir-r-r of the partridge, 
mingled with the songs of other 
.birds, and the rippling of the brook, 
is the only sound to be heard. 


By Frank G. Nbyes. 

PIE War of the great Rebel- 
lion taught the world that 
the people of the United 
States were more than a 
"nation of shopkeepers." The hero- 
ism, deeds of daring and courage, 
displayed by the men of the South, 
as well as of the North, between the 
dates of Sumter and Appomattox, 
compelled mutual respect and admi- 
ration for the power and prowess of 
men of both sections. They showed 
to the world that the men of all sec- 
tions of the United States could 
"strike with the edge;" that they 
lacked none of the qualities that 
make soldiers and heroes. 

The Spanish-American War of the 
year of grace 1S98, illustrated the pe- 
culiar qualities of our peace-loving 
people. The skill and courage of 
the American navy in the recent war 
with the kingdom of Spain, supple- 
mented by the indomitable pluck of 
our army, brought speedy and mar- 
velous success to our arms, and com- 
pelled our haughty foe quickly to 
sue for peace. 

The outcome of the War of the 
Rebellion showed the people of the 

world that liberty and republics were 
possible. It not only taught the 
principle of equality, but also flashed 
the electric fire of freedom to other 
lands. That principle is immortal 

I v. 






Col. Frank G. Noyes. 

and will stand unchanged amidst the 
ruins that time and tyranny may 
scatter over the universe. 

More than a hundred and twenty 
years have elapsed since this repub- 
lic unfolded to the world the chart of 

Read before the New Hampshire Historical Society. 



her liberties. It seems as yesterday 
that she was young and weak, to-day 
she ranks among the oldest, most 
stable, and most powerful govern- 
ments of the earth. Years have not 
chilled the warm blood of her youth, 
nor diminished the ensign of her age. 
Time has written no wrinkles 011 her 
brow. With a conscious and just 
pride she feels that the foundations 
of her government have outlasted all 
the constitutions of civilized Europe. 
Political systems without number 
have undergone revision suited to 
the spirit of the age. But the plat- 
form of a constitution erected by the 
fathers of our republic has required 
no further additions to elevate or sup- 
port it, except the declarations of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth amendments 
to exemplify the statement that all 
men are created free and equal. 

We are no freer than our fathers 
were. The amount of liberty which 
satisfied them has been found suffi- 
cient for our happiness and prosper- 
ity. We have tested it in the cruci- 
ble of Civil War. In the historic 
little red schoolhouse of Xew Hamp- 
shire has been laid the foundations 
of education and character which 
have developed men who have been 
invincible in field and forum. 

At the dedication of the Matthew 
Thornton monument at Merrimack, 
the orator of the day used the follow- 
ing words concerning our state: " The 
soil, climate, and government of New 
Hampshire, from its earliest settle- 
ment, have conspired to furnish a 
splendid arena for making completely 
developed men and women. Physi- 
cally, mentally, and morally her sons 
and daughters have ever been distin- 
guished for being solidly equipped, 
rigidly disciplined, courageous, earn- 

est, ready and able to meet and adapt 
themselves to any and all circum- 

" With a history full of romance and 
war, she has always found within her 
territorial limits men who were suffi- 
ciently strong and willing to defend 
and protect her from all assaults, 
while the nation never called upon 
her in vain for assistance. 

11 In every crucial struggle of the 
republic, whether civil or military, 
legal or legislative, moral or consti- 
tutional, New Hampshire has been a 
master force. Her sons, impelled by 
a patriotism that has never flagged, 
signed the immortal Declaration of 
Independence, were first among those 
who initiated the Revolution at Bun- 
ker Hill, were first and foremost at 
the decisive Battle of Bennington, 
entered into and helped form the 
American Union, stormed and cap- 
tured the heights of Lundy's Lane, 
marched through Baltimore into the 
jaws of death at Bull Run, and fought 
till the end at Appomattox. 

:i The world has never seen a more 
intelligent, loyal, patriotic, resolute 
race of men than have dominated the 
soil of New Hampshire since its abdi- 
cation by the red man. 

" Small in area, rough and grand in 
surface, with pure water, vital and 
health-inspiring air, and peopled with 
a sturdy race, she has furnished more 
than a just share of courage, charac- 
ter, brain, and heart to the country. 
Almost every page of her history re- 
veals a striking and a noble figure. 
Her mountain peaks, which tower far 
above the level of the sea, are not 
more numerous than her giant sons, 
whose forceful deeds and lives have 
been conspicuous at home and 


The Colonial wars, the War of the 
Revolution, the War of 1S12, the 
War of the Rebellion, and the recent 
war with Spain, — in all of which 
New Hampshire men were engaged, 
— produced men and heroes. It is 
the province of this paper to bring 
into strong relief the character, mer- 

datit of a long line of Scotch-English 
ancestors, who bore conspicuous parts 
in the field and forum of the mother 
country. It will answer our purpose 
to give his lineage in this country, 
which is the result of researches 
made by himself in his own hand- 
writing, about fifty years ago. 



*■"" '•—'•(. 

\ * J 


Ma;. -Gen. John G. Foster. 

its, and history of a man who was 
born in New Hampshire and who 
illustrated in his public life the 
strong characteristics of American 

John Gray Foster, son of New 
Hampshire, soldier of the republic, 
was born in Whitefield, Coos county, 
May 27, 1823. He was a descen- 

Our researches show that men of 
our hero's patronymic have included 
those who were distinguished in their 
day and generation as divines, as sol- 
diers, and as members of the general 
court in Massachusetts and in New 
Hampshire. One of them, Hopestill 
Foster, was a member of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery in 1642, rep- 



resentative in 1652, and for twenty 
years held a commission as captain 
of militia. 

Another John, who was graduated 
at Harvard college in 1667, designed 
the arms of the colony of Massachu- 
setts, an Indian with bow and arrows. 

By the " Genealogical Register of 
Pilgrims" in the library of the Me- 
chanics' Institute at Lowell, Mass., 
we learn that prior to the year 1S25 
no less than thirty-nine men of the 
name of Foster had been graduated 
from colleges in New England. 

Let us now return to the lineage of 
John Gray Foster's immediate ances- 
try, as prepared by himself. 

William Foster settled in Ipswich, 
Mass., in the year 1635. Reginald 
Foster settled in Ipswich, Mass., in 
the year 1636. Abraham Foster set- 
tled in Ipswich, Mass., in the year 
1648. From one of these sprung 
Jacob Foster. To him and his wife, 
Sarah, their child Jacob was born 
about the year 16GS. He was promi- 
nent in his section and deacon in the 
First church cf Ipswich. He died 
July 19, 1 7 10, leaving Abigail, his 
widow, and one daughter and four 
sons, among whom was Joseph. This 
son, Joseph, had by his wife, Sarah, 
one daughter and five sons. The 
second son, Isaac, was baptised 
August i, 1720. Isaac married 
Sarah -Brow November iS, 1744. and 
had five sons and three daughters. 
The fourth son, John, was born Janu- 
ary 28, 1755 ; married Anna Beard, 
and by her had five sons and two 
daughters. The fourth son, Perley, 
was born September 20, 1792 ; mar- 
ried Mary Gray, and by her had five 
sons and one daughter. The second 
son, issue of Perley Foster and Mary 
Gray, is the subject of this sketch. 

General Foster was born in White- 
field, X. H., May 27, 1S23, and died 
in Nashua, September 2, 1S74. His 
father, Maj. Perley Foster, removed 
to Nashua in the year 1S33, when 
John Gray Foster was ten years of 
age. Capt. (Maj.) Perley Foster is 
well remembered as a military enthu- 
siast in the old-time militia days, and 
"who that then saw them does not 
remember the independent company 
of ' Whitefield Highlanders '■ in their 
picturesque uniforms and well-ordered 
movements, and the old-fashioned an- 
nual musterings under the dignified 
conduct of their leader," 1 Capt. Per- 
ley Foster, or the Nashua Light Ar- 
tillery, which, under command of the 
same captain, was present at the dedi- 
cation of the monument at Bunker 
Hill in the year 1S43 ? 

"The father's military spirit was 
intensified in the son, and as a lad he 
was always the chosen commander of 
military companies which were sol- 
emn realities to him in those days of 
boyish sports." 1 

When our hero was ten years old, 
his father settled in Nashua, and in 
the schools of that city and at Han- 
cock academy, as well as at the 
United States Military school at 
West Point, were laid the founda- 
tions of his subsequent career. 

He was appointed in the year 1S42 
to the Lnited States Military acad- 
emy, through the influence of Charles 
G. Atherton, of Nashua, who was 
then a member of congress from New 
Hampshire, and young Foster proved 
himself worthy of the confidence of 
that eminent man. 

Foster graduated from West Point 
in 1S46, ranking fourth in a distin- 
guished class with McClellan, Reno, 

1 History of CoOs Co., page 4S4. 



Sturgis, Stoneman, Oakes, Gibbs, 
and George H. Gordon, names now 
famous as commanders in the United 
States army during the War of the 
Rebellion, and with "Stonewall" 
Jackson, Wilcox, and Dabney H. 
Maury, who were numbered with the 
best tacticians in the late Confeder- 
ate army. 

Upon his graduation, Foster was 
commissioned second lieutenant in 
the Corps of Engineers, and assigned 
to duty in the bureau at Washing- 
ton. Immediately, thereafter, he 
was attached to the company of sap- 
pers, miners, and pontoniers, then 
just organized for the war with 
Mexico. He joined General Scott's 
army at Vera Cruz, and participated 
with it in the siege of that strong- 
hold from March 9 to 29, 1S47. when 
the famous castle of San Juan d'Ulloa 
surrendered ; at the battles of Cerro 
Gordo, April 17 to iS; at Contreras, 
in August ; at Cherubusco and Mo- 
lino del Rey. In leading the storm- 
ing column of Worth's division in 
the assault of Molino del Rey, Sep- 
tember 8, 10*47, he was severely 
wounded in the hip. His dangerous 
wound confined him to a sick bed for 
several months. 

The writer has seen in the collec- 
tion of Hon. Chas. W. Hoitt of 
Nashua, a long and friendly letter, 
written to Foster by Lieut. George 
B. McClellan, from the City of Mexi- 
co, dated May 5, 1S4S. This letter 
shows the affection in which our 
young lieutenant was held at that 
time by his friend and classmate. 
Who in the War of the Rebellion 
achieved so brilliant a reputation as 
Maj.-Gen. George B. McClellan? 

City of Mkxico, May 5, 184S. 
My Dear Foster : You can form some idea 

of the pleasure with which I received yours of 
"all fools' day." when I tell you that the last 
news we had heard from you, through Stew- 
art, S. S.. were that your physicians had given 
you up as a gone coon. I was looking for 
some further news from you with the greatest 
anxiety and dread, and need not tell you how 
glad I am to see from the tone of your letter 
that the venerable subaltern is still alive and 
kicking,— not only that, but that he is likels- to 
remain so. The mail arrived last night, but, 
as usual, brought me not a single letter from 
home. They have been treating me with the 
most sovereign contempt for the last four 
months. I suppose they think that as the 
chances of my ever getting home are quite 
small, they will save themselves a vast amount 
of trouble and letter paper by cutting ray ac- 
quaintance,— may dieu, que sea como q icier en ! 
We have been turned out of the Lombardini 
house since you left, for the old fellow's family, 
and are now living in the third story of the 
post-office building, almost immediately oppo- 
site. There was no furniture here when we 
came, but we have managed to get quite a num- 
ber of chairs and tables from the Palace, so that 
we might be much worse off. We have lost 
the view from the windows, which is the worst 
part of the change. Harrison has arrived and 
is living with us. Smith, Stuart, Lee, Barnard, 
Beauregard, and Harrison have all gone to 
Cuernavaea to see the cave, etc. I hope that 
peace may be made by the time the}' return ; I 
have my doubts, though. Alexander has ar- 
rived since they left ; he is for the present 
staying with me, but he will have to find other 
quarters by the time they get back ; there is 
not room enough here. 

Since you went, that little attorney, Shell, 
has been appointed a second lieutenant in 
cue of the ten regiments, so we are rid of him 
at last. I received by last night's mail the ap- 
pointment of Yeager as a second lieutenant in 
the Third Dragoons. I discharged him this 
morning so that we now bear on the morning 
report forty-two present and absent ! Y T ou will 
have heard before you receive this that a quo- 
rum has at last been got together. Now it re- 
mains to be seen what they will, in the plenti- 
tude of their wisdom, do. I presume we will 
know in three weeks, for it would appear to be 
a moral impossibility to keep together such 
discordant elements for a longer period — 
doubtless one very great inducement for them 
to make peace will be the desire of landiug the 
six millions they are to receive upon the ratifi- 
cation of the treaty. If they do n't get that 
they can't get their pay, and I imagine they 
care as much for themselves as for their country. 
Many thanks for your kind wishes in relation 
to the "consolation " and " the rays of light " 



from laeasa en /rente, but I fear you are pre- 
mature. - 1 reckon I should be cut if I tried, 
and even if I wished to and could succeed, I 
am so unfortunate a? to be a poor damned beg- 
gar of a teniente. I have been asked more 
than once about the " Pobseato Lerido." I am 
sincerely sorry for the awkward mistake made 
about John Eafle's books. It rather dimin- 
ishes my implicit trust in Providence. Better 
luck next time. I have no doubt about having 
command of one of the four companies when 
the colonel gets them. The period is the only 
question. I opine that I will be an old fogie 
by that time. You rre too modest in speaking 
merely for the first lieutenancy. Won't you 
have the second captaincy ? I am sorry to say 
that I have lost sight of Billy (that animal 
minus his caudal appendage) since Duncan's 
Battery went out to Taenbaya, but I have been 
anxiously looking for him among the winners 
at the race course, so far in vain, but I doubt 
not that I shall soon behold that tail wagged in 
all the pride, pomp, and circumstances of a 
winner of the Oakes. 

Hoping that I may soon see you in propria 

Believe me as ever, 

Truly your friend, 

Geo. B. McClellax, 
Lieutenant of Engineers. 

P. S. — Give my kindest regards to Stewart 
when you see him. 

I hope that you will have discarded, at least, 
one crutch when I see you. 

There came by the last mail from the audi- 
tor's office an acknowledgment of the receipt 
of the money for gout salve. I send it to you. 

From the end of the Mexican War, 
in which he had won two brevets for 
his gallantry and meritorious ser- 
vices, until 1S60, Captain Foster was 
engaged in various engineer duties, 
and was also at the Coast Survey 
office at Washington. From 1855 to 
1857, he served as principal assist- 
ant professor of engineering in the 
United States Military academy at 
West Point. 

From the valuable collection of 
Judge Hoitt, mentioned above, the 
writer has been shown a letter written 
from West Point to Foster, dated Sep- 
tember 2, 1854, by Col. Robert E. Lee, 
who was at that time commandant of 

the Military academy. This epistle 
breathes love and esteem in every 
line, and shows an earnest desire to 
assist Lieutenant Foster in any way 
possible. It indicates plainly that our 
hero possessed those lovable quali- 
ties that we claim were developed 
stronger and stronger as the years 
rolled on. At any rate, we make no 
apology for referring to that letter 
writteu by no less a man and soldier 
than Gen. Robert E. Lee, who after- 
ward held the supreme command of 
all the rebel armies that were arrayed 
against the United States in the War 
of the Rebellion. 

West Point, September 2, 1S54. 
My Dear Captain Foster ; I am delighted 
at having you at W. P. But the same cause 
that detracts from your anticipations of comfort 
detracts from my anticipations of pleasure — 
the want of qrs. On the reception of your note 
I began to cast around to see what could be 
done. I am unable to say anything cheering ; 
all the qrs. for families will be chosen over 
you. When you come on you are so fertile in 
expedients that I hope you will discover some 
remedy for the difficulty. Till then I hope you 
will be comfortable and happy with Mrs. F. 
in Baltimore, and she will then be happy to 
get rid of you for a season, to escape the long, 
dreary winter at W. P. by remaining in B. Re- 
member me kindly to her, and though I should 
be much pleased to have her with us, still, for 
her comfort I should have been more gratified 
had you got a more comfortable station. 
I am very truly yours, 

R. K. Lee. 
Capt. |. G. Foster. 

In the year 1858 Foster was as- 
signed to duty as chief engineer in 
charge, and was engaged in build- 
ing P'ort Sumter. July 1, i860, after 
fourteen years' continuous service, he 
was commissioned as full captain of 
engineers. December 26, 1S60, Maj. 
Robert Anderson, First Artillery, 
U. S. A., took command of Fort 
Sumter, which subsequently re- 
mained under his command until its 
surrender, April 13, 1861. 


The beginning- of the War of the 
Rebellion found Captain Foster at its 
initial point, United States engineer 
in charge of the fortifications of 
Charleston Harbor, S. C. and in 
building Fort Sumter. Here he dis- 
played marked activity and skill in 
preparing to meet the anticipated 
attack upon them. He was in com- 
mand when the garrison of Fort 
Moultrie was transferred to Fort 
Sumter, December 26,. 1S60. 

Foster was on duty at Fort Sumter 
when the steamer, Star of the IVest, 
was fired on. It will be remembered 
that the United States government 
attempted during the winter of 1S60 
to succor the garrison at Fort Sum- 
ter with stores of food and two hun- 
dred well armed and well instructed 
recruits from Fort Columbus. 
These troops, under able officers, 
were placed on board the steam- 
er Star of the West, and sailed for 
Charleston Harbor. The steamer 
was making her way to Fort Sumter, 
and on crossing the bar she was fired 
on by the rebel batteries and forced 
to turn back without accomplishing 
her errand. He was engaged in the 
historic defense of Sumter, being 
second in command, and was present 
when it surrendered, April 13, 1S61. 
The daily reports made to the chief 
of engineers of the army by Captain 
Fostei, for several weeks, while in 
this sen-ice, up to the time of the 
bombardment, gave a concise ac- 
count of the operations inside the 
fort, and also outside, so far as his 
spy-glass could command a distinct 
view. They also contained sketches 
of the enemy's batteries and their 
position, besides the number and 
calibre of the guns mounted inside 
Fort Sumter. The final stoppage of 

xxv i— 22 

the mails by the rebel authorities on 
the Sth day of April, prevented fur- 
ther commentaries in this way. 

Up to and including April 8, 1861, 
Foster had made daily reports by 
mail to the .chief engineer of the 
army of the progress of the work on 
Fort Sumter. On that date, as stated 
before, further communication in that 
way was prevented by the rebel au- 
thorities, who then stopped the car- 
riage or delivery of United States 
mails. I find among General Fos- 
ter's papers, under date of May 20, 
1S51, a report made by Foster to 
General Totten, chief engineer, 
U. S. A., of the operations in Char- 
leston Harbor from April 9 to the 
date of the evacuation of Fort Sum- 
ter by Major Anderson's command 
on the 14th of April, 1S61. This 
report is of great interest, giving as 
it does a detailed statement of the 
heroic defense of Fort Sumter, when 
attacked by the rebels under Beaure- 
guard, which was the overt act which 
commenced the four years of terrible 
Civil War that only ended with the 
final and complete triumph of our 
arms, and the surrender at Appo- 

This report, together with a mass 
of letters, correspondence, etc., be- 
tween Captain Foster, Major Ander- 
son, John B. Floyd, the then secretary 
of war; S. Cooper, adjutant-general, 
U. S. A. ; Colonel De Russey, com- 
manding corps of engineers, U. S. A. ; 
Horatio G. Wright, captain of engin- 
eers in charge of engineering depart- 
ment, Washington, and others, may 
be found in Series 1, Vol. 1, "Official 
Records of the Union and Confeder- 
ate Armies," published pursuant to 
act of congress approved June 11, 
1880. It seems proper to insert here 

■*>W' .''■'»; 



from this report, Foster's statement 
of the armament of Fort Sumter, and 
also of the guns, batteries, etc., which 
the rebels had set up to use against 
F'ort Sumter. 


On Morris Island : Breaching Battery No. } 
— two 42-pdrs. ; one 12-pdr. Blakely rifled grim. 
Morton Battery (next to No. 7) — four 10-ineh 
mortars. Breaching Battery No. 2 (Iron Clad 
Battery)— three S-inch Columbiads. Mortar 
Battery (next to No. 2) — three 10-inch mortars. 

On James' Island: Battery at Fort Johnson 
— three 24-pdrs. (only one of them being on 
Fort Sumter). Mortar Battery, south of Fort 
Johnson — four 10-inch mortars. 

On Sullivan's Island: Iron Clad (Floating) 
Battery — four 42-pdrs. Columbiad Battery, No. 
1 — one 9-inch Dahlgren gun. Columbiad Battery 
No. 2 — four S-inch Columbiads. Mortar Bat- 
tery, west of Fort Moultrie — three 10-inch mor- 
tars. Mortar Battery, on parade in rear of 
Fort Moultrie— two 10-inch mortars. Fort 
Moultrie— three S-inch Cols. ; two S-inch S. C. 
Howitzers ; five 32-pdrs. ; four 24-pdrs. At 
Mount Pleasant — one 10-inch mortar. 

Total, firing on Fort Sumter, 30 guns, 17 


Barbette tier: Right Flank — one 10-inch 
Columbiad ; four S-inch Cols. ; four 42-pdrs. 
Right Face — none. Left Face — three S-inch 
Sea Coast Howitzers; one 32-pdrs. Left Flank 
— one 10-inch Cols. ; two S-inch Cols. ; two 
42-pdrs. Gorge — one 8-iuch Sea Coast Howit- 
zer; two 32-pdrs.; six 24-pdrs. Total in Bar- 
bette, 27 guns. 

Casemate tier: Right Flank — one 42-pdr. ; 
four 32-pdrs. Right Face — three 42-pdrs. Left 
Face — ten 32-pdrs. Left Flank — five 32-pdrs. 
Gorge — two 32-pdrs. Total in casemate, 21 
guns. Total available in both tiers, 4S guns. 

After the bombardment and sur- 
render of Sumter, Foster, from New 
York, as stated above, sent to Gen- 
eral Totten, chief engineer United 
States army, Washington, D. C, the 
record of service up to April 13, 
when Fort Sumter surrendered. 

For a short period after the sur- 
render of Fort Sumter, Major Foster 
was on duty at Washington, D. C, 
and Sandy Hook, N. J. He was 

appointed October 23, 1S61, briga- 
dier-general United States volun- 
teers, when he entered upon his bril- 
liant career in the Civil War. 

With the Burnside, X. C, expedi- 
tion he won the brevet, February S, 
1S62, of lieutenant-colonel, United 
States army, for gallant service and 
capture of Roanoke Island, X. C, 
and March 12, 1S62, the brevet of 
colonel, United States army, for gal- 
lant and meritorious service in the 
capture of Xewberne, X. C. July 
i, 1S62, General Foster, with the 
Eighteenth Army Corps, was placed 
in command of the department of 
Xorth Carolina. (Here several X r ew 
Hampshire regiments came under his 
command.) In this command he 
organized and conducted several ex- 
peditions, the principal one being for 
the destruction of the Goldsbrough 
railroad bridge, in which he had to 
fight four battles in as many days. 

In the early part of the year 1863, 
Foster was actively engaged in re- 
sisting the rebel, General Hill, who, 
having been repulsed at Xewberne, 
made vigorous efforts to capture Lit- 
tle Washington, an important post 
commanding the passage from Tar 
to Pimlico river, where Foster with 
a small garrison was shut up. An 
attempt was made by land to relieve 
the Union position, but it failed ; all 
was suspense, and for many days con- 
tinued so. 

At last, on the afternoon of April 
10, 1S63, with only a forlorn hope for 
success, the river had been so thor- 
oughly fortified and obstructed by 
the enemy, to save the garrison from 
starvation, a steamer was fitted out 
and left Newberne with supplies of 
food and a regiment of stout hearts. 
With much hazard and some loss of 



life the boat parsed the batteries and 
succeeded in landing its freight. 
With food, the position being a 
strong one, the Union troops were 
able to hold out, but General Foster 
desired to do more, — defeat his be- 

Becoming tired of the futile efforts 
of his subordinates to bring troops to 
his assistance, lie determined to re- 
turn by the same boat that had 
brought his command relief in food, 
and he started on this forlorn hope, 
the issue of which was extremely 
doubtful, on the afternoon of April 
14. 1S63. 

On arriving at the rebel batteries 
they opened on the steamer a furious 
fire ; being within range, the infantry 
of the enemy poured in volley after 
volley. The craft was struck by six 
and twelve-pound shot more than 
twenty times, besides being thor- 
oughly bored by musket balls. A 
minie bullet killed the pilot. Shot 
holes were made at the water line, 
but the leaks were stopped. One of 
the missiles ^ passed through General 
Foster's own stateroom, cutting the 
mattress in twain, he being at that 
time in another part of the boat. 
Balls struck the machinery, but, for- 
tunately, did not disable it, and the 
boat went on, reaching Newberne the 
same night. The presence of the 
commander of the department restored 
confidence, and he commenced work 
at once. A division of troops was 
soon in marching order, but the 
enemy knew their man too well ; he 
had escaped from their anticipated 
capture -of him, and they rapidly 
made haste to get away. Meanwhile 
General Foster received a commission 
as major-general United States Volun- 
teers, to rank from July 18, 1862. 

Upon the return of General Foster 
from North Carolina, President Lin- 
coln was so delighted with his skill, 
energy, and pluck, that our hero was 
assigned to a more important com- 
mand than he had hitherto held, that 
of the Department of Virginia and 
North Carolina, with headquarters at 
Fortress Monroe, from whence he 
made a daring reconnoissauce by 
steamer up the James river, amidst 
exploding torpedoes. 

In the summer of 1S63, when Burn- 
side was shut up in Knoxville, Tenn., 
by Longstreet's invading forces, Gen- 
eral Foster was sent to his relief, with 
the intention of attacking the Con- 
federates in the rear. The movement 
becoming known to Longstreet, and 
he being fearful for the safety of his 
command, threatened in front and 
rear, raised the siege of Knoxville 
after a severe repulse at Fort Sanders, 
and began his retreat eastwardly. 

When Burnside was relieved of the 
command of the Array and Depart- 
ment of the Ohio, Foster was assigned 
thereto, Dec. 12, 1863, but was obliged 
to ask relief and relinquish it Feb. 9, 
1864, in consequence of severe inju- 
ries received from the fall of his 
horse. As soon as he had somewhat 
recovered, he was assigned, May 26, 
1S64, to command the Department of 
the South, with headquarters at Hil- 
ton Head. 

When it became known that Sher- 
man was marching through Georgia, 
Foster opened communications with 
him by way of the Ossabaw and War- 
saw T sounds, and also assisted him by 
making demonstrations on Pocotaligo 
and other points along the line of 
railway from Savannah to Charleston. 
So well was this cooperation carried 
out, that the first reliable news of the 



success of General Sherman's inarch 
from Atlanta to the sea was" sent to 
Washington from General Foster's 
command, and on Dec. 22, 1864, 
he opened up communication with 
Savannah by water. After General 
Sherman's famous march from Atlanta 
to the sea, General Foster was as- 
signed to duty in Florida, where he 
was successfully engaged during the 
final operations of the Federal arms, 
which ended in the collapse of the 
Rebellion and the surrender by Gen- 
eral Lee at Appomattox. 

Soon after this surrender, the new 
Department of Florida was organized, 
and embraced within its limits the 
whole state of Florida in the military 
division of the gulf. General Foster 
was assigned to command this de- 
partment, the general headquarters 
being at Tallahassee, the capital of 
the state. He and his troops thereby 
became subject to the orders of Gen- 
eral Sheridan. In this new command 
he continued active, intelligent, and 
impartial, and closed his military ca- 
reer in the War of the Rebellion in 
the complete enjoyment of the esteem 
of his associates, the respect of his 
subordinates, and in the full confi- 
dence of the people and the govern- 
ment of the United States. 

General Foster stood very high in 
the estimation of Generals Sherman 
and Sheridan, both of whom recom- 
mended him for promotion at the 
close of the war. 

The compiler has seen letters ad- 
dressed to the secretary of war, and 
to General Grant, written in behalf 
of General Foster, and recommend- 
ing him in the very strongest terms 
for promotion to high rank in the 
army. It would seem that letters 
written by such men as Daniel Clark, 

Aaron H. Cragin, United States sena- 
tors at the time they wrote ; E. H. 
Rollins, J. W. Patterson, and Gilman 
Marston, members of congress ; Henry 
Wilson, United States senator ; Gov. 
Win. Marvin of Florida, also United 
States senator ; and many other dis- 
tinguished men of influence, would 
have gained for Foster such rank as 
was desired for him in the regular 
army ; but the president of the United 
States, after the close of the war, did 
not promote him to be a full major- 
general, United States army, or a 
full brigadier-general, United States 
army, but did not refuse to confer on 
him the rank of brevet major-general, 
United States army. 

In a letter written to General Fos- 
ter, under date of July 17, 1866, by the 
father of the present governor of New 
Hampshire, who was then in con- 
gress — Hon. E. H. Rollins — he used 
the following words regarding the 
then president of the United States : 
" Flis present conduct indicates that 
he would not, in the selection of offi- 
cers, be influenced by his original 
political friends, and I am in doubt 
as to the aid our congressional dele- 
gation might be able to give you in 
the line of promotion you desire, and 
which you deserve." Ex lino omnes 

He, of whom the distinguished 
congressman just quoted wrote, was 
the constitutional president of the 
United States. Let us therefore 
quote the famous lines of Matthew 
Prior and leave him. 

" Be to his virtues very kind, 
. Be to his faults a little blind." 

General Foster was .also regarded 
very highly by Edwin M. Stanton, 
the famous secretary of war. This 
statement is evidenced by letters 



which the writer has seen, in one 
of which the distinguished secretary 
used the following words to Gov- 
ernor Marvin of Florida, in the win- 
ter of iS65-'66 : <; I have great con- 
fidence in the administrative ability 
of General Foster." 

The marked ability of General 
Foster was recognized abroad as well 
as at home. His reputation was in- 
ternational. In the year 1S6S he 
published a pamphlet on submarine 
blasting. This monograph was rec- 
ognized throughout the civilized 
world, and was considered to be au- 
thority on that subject. In the year 
1S69 General Sir John F. Burgoyne, 
field marshal of the British Army, 
sent a letter to Brevet Major-General 
John Newton, who ranked General 
Foster in the corps of engineers, 
and requested that a copy of Foster's 
book on submarine blasting should 
be sent to him. General Burgoyne 
afterward wrote a letter to General 
Foster thanking him for the book 
which he had sent through General 
Newton. This letter, which the 
compiler has seen, was dated Lon- 
don, September 20, 1869. 

General Foster was made president 
of the railroad commission when the 
project was planned to build a rail- 
way through the government land at 
and near West Point. He was al- 
so a member of the Sutro Tunnel 
commission. These, together with 
numerous other high positions that 
he he'd, tend to show that he was 
regarded as a superior "all round 

During his long service of twenty- 
eight years in the United States 
army, our hero received from the 
president no less than sixteen com- 
missions. The following is a list of 

such commissions with the date and 
rank conferred by each : 

On July 1, 1S42, John G. Foster 
was a cadet in the United States 
Military academy, to July 1, 1S46. 
Subsequently he received the follow- 

July 1, 1S46. brevet second lieutenant, U. S. A. 

Aug. 20, 1S4.7, brevet first lieutenant, U. S. A., 
for gallant and meritorious conduct in the bat- 
tles of Contreras and Cherubusco, Mexico. 

Sept. S, 1S47. brevet captain, TJ. S. A., for gal- 
lant aud meritorious conduct in the battle of 
Molino del Rev, .Mexico. 

May 24, 1S4S, second lieutenant Corps of En- 
gineers, U. S. A. 

April 1, 1S54, first lieutenant Corps of En- 
gineers, U. S. A. 

July i, 1S60, captain Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A.,. for fourteen years continuous service. 

Dec. 26, i860, brevet major, U. S. A., for the 
distinguished part taken by him in the transfer 
of the garrison of Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, 
Charleston Harbor, S. C. 

May 14, 1S61, major Eleventh U. S. Infantry, 

Oct. 23. 1S61, brigadier-general, U. S. Volun- 

Feb. 8, 1S62, brevet lieutenant-colonel, U.S.A., 
for gallant and meritorious service in the cap- 
ture of Roanoke Island, N. C. 

March 12, 1S62, brevet colonel, U. S. A., for 
gallant and meritorious services in the capture 
'of Newberne, N. C. 

July iS, 1S62, major-general U. S. Volunteers. 

March 3, 1S63, major Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A. 

March 13, 1S65, brevet brigadier-general, 
U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services 
in the capture of Savannah. Ga. 

March 13, 1865, brevet major-general, U. S. A., 
for gallant and meritorious services in the 
field during the Rebellion. 

March 7, 1867, lieutenant-colonel, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A. 

On the first day of September, 1S66, he was 
mustered out of the volunteer service. 

On the 30th day of August, 1S66, by order of 
the secretary of war, he was assigned to duty 
in accordance with his brevet rank of major- 
general, U. S. A. 

Special orders No. 439. 

War Department, 
Adjutant-General's Office, 
Washington, September 3, 1866. 

5. The telegraphic orders from this office 
dated August 30, 1S66, assigning to duty ac- 
cording to their brevet rank the following 
named officers, are hereby confirmed: 

Brevet Maj.-Gen. John G. Foster, major 
Corps of Engineers. 

By order of the secretary of war, 

E. D. Towxsend, 
Assistant A djuiant- General. 
E. D. Town-send, 

A ssista n t A dja ta n t- Gen era l. 



General Foster was a man of very 
commanding presence, possessed of a 
superior mind and great executive 
ability, was ardent and energetic in 
the performance of duty, had un- 
daunted courage and unswerving 
loyalty. By nature he was genial' 
and sympathetic, manifested cordial- 
ity and affection to his companions, 
was an admirable raconteur with an 
almost exhaustless store of anecdote 
and story, and by his family and in- 
timates was greatly beloved. 

Following may be found the mili- 
tary history of General Foster in de- 
tail : 


Entered as cadet, U. S. Military academy, 
West Point, July i, 1S42, from which he was 
graduated, after a full course of four years, on 
July 1, 1846. 

Served as follows : Assistant engineer in the 
Engineer Bureau at Washington, D. C, 1S46 ; 
in the war with Mexico, i847-'4S ; attached to 
the company of sappers, miners, and pon- 
toniers, was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, 
Mar. 9-29, 1S47; the battle of Cerra Gordo, Apr. 
r7-iS, 1847 ; battle of Contreras, Aug. 19-20, 
1847; battle of Cherubusco, Aug. 20, i?4~; bat- 
tle of Molino del Rey, Sept. 8, 1847, where he 
was severely wounded; on sick-leave of ab- 
sence, disabled by wounds, i?47-'4> ; assistant 
engineer in building Fort Carroll, Patapsco 
river, Md., iS4S-'52 ; at coast survey office, 
Washington, D. C, Mar. 20, 1852, to Apr. 26, 
1854 ; assistant engineer in building Fort Car- 
roll, Md.,- 18,54: at the Military academy as 
principal assistant professor of engineering, 
Jan. 11, 1855, to June 27, 1857; as superintend- 
ing enginee of the survey of the site of fort at 
Willett's Point, I,. I., N. Y., 1S57, of prelimin- 
ary operations for building fort at Sandy 
Hook, X. J., i^57-'55, of building Fort Sumter 
and repairs of Fort Moultrie, Charleston Har- 
bor, S. C, 1858, 1861, also in charge of Forts 
Macon and Caswell, N, C, J.S58-'6i; and also of 
construction of Fort Carroll, Md., i859-'6o. 

He served in the Rebellion of the seceding 
states, i86i-'66, as follows : as chief engineer of 
the fortifications of Charleston harbor, S. C, 
being engaged in strengthening the works in 
anticipation of attack upon them, — transport- 
ing the garrison of Fort Moultrie to Fort Sum- 
ter, Dec. 26, i860,-- -and in defense of Sumter, 
Dec. 27, 1860, to Apr. 14, 1861, including its 

bombardment, Apr. 12-14. 1S61, when it was 
surrendered and evacuated; as assistant' en- 
gineer in the Engineer Bureau at Washington. 
D. C. Apr. 22 to May 5, 1861 ; as superintend- 
ing engineer of the construction of Sandy 
Hook Fort, X. J., May ii to Nov. 22, r ; 6r ; in 
command of troops (brig. -gen. U. S. Vols ) at 
Annapolis, Md., Nov. 25 to Dec. 20, 1801 ; on 
General Burnside's North Carolina expedition, 
commanding brigade, Dec. 20, 1861, to July 1, 

1862, being engaged in the capture of Roanoke 
Island with its garrison and armament, Feb. S, 
1862; capture of Newberne, Mar. 14, no:, and 
bombardment oi Fort Macon which capitu- 
lated Apr. 26, 1862 ; in command of the depart- 
ment of North Carolina, July r, 1S62, to July 

13, 1863 (his force constituting the Eighteenth 
Army Corps, Dec. 24., 1862 ; he was commis- 
sioned a major-general, U. S. Yols., to rank 
from July iS, 1862), during which time he suc- 
cessfully conducted the expedition to burn the 
Goldsborongh railroad bridge, Dec, 1S62, being 
engaged in the battle of South West Creek, 
Dec. 14, 1862; combat of Kinston, Dec. 15, 
1862; action of Whitehall, Dec. 17, 1S62; battle 
of Goldsborongh Bridge, Dec. 18, 1862; repulse 
of the rebel attack on Newberne, Mar. 14, 1863, 
and defense of Washington, N. C, Mar. 29 to 
Apr. 16, 1863, when the siege was raised ; in 
command of the Department of Virginia and 
North Carolina, July 15 to Nov. 13, 1863, and of 
the Arrny and Department of the Ohio, Dec. 12, 

1863, to Feb. 9, 1864, which he was obliged to 
relinquish in consequence of severe injuries 
received from the fall of his horse, Dec. 23, 
1864; on sick-leave of waiting orders, at Balti- 
more, Md., Feb. 9 to May 5, 1864 ; in command 
of the Department of the South, May 26, 1864, 
to Feb. 11, 1S65 ; in command of the Depart- 
ment of Florida, Aug. 7, 1S65, to Dec. 5, 1866. 

Mustered out of volunteer service, Sept. 1, 

Subsequently he served in the regular army 
as follows : On temporary duty in the Engineer 
Bureau at Washington, D. C, Jan., 1S67, to 
May 10, 1867 ; as superintending engineer of 
the defences of Portsmouth, N. H., and works 
for the preservation and improvement of Bos- 
ton Harbor (except sea-walls of Great Brews- 
ter, Deer, and Dovell's islands), Mass., May 
10, 1S67, to May 25, 1871 ; of improvement of 
Provincetown harbor, Mass., June, 1S68, to 
May 25, 1871 ; of surveys of Gloucester, Well- 
fleet and Wareham harbors, Mass., July, 1870, 
to May 14, 1S/1, and of improvement of Taun- 
ton and Merrimack rivers, and Kyannis and 
Plymouth harbors, Mass., July, 1870, to May 

14, 1871 ; as assistant to the chief of engineers 
at Washington, D. C, May 14, 1S71, to June 11, 
1874 • as superintending engineer of the im- 
provement of Merri-rnac river and harbors of 



Gloucester, Salem, Boston, Duxbury, Ply- 
mouth, Wellfleet, and Province town, Mass., 
June II to Aug. 24, 1S74; of repairs and con- 
struction of the sea-walls of Great Brewster, 
Deer, and Love IPs islands, June 1.1 to Aug. 24. 
1S74 ; and of survey of Hiogham Harbor, Mass., 
July to Aug., 1^74. and as member of board of 
wreck of steamer Scotland in New YorV; har- 
bor, Mar. 26, to July 31, 1S6S ; on improvement 
of Oswego harbor, X. Y..July, 1S6P; on loca- 
tion of West Shore railroad through public 
lands at West Point, N. Y., 1S70 : on improve- 
ment of Erie harbor, Pa., Oct., 1870; on Sutro 
tunnoi, Nevada, Apr. 27, 1871, to Jan. 6, 1872 ; 
on locks of Louisville and Portland canal, Dec. 
1S71 ; on improvement of Cape Fear river, May 
14, 1S72, and on Harbor of Refuge on Lake 
Erie, July, i s 72. 

Died, Sept. 2, 1S74, at Nashua, N. H., aged 51. 

When he was borne to the graYe 
at his Nashua home, business was 
suspended ; thousands of sorrowing 
friends filled the streets, mourning 
badges floated from public and pri- 
vate buildings, and the air was filled 
with the sound of tolling bells, 
minute guns, and muffled drums. 

General Foster, in honor of whom 
the post in the Grand Army of the 
Republic in the city of Nashua was 
named, was buried at the Old ceme- 
tery in Nashua with military honors. 

On the 5th day of September, 
1S74, to his parent earth in the Old 
cemetery of Nashua, N. H., was be- 
queathed the body of John G. Pos- 
ter. His remains were followed to 
the graYe by many officers of the ar- 
my, and other distinguished friends. 
• A comrade of General Foster's in 
the Mexican War, Col. Thomas P. 
Pierce, marshaled the ciYic cortege, 
and eight general officers, comrades 
in the War of the Rebellion, includ- 
ing Generals Burnside and Gordon, 
guarded the hearse, while John G. 
Foster post, G. A. R., Col. George 
Bowers, commander,— another Nashua 
comrade of the general's in the Mexi- 
can War, — and a detachment of the 

United States regulars escorted the 
great procession to the graYe in the 
Old Nashua cemetery. 

A beautiful white marble monu- 
ment suitably inscribed was erected 
to his memory by his wife soon after 
the burial, in the lot where his mor- 
tal remains now repose. 

A bronze memorial urn has been 
placed near the head of General Fos- 
ter's graYe by his friends and com- 
rades in arms, the members of John 
G. Foster post, No. 7, Department of 
New Hampshire, Grand Army of the 
Republic, and the urn is kept filled 
w T ith fresh flowers. 

Near by, in the same cemetery, 
also rests all that is mortal of BreYet 
Brigadier-General Aaron F. SteYens, 
colonel Thirteenth N. H. Volunteers, 
who was General Foster's towmsman 
and friend. 

In this cemetery also repose the 
remains of many other men who were 
distinguished in their day and gen- 
eration as statesmen and soldiers in 
every war w r aged by the United 
States from the War of the Revolu- 
tion to the present time. The body 
of Charles G. Atherton, a distin- 
guished senator of the United States, 
by whose influence General Foster 
was sent to West Point, was buried 
in this cemetery, and lies near the 
graYe of our hero. 

General Foster was twice married. 
At Baltimore, Md., January 21, 185 1, 
by the Most Rcy. Archbishop Eccles- 
ton, married to Mary L. Moale, 
daughter of Col. Samuel Moale of 
Baltimore. Mrs. Foster died in New 
York, June 6, 1S71 ; in Washington, 
January 9, 1872, at St. Matthew's 
church, to Nannie DaYis, daughter 
of George M. Davis. One daughter 
was born to him bv his first wife, 



Annie M., born in Baltimore, Md., 
November 3, 1851, married Lieut. 
Henry Seton, U. S. A., at the cathe- 
dral in Boston, April 26, 1S70. Mrs. 
Seton has two sons. Her husband 
now (May, 1S99) is a major in the 
regular army of the United States, 
and is (Twelfth Infantry) in the ser- 
vice in the Philippine Islands. 

Through his long military service. 
General Foster's career was marked 
by a faithful, devoted, and intelligent 
discharge of duty, by personal gal- 
lantry, by honest administration, and 
by a firmness which was not weak- 
ened by his great kindness of heart. 

To the discharge of his important 
functions he brought eminent per- 
sonal qualifications, military decision 
with courtesy, authority with kind- 
ness, knowledge with consideration, 
unfaltering integrity and unflinching 
firmness, fidelity to every trust and 
loyalty to his country, and with a 
restless energy and untiring industry 
that never left anything unfinished 
or to chance. 

Though dead, the record of his 
fame is resplendent with noble deeds 
well clone, and no name on the army 
register of the United States stands 
fairer or higher for the personal quali- 
ties that command universal respect, 
honor, affection, and" love of man- 
kind. He was not a carpet knight, 
or one who shirked the bugle call to 
battle. As was said of Admiral Por- 
ter, "he was animated by a detesta- 
tion of all forms of oppression, whether 
by governments or peoples." This 

was in him a consuming passion. 
His life was filled with exciting 
events, but it was not until the Civil 
War that there came to him the op- 
portunity for which he was fitted by 
lifelong training. 

We have ready applause for bril- 
liant deeds and are not slow to ad- 
mire genius, and yet that which most 
commands our profound and abiding 
reverence is not the flash of some 
brilliant achievement, but the steady, 
strong progress of noble character. 

This is the kind of power with 
which the memory of General Foster 
comes to us to-day. He was great 
in war, and equally so in peace. 
There are no private discounts to 
reduce the excellency and glory of 
his public record. 

, Foster may be accepted and pro- 
claimed as a typical American sol- 
dier, % ' tempering fire with prudence, 
and uniting vigor with imperturba- 
bility." In the decisive moment of 
attack no columns were more resist- 
less than those that he directed, and 
in the terrible crisis of a losing day 
no /rout was firmer and more deadly 
than that which he presented to a 
rashly exulting foe. His modesty, 
his valor, his generosity, his soldierly 
frankness, his kindly fraternal ways 
with his brother officers, his fatherly 
interest for his men, his unflinching 
loyalty, so endeared him to every one 
who knew his sterling qualities, that 
all could unite and say, " This was a 
ma'n ; the world was better for his 
having: lived." 

Note. — The author of the foregoing begs to say that biographies are, at best, but compilations ; 
that he has been favored by Mrs. Seton, General Foster's daughter, with a great number of pa- 
pers, very many of which are in Foster's own handwriting; that he has used the prerogative of 
biographers and quoted freely from others., and in many instances without credit, notably from 
General Cullum's "Biographical Register." 

Nashua, May, 1S99. 



By Ezra'S. Stearns. 

Whm Willian 

assackusetts grant to 
m Brenton, known as 
B reuton Farm, bears date of 
1656. This grant of consid- 
erable area was located on both sides 
of the Merrimack river including the 
present village of Thornton, in Mer- 
rimack, and a considerable part of 
Litchfield on the opposite side of the 
river. In the progress of years the 
Massachusetts charters of Dunstable, 
Nottingham, and Naticook, with sev- 
eral subdivisions of these ancient 
townships, and laier the incorpora- 
tion by New Hampshire of Litch- 
field and Merrimack, introduced 
many changes in the territorial rela- 
tions of the earl}- settlers of the local- 
ity, but none of these is of import in 
this connection. 

The Brenton Farm was early di- 
vided in lots of convenient area and 
sold to prospective settlers. In this 
division and sale one acre on each 
side of the river, with land for high- 
ways leading thereto, was reserved 
for the accommodation of a ferry. 
The necessity and utility of a ferry 
were self evident. It was designed 
for the convenience of the community 
and to promote social and business 
intercourse between the settlers on 
the opposite sides of the river. For 
many years it was used in peace and 
contentment, but as the settlements 
increased and the profits became 
more material it became the source 
of contention and litigation. It was 

many years before there was an es- 
tablished ferry with constant attend- 
ance. Any of the dwellers near the 
river was privileged to own his boats 
for his personal convenience, or to 
collect a toll from a willing patron. 

Prominent among the early boat- 
men on the river was Christopher 
Temple, who owned and occupied 
the farm in Merrimack adjacent to 
and north of the farm later owned by 
Colonel Lutwyche and later by Hon. 
Matthew Thornton. He settled on 
this farm about the year 1729, and 
after a residence there of twelve years 
he leased the farm to Zachariah 
Stearns of Bedford, Mass., and re- 
moved to Littleton, Mass. Mr. 
Stearns remained a tenant on the 
farm until 1744 or 1745. In the 
conduct of the ferry he employed, a 
part of the time, a boat owned by the 
town of Litchfield, but moored when 
not in use on the west bank of the 
river. Later Thomas Mordough and 
John L'sher were tenants on this 
farm and continued a ferry until 
about 1760. 

About the time of the removal of 
Mr. Temple, Capt. Robert Richard- 
son of Litchfield, for a year or more, 
was accustomed to ferry across the 
river, having a station on the west 
side at the Temple farm, and twenty 
years later, for a short time, Captain 
Parker, also of Litchfield, assisted his 
neighbors and strangers from other 
towns in crossing the river, but, from 



first to last, the ferries were almost 
exclusively conducted by residents of 
the west side of the river. 

If Christopher Temple was the 
pioneer he earl}* had a rival in Capt. 
Jonathan Ctimmings, who owned and 
occupied the Lutwyche or Thornton 
farm, and there maintained a ferry 
nearly thirty years. 

It will be remembered that Cap- 
tain Cummings and Mr. Temple oc- 
cupied adjoining farms in Merri- 
mack. They were neighbors and 
friends. At the suggestion of Mr. 
Temple, Captain Cummings applied 
to the court of general sessions of the 
peace for the county of Middlesex 
holden at Cambridge, May iS, 1736, 
for a license to keep a ferry. The 
petition was granted, but, in. 1741, 
when the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts was ended, the license became 
void. After the removal from Mer- 
rimack of Mr. Temple, Captain Cum- 
mings, forgetful of the lapse of his 
license, contended for the exclusive 
right to maintain a ferry and there 
was a continued contention between 
him and the tenants of the Temple 

For many years two ferries were 
continued, and at this late day it is 
impossible to determine which party 
secured the greater profit or got the 
best of the quarrel. 

In . 1760, there were important 
changes to be noted. Strangers ap- 
pear in place of the old boatmen, and 
as the profits of the rival ferries in- 
crease with the growth of the settle- 
ments, the bitterness of the conten- 
tion is intensified. At this time, or 
to be more exact, in April, 1760, Ed- 
ward Goldstone Lutwyche, having 
leased the farm of Capt. Jonathan 
Cummings, removed from Boston to 

Merrimack. About the same time 
James Matthews purchased and re- 
moved to the Temple farm. These 
newcomers continued the ferries and 
the fight and each had loyal friends 
and patrons. 

In 1763, Mr. Lutwwche purchased 
the Cummings farm, and three years 
later he secured a decided advantage 
over his neighbor Matthews. Ap- 
pealing to Gov. Benning Went- 
worth, he secured a grant, as it was 
styled, giving him "the sole privi- 
lege of keeping a ferry and of keep- 
ing, using, and employing a ferry- 
boat, and ferryboats for transporting 
men, horses, carriages, goods, and 
things from the shore of Merrimack 
aforesaid, where the said Edward 
Goldstone Lutwyche now dwells, 
across River Merrimac to the oppo- 
site shore of Litchfield" — "and for 
the encouragement of the said Ed- 
ward Goldstone Lutwyche to keep 
such boats and give such attendance 
as aforesaid we do strictly forbid our 
loving subjects to interfere with the 
same ferry or setting up any other 
ferry within the space of tw r o miles 
above or below the same granted 
ferry." This grant is dated July S, 
1766. The two-mile reservation in- 
cluded the Temple farm ferry, at 
this time owned by Mr. Matthews. 
Fortified with this grant from the 
governor, Mr. Lutwyche surveyed 
the situation with complacency, but 
Matthews was of stubborn material 
and was not ready to peacefully sur- 
render a right which had been an 
adjunct to his farm for more than 
thirty years. He said many things 
not complimentary to Mr. Lutwyche 
or Governor Wentworth, and he at- 
tested his sincerity in the continued 
maintenance of his ferry. 



' In August of the *>aine year Mr. 
Lutwyehe sued Mr. Matthews for 
trespass upon his exclusive right 
under his grant to keep a ferry. In 
the inferior court of common pleas 
the plaintiff secured a verdict but the 
defendant appealed to the superior 
court of judicature, and after an ani- 
mated trial the verdict was reversed. 
The plaintiff then obtained a review 
and was finally Muccessful. Mr. Lut- 
wyehe and his ferry were triumphant. 
The rival ferry was suspended, but 
Mr. Matthews was angered and be- 
ligerent. At this time Mr. Lutwyehe 
was appointed colonel of the fifth regi- 
ment of the royal militia, and Mr. 
Matthews not only derided the colo- 
nel, but he made many ungracious 
remarks of the "whole crew," as he 
styled them, of the colonel's house- 

It was a hot time on the lower Mer- 
rimack and growing decidedly warm- 
er until Mrs. Sarah Lutwyehe, the 
widowed mother of the colonel, sued 
Mr. Matthews for slander. The tes- 
timony in the case represented that 
Mr. Matthews was rude and coarse 
in conduct and abusive in speech. 
This case had three trials, and Mr. 
Matthews, in the end, was again de- 
feated. The written testimony in 
these cases, preserved in the court 
files, furnishes the material for the 
foregoing narrative. 

The remainder of the story of the 
ferry runs in more peaceful lines and 
is soon told. It remained in the con- 
trol of Colonel Lutwyehe until his 
sudden departure from the state in 
the spring of 1775, and immediately 
the towns of Litchfield and Merri- 
mack took possession of the ferry on 
the allegation that Colonel Lutwyehe 
was unfriendly to the cause of the 

American patriots, and Sarah Lut- 
wyehe, the mother of the abseut colo- 
nel, petitioned the provincial congress 
for redress. In November following 
it was ordered that the committees 
representing Litchfield and Merri- 
mack surrender the ferry to its 
proper owner. 

By the act of 177S the estates of 
several Tories, including that of Colo- 
nel Lutwyehe, were confiscated, and 
thus the farm and the ferry became 
the property of the state. In 1780, 
the farm was sold for the benefit of 
the state to Hon. Matthew Thornton, 
who procured, in 17S4, a new charter 
for the ferry, and while he lived con- 
tinued in the peaceable possession of 
the farm and the ferry. 

During the years of the early set- 
tlement of Litchfield and Merrimack, 
the frequent changes in town lines 
and the close alliance that existed 
between the dwellers on the east and 
the west side of the river have easily 
led to many erroneous statements 
concerning the residence of the first 
settlers of those towns. 

The dispositions used in the law- 
suits between Lutwyehe and Mat- 
thews incidentally afford consider- 
able information of the residence of 
the deponents. 

The fact that in 1734 Christopher 
Temple was one of a committee to 
build a meeting-house in Litchfield 
has led the annalist to count him 
among the dwellers of that town. In 
his deposition, dated July 7, 1767, 
he testifies that he built the first 
house on the farm then owned by 
James Matthews, and that he lived 
there about twelve years, remaining 
a short time after he had leased his 
farm to Zachariah Stearns. From 
other testimony it is shown that he 



lived ou the west side of the river 
from about 1729— '41. He was a se- 
lectman of Naticook, embracing ter- 
ritory on both sides of the river. 1 734, 
1735. 173s, 1739. and 1741. 

John Chamberlain testified that in 
1733 he bought a farm and removed 
to Merrimack, and has resided there 
until the present time (1767). He 
was foremost among his townsmen. 

Benjamin Hassell declared " he was 
the first person that lived in the town 
which is called Merrimack, on the 
west side of Merrimack river, and 
that some time afterwards Captain 
Cummings and Christopher Temple 
moved into said town." He was a 
sou of Joseph Hassell, Jr., and was 
born August 19, 1701. 

Capt. Jonathan Cummings was 
born July 3, 1703. He was a son of 
Thomas and Priscilla (Warner) Cum- 
mings of Dunstable. He married 
Elizabeth Blanchard, a daughter of 
Joseph Blanchard, and was one of 
the earl}* settlers on Brenton Farm, 
in Merrimack. He was a selectman 
and one of the first deacons of the 

John Stearns, then of Merrimack, 
testified that about 1739 or 1740, his 
father, Zachariah Stearns, removed 
to the farm of Christopher Temple, 
later owned by James Matthews, and 
lived there two years, then moved 
away in the spring, returning the 
next fall, and then remained two 
years and a half. Zachariah Stearns, 
a son of John and Mercy (Davis) 
Stearns, was born in Concord, now 
Bedford, Mass., February 6, i-joi-o2. 
After his removal from the Temple 
farm he was a selectman 1 746-^7 . 

Robert Usher testified that his 
father, John Usher, leased the farm 
later owned by James Matthews 

about 174S, and lived there six years. 
This family probably lived in Mer- 
rimack a few years previous to their 
removal to the Temple or Matthews 

Thomas Mordough testified that 
aoout 1754 he moved to the Mat- 
thews farm and lived there a few 7 
years. According to his testimony 
the farm was then owned by Mr. 
Gordon of Boston. 

James Xahor testified that he re- 
sided on the east side of the river 
since 1734, and that the proprietors 
of Brenton Farm reserved a road four 
rods wide through the farm to the 
river, and on the west side the road 
of equal width was located between 
the Lutwyche and the Temple or 
Matthews farms. 

William Richardson testified that 
he had lived on the east side in 
Litchfield since 1729. 

Benjamin Blodget testified he had 
lived in Litchfield since 1732 or 
" thereabouts." 

John Harvell said he had lived in 
Litchfield since 1737 or earlier. 

Bridget Snow testified that in the 
month of July, 1766, she removed, 
with her goods, from Londonderry to 
Hollis and crossed the Merrimack 
river in the ferryboat of James Mat- 

In one of the depositions mention 
was made of Mingo, a negro servant 
of Colonel Lutwyche. 

Of James Matthews, who has been 
frequently named in this article, very 
little information is available. April 
1, 1761, he purchased the Temple 
farm of James Gordon of Boston. In 
the deed he is styled "of Bedford." 
At this date he had several children, 
some of whom were accustomed to 
manage the boats on the river. 



It has been asserted in the New 
Hampshire prints that Colonel Lut- 
wyche was a gentleman of wealth, a 
retired lawyer, and an Englishman. 
The facts do not warrant these asser- 
tions. Edward and Lawrence Lut- 
wyehe were brothers and were born 
about 1700 in the county of Radnor 
in Wales. The}- came to America 
and settled in Boston previous to 
1728. Edward Lutwyche was a tav- 
erner in Boston, having license from 
year to year to conduct his business 
on Linn, King, and Ship streets. 
Lawrence Lutwyche was a distiller 
and accumulated a moderate estate. 
He was chosen a constable of Boston, 
1739, and the following year he made 
return of the warrant for the town 
meeting which granted leave to erect 
Faneuil hall. In 1739 he was one of 
the vestrymen of Trinity church. 
He married, May 6, 1735, Sarah 
Liudall, born June 17, 17 12, daugh- 
ter of Dea. James and Mary (Higgiu- 
son) Weed Lindall of Salem. The 
intentions of marriage are recorded 
in Boston, March 24, 1735. He 
died in 1740. His will is dated Sep- 
tember 2 and was probated October 
15, 1740. He left his estate in equal 
shares to his widow, Sarah, and his 
only child, Edward Goldstoue Lut- 

In the will of Caleb Lindall, an 
uncle of Sarah, wife of Lawrence 
Lutwyche, who died November 13, 
1 751, mention is made of his niece, 
Widow Sarah Lutwyche, and her 
son, Edward Goldstone Lutwyche. 

Dea. James Lindall was one of the 
original proprittors of Weare and of 
Lyndeborough, and he owned land 
in Merrimack. 

In April, 1760, Colonel Lutwyche 
and his mother removed from Boston 

to Merrimack, where he resided fif- 
teen years. In 1763, he was chosen 
chairman of the board of selectmen, 
an unusual compliment to one of his 
age. In later years he is not fre- 
quently named in the records of the 
town, and the measure of his popu- 
larly among his townsmen is not 
easily determined. In regard to his 
contention with Matthews over the 
ferry, the sentiment of the commu-' 
nity was divided, and it is presum- 
able that the people objected to a 
monopoly of the business under his 
charter. If he experienced an}- loss 
of esteem at home he was fully com- 
pensated by the potent influences at 
Portsmouth. He was regarded with 
favor and kindly remembered by 
Govs. Benning and John Went- 
worth, who gave him the charter of 
the ferry and named him an original 
grantee of the towns of Acworth and 
Enfield, and of Guildhall, in Ver- 
mont. He was early commissioned 
a captain, and was the colonel of the 
Fifth regiment, succeeding Col. 
Zaccheus Lovewell, from 1767 until 
his sudden departure from the prov- 

The house of representatives, in 
176S, appointed him, with two others, 
to hear and report upon a petition of 
the collectors of Amherst in regard 
to taxation, and the following year, 
in an act providing for the construc- 
tion of a road from Boscawen to 
Charlestown, by the concurrent vote 
of the council and the house he was 
appointed one of the agents to con- 
struct the road, and in the prosecu- 
tion of this work he took a prominent 
part, and two years later he appears 
as an agent of the Masonian Pro- 
prietors in the building of a road 
near Sutton. In 1 77 1, upon the 



organization of five counties in the 
province, he was one of the justices 
of the peace for Hillsborough count}', 
but the date of his commission can- 
not be determined. 

At the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion, and while his townsmen were 
pledging life and fortune to the 
American cause, he adhered to the 
mother country and fled to Boston. 
It is said that he took his departure 
from his province during the night 

succeeding the memorable 19th of 
April, but I do not know on what 
authority this statement was orisri- 
nally founded. At the evacuation of 
Boston by the British in March, 
1776, he accompanied the army to 
Halifax, and later he appears in 
New York, where he married, Jane 
de Repalje, a daughter of John de 
Repalje. They had one daughter, 
Catherine, who became the wife of 
Col. Peter Walden, of Norwich, Eng. 

By Fred Myron Colby. . 

PI 1 


N entertaining paper might 
be written of the haunts of 
Samuel Johnson, whose very 
name calls up memories of a 
host of noted people among whom he 
lived as oracle, critic, and friend. It 
was a strange career, that of this 
greatest man of letters of the eigh- 
teenth century, and how like a ro- 
mance it reads ! The half starved 
schoolmaster going from Litchfield 
to London to seek his fortune, the 
struggling poet and literary hack in 
Grub street living on three pence per 
day ; the hard working editor and 
essayist in the great room over St. 
John's . gate, the oracle of coffee 
houses, dining with Reynolds in 
Leicester square, and supping with 
a chosen few at the " Mitre tavern " 
in Fleet street; the great philoso- 
pher hiding in his garret to work, 
the autocrat of tea-parties, heavy, 
awkward, pedantic, cynical as Car- 
lyle, yet a genius and a Christian, 
and the central figure around which 
are grouped the statesmen, poets, 

novelists, dramatists, actors, and ar- 
tists of George the Third's time. 

We willingly pass by Grub street, 
its toils and miseries and petty vexa- 
tions. It is pleasanter to think of 
the after days of success when wo- 
men of rank and fashion were proud 
to entertain him at their houses, and 
the most famous men of the age as- 
sembled around him at his own home 
in Bolt court, at the coffee houses, at 
Portman square, or at Mrs. Thrale's 
house at Stratham. Would we not 
like to have seen those social assem- 
blies and tea-parties, and all the lions 
of that last century gathered togeth- 
er, and to have listened to Johnson's 
Leviathan speech. Goldsmith's good- 
humored nonsense, Garrick's bold 
sallies, Sheridan's wit, and Miss Bur- 
ney's conversation ? It is not a hard 
matter at all to go back to those days 
and picture the scenes in which they 
lived and wrote and acted, and out of 
which they have vanished. 

Dr. Johnson's house in Bolt court 
still stands nearly as in his day. It 



is a long shallow building- of brick, 
four stories in height, with a quaint 
doorway in the center, over which is 
inscribed the doctor's name and the 
date of his residence there. The 
rooms are large and comfortable, and 
one experiences a thrill as he passes 
up and down the winding, oaken 
staircase, which must have been 
mounted more times than we can 
count by the big, shambling feet of 
the illustrious owner. Crossing the 
paved court you can walk into Fleet 
street, just as Johnson did, through 
a long, narrow passage under a shop. 
Here stands the "Mitre," somewhat 
faded and humbled, but the very 
place where Johnson and Boswell 
used to visit arm in arm. 

To pass an evening in that old 
house then would have been worth 
going across the sea for. Almost 
an\- night one would have seen there 
Goldsmith, Edmund Burke, and Hor- 
ace Walpole, and Johnson's two de- 
voted admirers. Tapham Beauclerk 
and Bennet Langton, whose devotion 
to the literary autocrat shows there 
must have been a companionable side 
to " the old bear's " nature. 

It is not a long walk to Leicester 
square, where Sir Joshua Reynolds 
lived. Sir Joshua's residence, now 
number forty-seven, is a large, dig- 
nified-looking mansion with wide 
windows and massive chimneys. 
The -stately drawing-room, where the 
famous painter used to receive his 
guests, is intact, but all the mirth, 
the dignity, the splendor of the old 
day has departed. Nothing is there 
to tell us of the " sweet Sir Joshua," 
as his contemporaries called him, the 
gracious gentleman, with handsome, 
serene face, not even one of his pic- 
tures. Johnson, besides being on 

hand at the dinner parties, used to 
call evenings at this house and stay 
until he fairly wore out Reynolds's 
patience. They were so different ; 
Johnson, slovenly, awkward, and ar- 
bitrary, utterly without tact ; the 
painter, elegant, graceful, and polite, 
and with proverbial good nature. It 
is said that Reynolds once took his 
hat and left the house as the doctor 
entered it, but Johnson did not take 
the hint, and kept on calling. 

But the house most intimately as- 
sociated with Johnson is Thrale Hall 
at Stratham, near enough to Loudon 
to make the drive in and out in a few 
hours. It is a large, solid house of 
the Queen Anne style, enclosed in a 
park, and shaded by ancestral oaks. 
It was the residence of Henry Thrale, 
a wealthy brewer, whose wife was 
noted for her cleverness, vivacity, 
and grace in entertaining her guests. 

Their house, for a long time was 
one of the literary and social centers 
of London. They made the ac- 
quaintance of Johnson in 1764, and 
this acquaintance soon ripened into 
friendship. A room was prepared 
for him at the villa, a plate was al- 
ways laid for him at table, and he 
was considered so much one of the 
household that people who wanted to 
see him went oftener in search of 
him at Stratham than to his own 
house in Bolt court. It would seem 
that a full half of Johnson's life dur- 
ing about eighteen years was passed 
under the roof of the Thrales. 

They were the happiest years of his 
life, and to the care and attentions of 
this kind host and hostess, the learned 
and blameless hypochondriac was 
doubtless indebted to his escape from 
insanity. Mrs. Thrale rallied him in 
his fits of despondency, soothed him, 



coaxed him, and, if she sometimes 
provoked him by her flippancy, made 
ample amends by listening to his re- 
proofs with angelic sweetness of tem- 
per. When he was diseased in body 
and mind, she was the most tender 
of nurses. No comfort that wealth 
could purchase, no contrivance that 
womanly ingenuity, stimulated by 
womanly compassion, could devise 
was wanting in his sick-rooni. He 
requited her kindness by a fatherly 
affection, which was delicately tinged 
by a gallantry as puie in sentiment 
as it was oftentimes awkward in ex- 
. pression. 

The attention of his hostess was 
even carried to his dress. He was 
slovenly to excess, usually wearing 
an old brown coat with metal but- 
tons, a shirt that ought to have been 
at wash, his knee bands loose, his 
black worsted stockings "ill drawn 
up," his feet in unbuckled shoes, 
and a little, shriveled, unpowdered 
wig much too small for his head. 
Mrs. Thrale wisely provided some 
fine additions to his wardrobe, which 
were kept at the hall. When there 
was to be a dinner party or anything 
of the sort, a servant was stationed 
in the hall, and as the doctor passed 
from the library to the dining-room 
his old brown wig was gravely lifted 
from his head and replaced with a 
fresh one, the old wig being laid on 
his dressing-room table for use on 
the following day. What a change 
such a life must have been to a man 
who had been accustomed to dine 
and sup in a tavern ; whose home 
was either a dull lodging in the Tem- 
ple or his dingy house in Bolt court ; 
who was in the habit of staying out 
till two o'clock every morning, and 
coming ck>wn the next day un- 

brushed, unwashed, perhaps unfed, 
and always sick at heart and ill at 

All the literary lions of the age 
were %~isi tors one time or another at 
the Thrales. Mrs. Thrale was al- 
.ways on the watch for new celebri- 
ties, and pounced upon them as a 
cat would on a mouse, with the same 
feline facility but not with the car- 
niverous intent. She was a short, 
plump little woman, very brisk in 
her manners, pretty and vivacious. 
Mr. Thrale was a tall man, with 
rather a stately carriage, and the 
manners and tastes of the old-fash- 
ioned English squire. He had an 
income of about ten thousand pounds 
a year, so they could afford to be 
generous. They entertained ele- 
gantly but without ostentation. Mrs. 
Thrale, who was one of those clever, 
engaging, pert, vain women who are 
perpetually doing and saying some- 
thing that is not exactly right, but 
who, do or say what they may, are 
always agreeable, was a charming 

And her house was full of agree- 
able persons. Besides the great 
Samuel in scratch wig and single- 
breasted coat, there at many a din- 
ner or evening party could have been 
seen David Garrick, Burke, Gold- 
smith, Reynolds, and Sheridan. Two 
women, famous in their day and 
generation, and not forgotten now, 
were also guests at Stratham, namely, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Montague, celebrated 
for her wonderful powers of conver- 
sation and her superb entertainment 
at Portman square, and Frances Bur- 
ney, "Little Burney," afterward 
Madame d'Atblay. who poured John- 
son's tea for him at the table, and 
was the recipient of his almost ful- 


some compliments. These were the 
figures of, that famous group whose 
shades haunt the now antiquated 
house which once rang with their 
repartees or resounded to their sober 

The mode of life at Stratham was 
typical of the period. The guests 
strolled about the grounds, or read 
in the library, as they preferred, un- 
til the ten o'clock breakfast. At 
three or four o'clock they all reas- 
sembled for the afternoon dinner 
round the hospitable board, where 
the excellent claret, and still better 
beer of the worthy brewer, warmed 
even Johnson's soul, who, as Horace 
Walpole quaintly said, "was good- 
natured at bottom, but ill-natured at 
top." After the sumptuous repast 
came tea in the parlor. Dr. Johnson 
usually drinking nine or ten cups. 
Supper was served in the dining- 
room at ten or eleven, and this was 
really the most social and brilliant 
meal of the day. Here the old 
philosopher was at his best. Mrs. 
Thrale was queen of this symposium, 
Johnson was the king. 

We can fancy him sitting there by 
Miss Burney's chair, and opposite 
his graceful hostess, broad-shoul- 
dered, ungainly, his unfortunate vis- 
age seamed and disfigured with the 
scrofula — that fearful disease, which, 
as an infant, put out to nurse, he had 
contracted, and which good Queen 
Anne, in her diamond stomacher and 
long black hood, unconscious, as she 
stretched out her round arm, on 
whose head her fair hand rested and 
had failed to cure — uttering his short, 
weighty, and pointed sentences with 
a power of voice and an energy of 
emphasis, of which the effect was 
rather increased than diminished by 

xxvi— 23 

the rollings of his huge form, and 
the asthmatic gasping and puffings 
in which his bursts of eloquence gen- 
erally ended. 

To predominate over such society 
was not easy, yet Johnson was the 
autocrat there. He had an opinion 
on ever}' subject, and his. conversa- 
tion was worthy of record whether 
he tilted on light topics with Mrs. 
Thrale or Little Burney, or discussed 
art with Reynolds, political economy 
with Thrale, or the " Letters of 
Junius" with Burke. 

His colloquial talents were, indeed, 
of the highest order. He had great 
common sense, quick discernment, 
humor, immense knowledge of litera- 
ture, and of life, and an infinite store 
of curious anecdotes. In his talk he 
threw away his pompous trisyllables, 
and his style was simple, easy, and 
vigorous. He reminds one of Frank- 
lin, who, like him, loved to fold his 
legs and have his talk out. In spite 
of his sometimes savage autocracy 
and his total want of tact, Johnson 
does not seem to have ever angered 
any of his friends. 

Sometimes the company was as- 
tounded by a profound silence on the 
part of the learned egoist, when any- 
thing offended him. But Mrs. Thrale 
was always equal to the emergency. 
In all these scenes she appeared to 
the utmost advantage, gracious, well- 
bred, and with what is an attribute 
of good breeding sometimes ignored, 
a forgetfulness of self, that was won- 
derful in a pretty, flattered, and tal- 
ented woman. 

For a number of years Stratham 
preserved its charming aspect of hos- 
pitality and social superiority. Oc- 
casionally all the party used to go 
into London together, meeting soon 



after for a conversazione at Mrs. 
Thrale's grand town house at Gros- 
venor square. Mrs. Thrale, accomp- 
lished, still young and fascinating, 
was received at court, and had a 
court dress woven from a pattern of 
Owghee manufacture, brought by 
Captain Ikirney. Fanny's brother, 
from the island. It was trimmed 
with gold "to the tune of sixty-five 
pounds," and was the source of much 
comment among the ladies in fashion- 
able society in that day. 

In April, 17S1, Mr. Thrale sud- 
denly died, and Mrs. Thrale was 
left an opulent widow of forty. 
Two years afterwards she married 
an Italian musician named Piozzi. 
This marriage offended many of her 

old friends, and Dr. Johnson was 
most hurt of all. October 6, 17S2, 
he took his last leave of Stratham. 
Mrs. Thrale did not ask him to re- 
turn. She subsequently went to 
Italy among her husband's family. 
While spending a merry Christ- 
mas at Milan, in gay little music 
and dancing parties, she learned 
that the srreat man, whose name is 
so closely associated with hers, had 
died almost two weeks before. She 
outlived him by almost forty years, 
dying when over eighty. Her best 
claim to literary remembrance lies 
in her published recollections of Dr. 
Johnson and his letters to her, 
which she issued at intervals after 
his death 

By Fred E. Keay. 

HE first impression made by 
the Rocky Mountains of Colo- 
rado upon the mind of one 
whose previous mountain ex- 
periences have been among the White 
Hills of New Hampshire is one of 
disappointment. Partially by natural 
causes, but still more by the unwise 
hands of men, the mountain sides 
have been stripped of their garments 
of foliage. All is barren and deso- 
late. The geology of the mountains 
is painfully evident. It is as if one 
were examining a skeleton — wonder- 
ful, indeed, in its mechanism, grace- 
ful, perhaps, in its outlines, and yet 
only a skeleton. 

This feeling naturally becomes less 
vivid as acquaintance with the scenery 
becomes more intimate, but the fact 
represents still the essential differ- 

ence between the mountain scenery 
of the two states. To eyes accus- 
tomed to the forest- clad slopes of the 
White Mountains the almost total 
absence of vegetation can never cease 
to excite surprise. 

The lack of water is another strik- 
ing contrast. Through the canons 
mountain torrents flow, but their vol- 
ume shrinks enormously during the 
summer, and they are largely fed by 
the snows upon the higher ranges, 
the rainfall upon the eastern slopes 
being exceedingly small. Artificial 
irrigation is compulsory upon all who 
would raise crops of any kind, or 
even maintain a green plot before 
their homes. 

The larger streams are dignified by 
the name of river ; all other streams 
are known in the vernacular as 



"cricks." Every river or "crick" 
has its own canon, whether it be a 
deep, swift-running stream in the 
depths of the mountains, or a tiny 
rill that Hows across the plain for a 
few brief hours. 

Even the smallest of these streams 
ploughs for itself a deep furrow in 
the soil, with steep, almost perpen- 
dicular banks, deeply furrowed by 
still smaller streamlets that trickle 
down the sides. Anything approach- 

and you have created another Canon 
of the Colorado, another Royal gorge. 

One of the most picturesque of Colo- 
rado's many, canons, that of Clear 
creek, is within a very few hours' 
ride from Denver, and is traversed by 
a narrow gauge railway, the con- 
struction of which presented many 
difficult feats of engineering, which 
are in themselves worthy of much 
sacrifice to see. 

Clear creek is a typical mountain 

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[u 4 - '■<■**& ' m - ■■■:■ ■ . .- -i gKa 

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ing a sloping river bank is almost 
unknown. In two or three places 
where the Arkansas river flows 
through beds of sand, I saw such 
banks, but they were well out from 
the mountains. 

The whole phenomena of the mighti- 
est canon of the Rockies can be stud- 
ied in the bed of one of these transient 
brooks. The same power is at work 
in each, but here it carves in clay in- 
stead of in rock, and its task is sooner 
done. Magnify the winding bed of this 
streamlet, restore the flowing water, 

stream, clear, perhaps, in its upper 
courses, but clay-colored and muddy 
in its passage through the canon. 
The creek has its source high up on 
the slopes of the Snowy range, and is 
one of the tributaries of the South 
Platte river. From its bed and sur- 
rounding mountains have been ex- 
tracted millions of dollars' worth of 
gold and silver, and the district still 
is a large producer of precious met- 
als, although the more recent discov- 
eries in the Cripple Creek district 
have overshadowed it. 



We left Denver early one October color amid the general dull brown of 
morning, in an open observation car, fields and rocks. Earlier in the sea- 
bound for Silver Plume via Clear son, when the famous Colorado flow- 

Creek canon and "the loop." The 
railroad rises almost exactly 4,000 
feet in the fifty-four miles between 
its termini, the station at Silver 

Plume being 9,176 feet alxv 


sea level. 

For several miles out from Denver 
the country is quite level. Around 
Arvada, below the mouth of the 

ers are in blossom, the alfalfa may 
be less striking. 

Soon after passing the outer moun- 
tain wall, but before entering the 
canon proper, the train halted at the 
town of Golden, once a mining camp, 
now a prosperous, well-built city, 
with pleasant: houses on the hillsides, 
large brick factories in the valley, 






Tne Great Loop Bridge. 

canon, were trees of considerable 
size, a sight as welcome as it was 
rare. This town is well and thor- 
oughly irrigated, as was evidenced 
not only by the trees, but by the 
large and vigorous berry orchards 
and fields of deep-green alfalfa. We 
were told that one of these alfalfa 
fields was then bearing its fourth 
crop of the season. 

These patches of alfalfa, which are 
to be seen wherever irrigation is pos- 
sible, gave to the landscape, as we 
saw it, its only touches of bright 

and rows of straight, stiff Lombardy 
poplars across the creek. 

From Golden onward the railway 
and the creek fi 11 the floor of the 
canon, winding together around al- 
most impossible curves, where the 
entire train, including even a portion 
of the very car in which we were 
seated, was visible before us. Occa- 
sionally the creek is crossed in seaich 
of a more secure foothold for the nar- 
row track, and in many places the 
steep, rocky face of the mountain has 
been removed to afford passage for the 



train. In at least one place the moun- 
tain side threateningly overhangs the 
track, and everywhere it is so pre- 
cipitous that constant watchfulness 
is necessary on the part of the 
track inspectors, to prevent accidents 
through the fall of some of the boul- 
ders that strew the steep slopes in 
such profusion with apparent inse- 

As the mountains are bare of 
forests there is nothing to stay the 

above a pair of Rocky Mountain blue 
jays were hopping unconcerned. 

Just above Elk creek a man was 
busily washing sand taken from the 
bed of Clear creek, in search of gold 
dust. Time was when this occupa- 
tion was profitable, but it is so no 
longer. The worker probably earned 
scarcely living wages. The wooden 
basins and flumes, wherein placer 
mining was formerly conducted on 
an extensive scale, are located in 

- ■■- 




; a 

' "-''i-JWisKi 

Entrance to Diamond Tunnel Mine, Silver Plume, Colorado. 

course of a boulder that may be 
started downward. I believe there 
is a law in Colorado prohibiting the 
pushing or throwing of a stone or 
rock down any mountain side, on 
account of the danger to miners. 
Such is the vigilance of the railroad 
authorities, however, that the first 
accident has still to be recorded. 

At Elk creek, our car stopped op- 
posite a rude hut hanging on the 
rocky mountain wall above us. Be- 
side the door a cat was leisurely 
washing its face, while over the rocks 

and beside the creek bed near Ros- 
coe. Here the entire creek was once 
turned into artificial channels by 
gold seekers. 

Near this place the canon broadens 
for a few miles, giving opportunity 
for limited agricultural endeavor. 
Here clematis trailed its feathery 
clusters over the rocks. 

At Forks creek, twenty-nine miles 
from Denver, and 6,SSo feet above 
the sea, connection is made with a 
branch to Central City, a metropolis 
of the mining district. The little 


wooden station at Forks creek, built 
upon stilts over the bank of the 
creek, contains a dining-room, and 
its outer walls were generously pla- 
carded with notices of tempting 
luncheons put up for travelers. Our 
experience with Colorado railway 
dining-rooms was uniformly pleas- 
ant. However mean and common- 
place the building might be. the 
food was excellent. Poultry was al- 
ways prominent on the bills of fare, 

was being driven back by the loco- 

There was no other road for the 
poor animal but the railway track. 
He could not climb the steep wall 
on one side, and to try to descend 
the precipice on the other would be 
suicidal, so he trotted back as lei- 
surely as possible under the circum- 
stances until he reached a safe foot- 
ing at one side. High on the barren 
mountain side a herd of goats were 


- ■ , 





V * 

• - ■-. --■■■ 

The Railroad Curves, from the Wagon Road 

and the Forks creek luncheons were 
constructed around half a chicken 
for each person. 

The shrill whistling of the loco- 
motive, accompanied by a marked 
diminution in the speed of the train, 
indicated some obstruction ahead. 
For half a mile above Forks creek 
we continued thus, but the sharp 
curves shut out any view of the track 
before us. At last, in a straighter 
section, we saw the cause of the 
trouble in a little gray burro that 
had wandered down the track, and 

pasturing, so far away that they 
looked like mere specks. 

Idaho Springs is a well-known 
summer and health resort. From 
the car window, at least, it was strik- 
ingly unlike a typical New Hamp- 
shire resort. Situated at the bottom 
of a huge bowl of rock, the sides of 
which are but sparsely clothed, the 
town streets are shaded with trees 
encouraged to grow by the nearness 
of the creek and by irrigation. 
Among the generally small and plain 
wooden buildings were some more 



ambitious structures, probably hotels. 
The place relies upon the purity of 
the air and the medicinal value of 
its mineral waters, rather than upon 
its scenic beauty, although it one 
can forget the barrenness of the 
mountain contours, the strange rock* 
figures will be found endued with a 
beauty peculiar to themselves. 

A pale line zigzagging along the 
mountain sides almost at their sum- 
mits marks the highest wagon road 

tion to architectural effect possible. 
For the most part they are simply 
four walls with partitions, and they 
are huddled together on narrow, tin- 
kept streets. 

From Georgetown to Silver Plume, 
a smaller and still newer mining- 
town, the greatest engineering diffi- 
culties have been overcome by the 
railway builders. The wagon road 
between the two towns is about a 
mile and a quarter long, while the 

V' ■■ r.T 





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Georgetown, Colorado. 

;,*~^:- -^2-ias 

in. the state, a rough trail indeed, 
giving access to hidden mines and 
overlooking what must be a magnifi- 
cent mountain landscape. About the 
loneliest thing we saw was a tiny 
cemetery across the creek on the 
bare ledges, an object of utter deso- 

Georgetown, fifty miles from Den- 
ver, is a busy mining town of i,8oo 
inhabitants. Like all these moun- 
tain towns, the newness has not 
rubbed off. The houses appear to 
have been put together with the 
greatest haste, and the least atten- 

distanee by railroad is four miles. 
The track makes great curves on 
steep grades, and then counter- 
marches and crosses itself on a thin 
trestle no feet above the roadbed 
below, thus making a complete loop. 
Over the slopes round about Silver 
Plume are scattered many "dumps" 
from gold and silver mines. These 
heaps of broken, whitish rock stand 
out like excrescences from the moun- 
tain sides. After leaving the train 
at Silver Plume we started, in com- 
pany with a number of other " ten- 
derfeet," for the nearest heap, the 



first dump of the Diamond Tunnel 

The climb thither, though short, 
was extremely arduous, owing, in 
part, to the steepness of the road, 
and, in part, to the rarity of the at- 
mosphere, for we were 9,200 feet 
above the sea. At the tunnel portal 
we were armed with rude lanterns 
made from lard pails — "buckets," 
as they are called in Colorado — and 
tallow candles. By these flickering 
lights we made our way 1,600 feet 
into the mine, seeing the different 
lodes and pockets, from one of which 
$3,000,000 had been dug in years 
gone by, but which * had been so 
thoroughly worked that the damp 
walls betrayed scarcely a glimmer of 
precious metal. 

The present workings of the mine 
are located 6,000 feet farther into 
the mountain's heart, and the ore is 
brought out through the tunnel in 
small cars, running on a railway of 
extremely narrow gauge, and drawn 
by burros. 

For the sake of novelty we decided 
to walk back to Georgetown by the 
wagon road, but on the score of com- 
fort the walk was not comparable to 
the ride in the train, neither were 
the views, as a whole, as interest- 
ing. The roadway was covered 
many inches deep with fine gray 
dust, notwithstanding that a vigor- 
ous young gale was tearing the dust 
from the road and bearing it away in 
clouds. After rounding the moun- 
tain face well above the valley, the 

road suddenly plunged into George- 
town. When we first caught a 
glimpse of the town it was almost 
immediately below us, its .closely 
built houses completely filling the 
narrow canon. 

We made our way through the 
town streets, — given over chiefly to 
burros and children— passing several 
"hotels," one, if I remember aright, 
being the '* Hotel de Paris," a name 
which struck us as particularly in- 
congruous, as the edifice was by no 
means imposing, even though adorned 
with a gorgeously gilded sign. 

By the railway station we sat down 
on some rocks and ate our luncheon, 
while a young girl stood near at 
hand and watched us openly. 
Whether we or the food were 
stranger we could not determine, 
but we evidently furnished her with 
a fascinating, though brief, enter- 

The sun had been shining fainter 
and fainter throughout the day, and 
as the train backed to the George- 
town station the western sky was 
dark with clouds, braced against 
the high summits of the snowy 

Scattered snow-flakes began to fall, 
and there was every indication of a 
heavy snowfall, but the train proved 
fleeter than the storm, and we left the 
dark clouds tangled among the higher 
peaks, while we ran swiftly down the 
canon into the open country, and 
found ourselves all too soon again be- 
fore the union station in Denver. 

By AJdbcrt Clark. 

The sky was thick for many a mile 

With fire and rolling smoke, 
From where the guns poured forth their flame 

When war in thunder broke. 
The trampled ground was red with blood 

And shot in wild storms flew, 
But through it all the captain wore 

A knot of army blue. 

Amid the moans of wounded men 

And many a rebel's cry, 
A picture of his love at home, 

Reflected on the sky. 
The garden with its scarlet blooms 

Ablaze with morning dew, 
When on his manly breast she pinned 

A knot of army blue. 

But when the night its darkning veil 

Of shadows, close had drawn, 
The brave young captain's stainless soul 

In Paradise was born. 
They found him by a cannon's wheel, 

His heart pierced through and through, 
And close beside him on the ground, 

They found the knot of blue. 

Home, from across the deep blue sea 

From Philippines it came, 
Within a box of rarest flow'rs, 

Which bore the maiden's name. 
Each tiny flower seemed to breath — 

" Thy lover, dear, was true, 
And while he fought, he bravely wore 

The knot of army blue." 

Sweet maid, she sleeps in peace to-night 

Beneath the churchyard's mold ; 
The mellow moonlight spread its rays 

On starry flowers of gold, 
While on the pulseless breast below 

Hid from the sun and dew, 
There lies the gift she gave her love— 

The knot of army blue. 




- -Jpr . 



First Brigade New Hampshire National Guard. 


Of the notables of the month, New 
Hampshire's quota will be found in 
attendance upon the annual encamp- 
ment of the National Guard, held 
in Concord the present month. At 
the head of the list, in command of 
the First brigade, N.H.N.G., stands 
the ever genial and popular Jason E. 
Tolles, of Nashua, who began his 
military life by enlisting as a private 
in Co. F, of the Second regiment, 
October 16, 1.877. He was corporal 
in May, 187S; sergeant in 1879; 
captain of the company in 1S81 ; be- 
came adjutant of the regiment in 
July, 1SS4 ; major in 1SS5 ; lieuten- 
ant-colonel in 1889; and was colonel 
of the regiment from 1S94 to 1899, 
when, on February 28, he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of the 
First brigade. 

As a civilian he has been a mem- 
ber of the board of education of the 
city of Nashua for thirteen years, 
and is now serving his second term 
as mayor of that city. 

Assistant Adjutant-General , Bt igade Stajf. 

Lieutenant -Colonel Howard was 
born in Nashua and was graduated 
from the High school of that city. 
His military career began in 1891, 

when, on March 17, he enlisted as 
private in Co. K, Second regiment, 
N. H. N. G. He was promoted to 
second lieutenant, March iS, 1S91 ; 
first lieutenant, February 25, 1892, 
resigned March 24, 1S93 ; adjutant 


Lieut. -Col. Charles W. Howard. 

of the Second September 13, 1894, on 
staff of Colonel Tolles, and received 
his present commission on the bri- 
gade staff this year. 


A ssista n t Inspector-General. 

Major Babbidge began his military 




Brigade Quartermaster. 

Captain Bodwell began his military 
experience in the cadets of the High 
school at Manchester, of which he 
was at one time captain. He was 
also a member of the old Manchester 

Pau : F. Babbidge. 

life in Maine by enlisting in the First 
regiment of volunteers, December i, 
1872, and served four years as private, 
corporal, and sergeant. On the ioih 
of December, iSSS, he enlisted in 
Co. H, Second regiment, X. H. X. G. 
He was made sergeant. December 25. 
1S89; color sergeant, April, 1890; 
first sergeant, October 20, 1S90; sec- 
ond lieutenant, June S, 1S92 ; first 
lieutenant April iS, 1894; captain, 
May 31, 1S95. On May 11, 189s, 
Captain Babbidge and his company 
were mustered into the United States 
sen-ice, and left Concord for the 
South,' May 17. as a part of the Xew 
Hampshire regiment for the Spanish 
War. On June 11 he was detached 
from the service and ordered Xorth 
on recruiting service, and was sta- 
tioned at Manchester until July 14, 
w 7 hen he rejoined his regiment and 
was mustered out October 31. He 
was appointed assistant inspector- 
general, March, 1899, on the staff of 
General Tolles. 






Captair. Cnaries B. Boon 

cadets. In 1894 he was appointed 
brigade quartermaster-sergeant on 
the staff of General Lane, and in 
January, 1S9S, was commissioned 
brigade quartermaster on the same 
staff; April, 1899, he was commis- 
sioned brigade quartermaster on the 
staff of General Tolles. In June, 
1 898, he received a civic appoint- 
ment as property clerk for the assist- 
ant quartermaster of Chickamauga 
Park, Ga. ; in July, was transferred 
to the First army corps, with Maj.- 
Gen. John R. Brooke, for the expe- 
dition to Puerto Rico, where he was 
taken sick with typhoid fever, and 
returned to the states on the hospital 
boat Relief. He was doorkeeper of 



the senate at the last session of the 
New Hampshire legislature. 


Brigade Inspector of Rifle Practice. 

Frank L. Kimball was born in 
Nashua, April 13, 1S57. He re- 
ceived his education in the common 
schools of that city, being graduated 
from the High school in 1S74. In 
18S1 he enlisted in Co. F, Second 
regiment, N. H. N. G. Fie received 
his discharge in July, 1S84. Three 
3 r ears later he was appointed quarter- 
master-sergeant of the Second regi- 
ment by Colonel Copp ; was commis 











Majoi Fran* L. K.rrba: ; . 

sioned captain and aide-de-camp in 
1889 ; major and brigade inspector 
of rifle practice in 1893, to which po- 
sition he has since been twice com- 
missioned. He inaugurated and had 
charge of the first state rifle competi- 
tion in New Hampshire in 1893. 

Major Kimball has served four 
years in the city government of 
Nashua, two years in the council, 
and two years as alderman. 


Capt. R. Emmett Walsh, aide-de- 
camp on the staff of General Tolles, 
was born in Manchester in 1S73. 
He was educated and lias always 
made his home there. He is a phar- 
macist by profession. Mr. Walsh 
was appointed hospital steward of 
the First regiment, N. H. N. G., on 
Colonel Scott's staff, in April, 1896. 
In this capacity his services were 
marked by careful and attentive 
work, which was also noted in his 
new position of inspector of rifle 
practice, with rank of first lieutenant, 
to which he was commissioned in 
1S97. As inspector he showed 
marked ability and much interest 
in military affairs and won the good 


Emmett W: 



will and commendation of his supe- 
riors. His selection by General Tolles 
to serve upon his staff gave general 

Mr. Walsh is now serving his third 
term on Manchester's board of edu- 
cation, and takes much interest in 
school work. He is a member of 
the sub-committee on High school, 
and is chairman of the important 
committee on music. 


Major John F. Egan was born in 
Manchester, December 25. 1S73. He 
enlisted in Co. K, First regiment, 
June 8, 1S92 ; was promoted to cor- 
poral November 6, 1S92 ; promoted 
to sergeant April to, 1893 I commis- 
sioned first lieutenant in Co. K, De- 
cember 29, 1S93, and captain, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1S95. Captain Kgau was 
elected major of the First regiment, 
February 11, 189S. and commissioned 
major April 13, 189S. 


' ■ 


Major Egan is a loom fixer in the 
Amoskeag Manufacturing Co. under 
Overseer Charles D. Sumner. 


Surgeon^ First Reg-itftenL 

Dr. A. Gale Straw was born Feb- 
ruary 9, 1S64, at Manchester; edu- 
cated at the public schools ; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth college, A. B. 
1SS7, and A. M. 1S90; was gradu- 
ated at Harvard Medical school in 
1S90; has practised at Manchester 
ever since ; has been secretary of 
board of United States pension stir- 


l tk 

:■.-!*.•-..--■»«*-".. y*titi1 


Major John F. Egar.. 

mrr 4 

A. Gale Strav 

geons since 1S93, and is still a mem- 
ber ; was commissioned assistant sur- 
geon Amoskeag Veterans February 
22, 1894, and surgeon First regiment, 
N. H. X. G., since March, 1895; is 
a member of the staff of the Elliot 
hospital, Manchester, and also of the 
board of common council. 




Assistant Surgeon, First Regiment. 

Capt. William H. Dyer was bom 
in Portland, Me., March 17, 1S69. 
Graduated from Portland High 
school in 1SS9 ; special course in 
physical culture at Harvard college," 
1SS9 ; instructor at Phillips-Hxeter 

..-' % 

L** -*•* 



Capta n William H Dyer 

academy, 18S9 until July, 1S91. 
Entered the Medical school of 
Maine, and graduated June, 1894. 
While studying medicine was in- 
structor in physical culture in the 
Portland Turnverein and Portland 
Athletic Club ; house surgeon at 
Maine General hospital from Jul)', 
1894, until August, 1S95 ; prac- 
tised medicine in Connecticut for a 

He came to Dover, in September, 
1S97, and received his commission 
as as'sistant surgeon for the First 
regiment, N. H. N. G., on May 3, 

Rev. George E. Hall, D. D. 
Chaplain, First Regiment 


Colonel, Second Regiment. 

Colonel Upliam was born in Mel- 
rose, Mass., May 6, 1859. He moved 


I ' 1 


Col. Edwat'd 0., 



to New Hampshire in 1S77, and the 

following year enlisted in Co. G, Sec- 
ond regiment, upon its organization, 
April 17. Pvis promotion was stead}-, 
being corporal in 1SS3, sergeant in 
1SS4, first sergeant in 1SS5 ; received 
his commission as second lieutenant 
in February, 18S9 ; first lieuten- 
ant in August, 1S89 ; captain in 
1S90; major in 1S94 ; lieutenant- 
colonel in January, 1S99; and was 
commissioned as colonel of his regi- 
ment March 21, 1S99. 

He is treasurer of the Keene Glue 
Company, a corporation which he 
was instiumental in organizing in 

Assistant Surgeon, Seco>id Regiment. 

Dr. John C. Parker was born in 
Lebanon, Me., in 1864; graduated 
from Fraucestown academy, Frances- 
town, in 1SS2, and from Eowdoin 
college in 18S6 ; principal of Kenne- 

bunk High school, Kennebuuk, Me., 
three years ; tutor in biology at Bow- 
doin college, two years ; graduate 
of Bowdoin College Medical school 
in 1891 ; surgeon to Bowdoin College 
Labrador expedition during the sum- 
mer of 1 89 1 ; practitioner of medicine 
in Farmington since December, 1S92; 
member of school board, and recently 
appointed coroner of Strafford coun- 
ty ; assistant- surgeon of Second regi- 
ment, N. H. N. G., since 1S96. 

Chaplain of the Second Regiment. 

Chaplain Smith was born in Mari- 
etta, Ohio, February 16, 1S4S. He 
graduated from Marietta college, 
June 29, 1S70, studying theology 
with a private instructor during his 
collegiate course. He was ordained 
to the work of the Christian ministry 
November 27, 1S70, and immediately 
cime Hast. He has had settlements 





John C. Parker, M. D. 






in Lockport, N. \\, Stoughton, 
Mass., Nashua, N. H., and at pres- 
ent has charge of a church in Troy, 
N. Y. His longest and most suc- 
cessful pastorate was over the Uni- 
versalis! church in Nashua, this 
pastorate extending through thirteen 
years. He is still a resident of New 
Hampshire, and expects to make the 
old Granite state his permanent 
home. He received his commission 
as chaplain of the Second regiment, 
N. H. N. G., in August, 1SS9, and 
has served in that capacity continu- 
ously since, having been reappointed 
for the third time by Col. E.G. Up- 
ham. He is the ranking chaplain in 
the service, and among the ranking 
captains. He is deeply interested in 
the National Guard, and fills his 
position with fidelity and ability. 
Mr. Smith stands high in Masonic 
circles, having attained the distin- 
guished honor of the 33d. 

Colonel, Third Regiment. 

Colonel Tetley is an Englishman. 
He was born in Bradford, Yorkshire 
county, Eng., Gctober 26, 1S42. At 
the age of twelve he came with his 
parents to this country. When nine- 
teen years old he enlisted in the 
United States Marine Corps at Ports- 
mouth, and served under Farragut 
during the War of the Rebellion. 
In 1873 he went to Laconia and en- 
gaged in the manufacture of paper 
boxes, and is now conducting a suc- 
cessful business in that line. He 
soon entered the Third regiment, 
N. H. N. G-, and was first lieutenant 
of Co. K, May 5, 1879; captain, 
July 30, 1S81, resigned in 1884, and 
was again captain of Co. K, in 1892. 

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Colonei Edmund Tetley. 

He went with the First New Hamp- 
shire volunteers to Chickamauga, 
and was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of the same June 20, 1S98. 
When the First w r as mustered out at 
the close of the war he was commis- 
sioned colonel of the Third. Colonel 
Tetley has filled man)- political posi- 
tions, and is at present mayor of 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Third Regiment. 

William Tutherly was born in 

Claremont, June 

1866. He was 

educated in the public and High 
schools of Claremont, the University 
of Vermont, and the Boston Univer- 
sity Taw school. During the years 
of 1 887- '88, he was a cadet in the 
United States Military academy at 
West Point, leaving on account of 
injuries received at that institution. 
He became a member of the New 
Hampshire bar in 1892, and in 1893, 



removed to Concord where he is en- 
gaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. In Ma)', 1S89. he was commis- 
sioned paymaster of the Third regi- 
ment, N: H. N. G., on the staff of 
Col. True Sanborn, remaining with 
the Third until May 7, 1S9S, when* 
he w r as commissioned major in the 

December, 1S7S, to January 1, 189?. 
In December, 1894, we find him com- 
missioned captain of Co. D, Third, 
N. H. N. G., in which position he 
served until promoted to the rank of 
major on March 7, 1S99. During 
the Spanish War he was with the 
First New Hampshire volunteers as 


-. v 




Lieutenant-Colonel William Tutherly. 

First New Hampshire volunteers. 
After a long illness from fever and 
malaria, contracted in the unhealth- 
ful camp at Chickamauga, he re- 
turned to Concord and received his 
commission as lieutenant-colonel of 
the Third, March 7, 1S99. 

Major Julius C. Timson. 

captain of Co. D, and remained in 
sen-ice until the regiment w r as mus- 
tered out at the close of the war. 

Major Timson is a member of most 
of the secret societies of this vicinity 
and is a prosperous business man of 
Claremont, where he conducts a gen- 
eral insurance and real estate office. 


., . -,.-.„- * FRANK W, RUSSELL. 
Major, Third Regiment. 

•fc/r • at\- i~ • t> ^.1.1 Major, Third Regiment. 

Major limson was born in Brattle- 

boro, Vt., April 19, i860, and was edu- Frank W. Russell is a native of 

cated in the public schools of his na- New Hampshire, being born at Ply- 

tive city. He served in the First regi- mouth June 22, 1847. He was a 

meut, Vermont National Guard, from cadet in the United States military 



academy at West Point, K. Y., from 
June 10, 1S64, to June 15, 1S6S, at 
which time he was commissioned 
second lieutenant of the Sixth United 
States cavalry. He remained in the 
service four years, resigning June 10, 
1S72. On the 28th of May, 1SS4, he 
was commissioned captain and aide- 

Adjutant, Third Regiment. 

Adjutant" Waldron was born in 
Concord, August 24, 1S71, and has 
always lived in his native city, gain- 
ing his first taste of military drill in 
the Concord Ili^'h School cadets. 

- ■ 


>.k W. Russell. 

de-camp on the staff of Gen. D. M. 
White, and was promoted to be 
major and assistant inspector- general 
December u, 1885. He resigned 
from the National Guard Ma}* 20, 
1889, but again became a member of 
New Hampshire's militia as first lieu- 
tenant of the Third infantry, April 
29, 189S ; captain, May 3, 1898; was 
commissioned into the service of the 
United States to the Spanish War as 
captain, May 7, 1898 ; commissioned 
a major June 20, 1S9S ; was mustered 
out November 1, 1898; appointed 
major Third infantry-, March 7, 1899. 
Major Russell has never held any 
civic office. 

Adjutant George D. Waldron. 

He was instrumental in the forma- 
tion of Co. K, in Concord, and upon 
its organization April 14, 1S91, was 
commissioned its first lieutenant. He 
has been adjutant of his regiment 
since May 16, 1893 ; was mustered 
into the service of the United States 
with the First New Hampshire vol- 
unteers, and served at Chickamauga 
with them until July 25, when he 
was honorably discharged. When 
the First was mustered out he re- 
sumed his position as adjutant of the 

In civic life he is freight agent of 
the Boston & Maine railroad at Con- 






Quarter master t Third Regiment. 

Quartermaster Richardson was 
graduated from the Concord High 
school with the class of 'S9. He is 
.an enthusiastic militiaman, having 


j0 i 

Lieutenant Harley B. Roby. 

Inspector of Rifle Practice, Third Regiment. 

Lieutenant Roby was born in Con- 
cord, December 13, 1S67, and ob- 
tained his education in the public 
schools of that city. For six years 
after leaving school he was connected 
with the banking house of E. H. 
Rollins & Son, and during the last 
half of this time he was a member of 
the firm. He-then severed his con- 
nection with that firm and engaged 
in the banking business upon his 
own account, and has achieved 
marked success. 

His first military appointment was 
upon the non-commissioned staff. 
First Brigade, X. H. N. G., as ser- 
geant-major, May 14, 18S6; on Sep- 
tember 16, 1889, he was made first 
lieutenant of Co. C, Third regiment; 
resigned December 26, 1890. 

His present commission upon the 
Brigade staff bears date of May 13, 









£ :■'■ 


.. Mi MM) 

Lieutenant Edward W. Richardshn. 

served through the various non-com- 
missioned positions with steady pro- 
motions since his enlistment. He 
went with the boys to Chickamauga, 
and served faithfully through that 
trying time to the end of the war. 
Upon his return he was commis- 
sioned as above February 24, 1S99. 

Assistant Surgeon, Third Regiment. 

Dr. Parker was born in Wells 
River, Vt., September 26, 1S73, and 
fitted for college at St. Johnsbury 
academy. He was graduated from 
Dartmouth Medical college Novem- 



ber 20, 1894. While living in Han- 
over Dr. Parker served six months 
as junior house officer, and six 
months as senior house officer of 
the Mary Hitchcock Memorial hos- 
pital. He has practised in Concord 
since September 1, 1S95. and is a, 
member of the New Hampshire Med- 
ical society, and secretary of the Cen- 
ter District Medical society. The 
doctor is assistant on the staff of the 
Margaret Pilisbury General hospital 
at Concord. His present commis- 
sion in the N. H. N. G. was issued 
April 29, 1S99. 


ft i . 

Chester post-office from April, 1S61- 
'63,- when, in October, he joined the 
Army of the James as civilian clerk 
in the quartermaster's department, 
serving until his discharge in 1S65. 
He has been in railroad service, on 
what is now the White Mountains 
division of the Boston & Maine 
railroad, from 1S70 to the present 

He enlisted as a private in Co. E, 
Third regiment, N. H. N. G., April 
15, 1SS5 ; received his captain's com- 
mission ten days later, and was mus- 
tered out in 1S90. He was commis- 
sioned paymaster of the Third in 
1S94; commissioned first lieutenant 
in the First regiment, N. H. volun- 
teers for service in the Spanish War, 
Ma} T 7, 1S98, and detailed as regi- 
mental quartermaster. He was pro- 
moted to captain June 28, 1S98; was 
mustered out with the regiment. No- 
vember 1, 1898, and upon the same 
date resumed his position as paymas- 
ter of the Third. 


Captain George H. Parker 


Paymaster, Third Regiment 

George H. Colby was born in Pem- 
broke in 1S41. He was graduated 
from the Manchester High school in 
1859, and was chief clerk in the Man- 

V 1 

% . 

Captain George H. Coiby. 



y 7& • 


One of the unnamed heroes of the 
War of the Rebellion, Major Ray, 
son "of a sturdy New Hampshire far- 
mer, was born in Henniker, August 
25, 1S43. On April 3, 1S65, as senior 
'officer in command of a detachment 
of men from the Fourth Massachu- 

' 4 



Chaplain, Third Regiment. 

Chaplain Phalen was born in Wil- 
liamstown, X. Y., May 9, 1S59; edu- 
cated in the common schools of New 
York city, Newburg institute, on 
the Hudson, Alfred university, and 
Meadville Theological school ; gradu- 
ated from the latter place with the 
class of 18S6. His first parish was 
in Wilton, N. H., where he stayed 
until iSSS, when he was called to 
Erattleboro, Yt. In 1892 he ac- 
cepted the ministry of the Second 
Congregational (Unitarian) society 
in Concord. In 1897 he was elected 
chaplain of the house of representa- 
tives in the Xew Hampshire legisla- 
ture ; in 189S, commissioned chap- 
lain of the First Xew Hampshire 
volunteers for the Spanish War, and 
in 1899, chaplain of the Third regi- 
ment, X. H. X. G. He is general 
secretary of the Xew Hampshire 
Unitarian association. 

Major Albert F. Ray. 

setts cavalry, was ordered by Gen- 
eral Weitzel to enter Richmond ; his 
first order was to take command of 
the fire department, and plant the 
flag of the nation over the capitol. 
Two bright, tasteful guidons of the 
Fourth Massachusetts cavalry were 
hoisted in place of the red cross of 
the Confederacy. " The living colors 
of the Union, our warrior's banner, 
took its flight to meet the warrior's 

Major Ray, residing at Haverhill, 
Mass., is the only officer now (June, 
1899) living, who was with the first 
company of Union soldiers to enter 
Richmond April 3, 1865. 



RE¥. W. H. P. FAUNCE, D. D. 

The Ne~v Pi esident of Brazen University. 

Although Dr. Faunce was born in 
Worcester, Mass., in 1859, New 
Hampshire claims him for the reason 
that his school days were passed in 
Concord, where he was a member o'f 
the High school in the class ox '75. 
He then entered Brown university, 
and was graduated from that institu- 
tion in the class of 'So. He remained 
there as an instructor in mathematics 
for one year and then took a course 
in the Newton Theological seminary. 
He was ordained to the ministry in 
18S4, and that same year became 


Dr. Armitage was one of the giants 
of the Baptist denomination, and some 
of Dr. Fauuce's friends feared that 
thejoung minister had assumed too 
heavy a responsibility in undertak- 
ing to maintain the high standard set 
by his predecessor. But he speedily 
proved himself the right man in the 
right place, and under his guidance 
the church has enjoyed continued 
prosperity. As a preacher he is elo- 
quent and forcible. 


Col. Frank C. Churchill of Leba- 
non, ex-chairman of the Republican 
State committee, one of the most 
popular and widely known men in 
the state, has been appointed by the 
secretary of the interior as a revenue 
inspector for the Indian Territory. 
This office is a new one under the 
interior department, with a fixed sal- 
ary, and an allowance for subsist- 
ence and traveling expenses, and 


! ■ ' 1 



pastor of the State Street Baptist 
church in Springfield, Mass., the 
largest church of that denomination 
in the city. He resigned the pastor- 
ate in 1 S89 to accept a call from New 
York to fill the pulpit of the Fifth 
Avenue Baptist church, left vacant 
by the resignation of the Rev. Dr. 
Thomas Armitage. 


Color.e! Frank C. Chufcni 


the department is fortunate in ob- public affairs has earned for him an 

taining the sen-ices -of a gentleman enviable reputation for integrity, 

whose long and varied experience in capability, and fidelity. 


By J. 

HAT'S that you say? A 
ma r v elo /us invention? 
Well, yes, I do pride my- 
self. I am somewhat of a 
marvel, but only for a time, however. 
Alas, like my nephew, the bicycle, I, 
too, must soon grow old and become 
quite commonplace. People look 
upon me now as a luxury. They 
do not seem to realize I am as neces- 
sary for the relief of the poor equine 
race as the bicycle was for wear}-, 
trudging men. 

Yes, my dear old lady on the side- 
walk, I feel quite lonely here in Bos- 
ton ; you should go to New York to 
see me at my best. You silly, young 
creature, you. Why do you rear 
and shy so foolishly ? There is noth- 
ing about me that should frighten 
you so. Do you not know that I am 
come to relieve you, you poor, over- 
worked creatures ? Soon you will be 
exiled to green pastures and box 
stalls, while I will do man's work for 

Ah, here is a beautiful stretch of 
boulevard. Yes, turn the lever and 
let us put to shame those poor strug- 
gling beasts by our side. Xow see 
us glide along ! Here you have the 
acme of graceful motion, no more 
runaways, no more mad plunges over 
side embankments. I am far too 
dignified for that. Look at my 
beautiful, new rubber tires. How 
noiselessly they glide over this 
smooth asphalt ! Your nerves are 

A\ S. 

not wrenched and torn by the harsh 
clatter of iron hoofs as I glide smooth- 
ly by. What's that, young man? 
You wish ' ' she ' ' could see me ? 
Well, cheer up, in a year or two you 
can hire me from the livery round 
the corner any Sunday afternoon, 
and let me tell you, I possess great 
advantages over my equine friends, 
for I can go very slowly at the right 
time and am very easily handled. 

Ah, small boy, you think to climb 
up behind as of yore, do you ? One 
more turn of the lever and where are 
you, my son ? Ha ! ha ! I am quite 
another creature from those Arm- 
strong monsters by my side. Do you 
hear that gong ? Well, that 's my 
big brother coming. Look out ! look 
out ! He wont stop for you. You 're 
a goner if you get in his way. Ah, 
here he comes ! See those great, 
noiseless wheels. See that graceful 
body and that beautiful black stack 
belching forth smoke and sparks ? 
Isn't he a beauty? He will get 
there in time, never fear. Yes, he 's 
my brother, and mighty proud of 
him I am, too. Frightful? Not 
half so frightful as the sight of those 
three poor beasts struggling with that 
great ladder-truck behind. Going to 
stop here ? Well, not too quickly 
now ; those sudden stops jar one so. 
That 's all for to-day ? I am rather 
glad, for one does get tired on these 
pavements. Good-by, see you at the 
old stand to-morrow. 




Cedric Laighton, one of the proprietors of the Isles of Shoals property, died at 
West Medford, Mass., June 5, after a protracted illness, aged about 58 years. He 
was born in Portsmouth, and was a son of the late Thomas B. and Eliza (Rymes) 
Laighton. His father removed to the Isles of Shoals to conduct a small boarding 
house for summer boarders, communication being had with Portsmouth by means 
of a sailing craft. Here Cedric grew up, remaining ail the time, summer and win- 
ter, on the islands, except for periodical trips to that city, until his marriage. At 
the death of his father, Cedric, with his brother, Oscar, took charge of the prop- 
erty, which was then a small affair, and soon afterwards began to enlarge and 
improve it, continuing until now, when it consists of Appledore, Star, and Smut- 
tynose islands, on which are situated the Appledore, Oceanic, and Mid-Ocean 
houses, as well as a score of cottages. They also own the steamer Viking of the 
Isles of Shoals line, the steamer Sam Adams, the schooner Flying Eagle, and a 
big fleet of yachts and craft, as well as the majority of the stock of the Gardner 
Cable company, which operates a cable between Portsmouth and the islands. 
Cedric manied, about eight years ago, Miss Julia Stowell, in Boston, and she sur- 
vives him. as do also three daughters, Margaret, Ruth, and Barbara. Pie was a 
brother of Celia Thaxter, the poet. 


Arthur Wilson Silsby, judge of probate for Merrimack county, died suddenly 
at his home in Concord, May 6. He was born in Concord, August 2S, 185 1, and 
was the son of George H. PI. and Sarah F. (Chickering) Silsby. He was a direct 
descendant of Henry Silsby, who emigrated from Engl and about the year 1630, 
and settled in Salem, Mass. Capt. Plenry Silsby, great-grandfather of Arthur W., 
was an early settler in Acworth. He served as a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War, and was a member of the Committee of Public Safety. His son, Ozias, 
Judge Silsby's grandfather, was a Congregational minister. 

George H. H. Silsby, the father of Judge Silsby, born in Hillsborough, came to 
reside in Concord when he was fifteen years old. He was a stationer, printer, 
and bookbinder, and followed that business during the active period of his life. 
His wife, Sarah, who was born in Danvers, Mass., descended from Revolutionary 
patriots. -. 

Arthur Wilson Silsby acquired his education in the public and High schools 
of Concord. He also took a short course at Phillips academy at Exeter, and 


fitted for college. He commenced the study of law with the firm of Minot, Tap- 
pan cSc Mug-ridge. Later, after completing his preparations with Mr. Mugridge, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1S77. Thereupon he entered into practice, remain- 
ing in the office with Mr. Mugridge until that gentleman's death in April, 1884. 

On September 14, 18S3, he was appointed judge of probate, and he presided 
over that court with ability, giving general satisfaction. His decisions were 
marked by an earnest desire to accord justice in all cases coming before him, and 
he showed that he was eminently qualified for that responsible office. 

Judge Silsby was unmarried, and is survived by his mother and one brother. 
In politics he supported the Republican party. He was a member of the New 
Hampshire Society, Sons of the American Revolution. 


Samuel Sparhawk Kimball, a retired capitalist of Concord, died at his home in 
that city May 12. He was the son of Samuel Ayer Kimball, a leading attorney 
of Concord, and Eliza (Hazen) Kimball, and was born March 1, 1825. He at- 
tained his education in the schools of his native town and in Bradford, Mass., 
academy. During the next eight years he served a clerkship with a business firm 
in Arkansas. In 1S52, he married Hannah Mason of Hubbardston, Mass., and 
removed to Arkansas, where he engaged in business with his brother-in-law. 
He remained in the South during the period of hostilities, and in 1S68 returned 
to Concord. Mr. Kimball was an important factor in the business life of the 
capital city, and held many positions of trust. He was president of the New 
Hampshire Savings bank for nearly a quarter of a century, and was prominently 
identified with the railroad interests of New Hampshire. He was a member and 
for several years treasurer of the board of trustees of the Rolfe and Rumford 
asylum, and also served on the board of water commissioners. 

He became interested in the Boscawen mills at Penacook, and was the largest 
owner. In politics he was a Democrat. Mr. Kimball was a member of the 
North Congregational church, and had given much for charitable purposes. He 
is survived by one son, Dr. George M. Kimball, of Concord, and one brother, 
Hon. John H. Kimball, of Bath, Me. 


Charles Henry Sanborn, M. D., died at Hampton Falls, on May 16, where 
he had been practising medicine since 1857. He was born in Hampton Falls, 
October 9, 182 1 ; graduated at the Harvard Medical school in 1856, and had 
practised in Kansas and in Haverhill, Mass., during 1856. A fuller biography 
with a portrait will be given in July. 

&TATE OF WHIO. C. r Y OF lUIE!- 1 , I 

Lucas County. \ **' 

Frank J. Cheney makes oath that he is the 
senior partner of the firm of F.J. Cheney & Co.. 
doing business in the City of Toledo, County and 
State aforesaid, a:: 4 that said firm will pay the 
sum of ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS for each and 
every case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by the 
use of Halt's Catarrh Cure. 


n my pres- 

Sworn to before nie and sub-scribed 
euce. this 6th dav of Decern 1 . er. A. D. r 

, seal. A. \Y. GEEASON. 

' — — ' Notary Public. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally and acts 
directly on the blood and mucous surfaces of the 
svstem. Send for testimonials, free. 

F. J. CHENEY Sc CO.. Toledo, O. 
£j. Sold by Druggists. 75c. 

- Hall's Family Pills are the best. 


50 YEARS* 

: P| U *\ 4 * 


■ fm 




Copyrights &c. 

Anvw.p =cu ling a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion free wnether ah 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly conf leutial. Handbook on Patents 
sent free, oldest agency for securing patents. 

Patents rak^n through Munn & Co. receive 
special notice, vn i t ^ . iut c harg e, in the 

Scientific JUaericatn 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any seientiflc journal. Terms. $3 a 
year: four:., mths, £L Soldbyall newsdealers. 

MUNN & Co. 38 « B ™ a —v. New York 

Branch Office, 625 V St., Washington, D. C. 

For Over Fifcy Years 
Mp.v Wikslow's Soothing Syei i I - I en 1 sed for children 
te'thine-. It soothes the child, softens the (rums, allays ail pain, 
cures wind c!ic ar.<l is the best remedy for Diarrhoea. Twenty- 
five cents a bottle. 

G&BH&F&1 "^ Fortune* in STOCKS. 

- s S 1.00 a month. 

Safe its aBank, Send 4c 

forGuide. a.h.wilcox & CO. 

o'2i) Broadway.New York. 

■**• for "The Story of the Philippines. '• hy Murat 
Halstead, commissioned by the Government as 

Official Historian to the War Department. The 
book was written in army camps at San Francisco, 
on the Pacific with General Merritt, in the hospi- 
tals at Honolulu, iu Kong Ko:)/. in the American 
trenches at Manila, in the insurgent camps with 
Aguinaldo. on the deck of the O'ympia, with 
Dewey, and in the roar of battle at the fall of 
Manila.' Bonanza.for agents. Brimful of original 
pictures taken by government photographers on 
the spot. Large h'ok. Low prices. Big profits. 
Freight paid. Credit given. Drop all trashy 
unofficial war books. Outfit free. Address, H. L. 
Barber, Geu. Mngr., 356 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 



Devoted to History. Biography ', Literature, 
and State Progress. 

Subscription : S2.00 per year ; Si .50 it paid in advance ; 
2c cents per copy. 

Yme Granite Monthly Co., Concord, N. H. 


# & 


Wheel Co., 

Chicopee Falls, 

Tf)e Ben Alere Inn, SQ H n T e ' 

This hostelry, erected in 1S90, is charmingly situated on a 
slight elevation, some .300 feet from the steamboat landing in Sun- 
apee Harbor — commanding a view across the harbor, and through 
the long river valley leading to Claremout. 

It is 150 feet long, four stories high, contains 100 guest rooms, 
is surrounded by broad piazzas, and from cellar to roof is equipped 
with all the improvements known to the modern hotel. The sanitary 
arrangements have been carefully looked after, and no pains spared 
to insure pureness of water supply and thoroughness of sewerage. 

The house is lighted by electricity, and its public rooms con- 
tain large open fireplaces. It is provided with ladies' and gentle- 
men's billiard and pool parlors, a tennis court, a bowling alley, etc. 
The cuisine and service are of the highest grade of excellence. 

Mr. Sumner L. Thompson, who has been clerk at the Ben Mere 
Inn for the last three seasons, and was for many } r ears at the Eagle 
Hotel, Concord, is to be the manager for this season. His long ex- 
perience has fully equipped him for the place and patrons wnll be 
well cared for under his management. The Woodsum Steamboat 
Company's steamers connect with all trains at Lake Sunapee rail- 
road station, and their landing is directly in front of the Inn. The 
Ben Mere will open June 20. 

Correspondents should be addressed to Sumner L. Thompson, 
Xo. 11 Court St., Concord, X. H., until June 1; after that date 
to Ben Mere Inn, Lake Sunapee, X. H. 

Tf)e AGDsttaal^e, 

B>rce£\; Point N. IT. 

Twenty miles above Plymouth on the line of the Boston & 
Maine railroad lies the picturesque village of Warren. 

Buckboard and Mountain wagons are in waiting for the noon 
express trains, and the five-mile drive to the Moosilauke. 

The house accommodates 100 people and stands on a broad pla- 
teau 1,700 feet above sea-level. 

Steam heat, fireplaces, the latest sanitary appliances, electric 
bells, gas, and an excellent table make this a comfortable summer 

Croquet and tennis courts, golf links, miles of walks through the 
woods and pastures of its 800 acres, and a good carriage road to the 
top of Mount Moosilauke, an elevation of 5,000 feet, are among the 

Post-office and telephone in the house. All correspondence 
should be addressed to Edward B. Woodworth, Concord, X. H. 


Bradley's is the Best of that Grade. 







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f ^j^^i&m^ 

tla^^. , - , -->''-" •■ ■ -C; 


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Each Brand of Bradley's 

is the Leader of its Class. 


i,-/ *ii=,;- ^z VfeV v-S= -r . — . v>c v-- Ci- v& v$i< ^ - -' 



ffrsnncy i 



?' •;£ i 



® \ 

Telephone 15-3. 


(Successors to the Republican Press Association), 

ft, I ta=sY\\ 






Book, Catalogue, and Miscellaneous Printing, Half-tone Engraving, Zinc 

Etching, Designing, Electrotyping, Book Binding, Paper 

Ruling, Blank-book Making. 


# , 



Jfa 4& Jfa - 

\A/ C IlclVC tllC Only completely appointed photo-engraving department in the state and 
the only electrotype foundry, and our facilities for doing all classes of printing promptly and at low 
prices are unsurpassed in New England. 

f ' 


Sticker. I 



Far superior to ordinary Mucilage. Goes twice as 
far. Sticks quick. The brush makes it. 





at Home. 

UflrinV tov Bank - Business House. School, 
riMrllJI Mounting Photos and Gtnen-. 

1 p> r- 

nfl!MTY to . r Lihrar >'- Kindergarten., Paper 

lowers. Lamp Shades, etc. 

For sale at 5tationers, Druggists, and Photo Sup- 
ply Houses, or one sent, prepaid, for 15c, 
six, 75c, twelve, $1.25. 

The Weis Patent Binder* 

LOOKS LIKE A BOOK. Requires no punching, 
no needle and thread. Publications easy to put in, 
biuds firmly, and opens just like a book. Your news- 
dealer will get them, or we will send the following 
binders, prepaid, to any address in U. S. for 55 cents. 
Each binder holds six copies. Beautiful maroon 
cloth, lettered in gold. Century, Chautauquan, Go. 
dey's. Cosmopolitan, Harper's Lippiucott's. Mc- 
clure's, "Munsey, New England. Outing, Peterson, 
Review of Reviews, Scribuer's, Self Culture. St. 
Nicholas, Ladies' Home Journal. 

Holds 12 copies, 80 cents. 
A Beautiful Music Hinder, $1.00. 

Send for lists of others. 

Golden opportunity for agents to make money. 

Write for terms. 

THE WEIS BINDER CO. , 56 jackson street, TOLEDO, O, 


>»*^ The Improved 



A adds neatness and com- 
A/\ fort to the wearing of 


i Keeps the Stocking 
/ Free from Wrinkles 


1 HI ON 


^ AJrLss 


WIT Lies FIct to the leg and 
8 cannot unfasten accidentally 


Sample Pair) Silk, 50c 
by Mail / Cotton, 25c 



beat two pairs, but one pair of 

&t7ctoFeIl (Braces 

beats two pairs of any other make. 

It's in the "graduated" cord ends — 
Elastic in places for comfort; 
Non-elastic in places for durability. 

Ask you r furnisher fort he "End well," or Fend 50c. © 

for a sample pn.r poM'ptmh Cheaper morsel, the m 

"C.-S.-C."for25<;. Scarf fastener frce.fory urfur- V 

nisher's name ifliedoes not keep "Endwell Hracc-." © 


Decatur Ave., Koxbury Crossing, Mass m 


Times Hava w&. 


the stove, but times h&vt 












- ■: ; ii 

:'ii'S "' 

Beauty Oil Heater 

i« servant t" the woman. No wood no- coal to lug in: no 
ashes so layout Xo dust, no danger. Tank holds on< 
of oil, which supplies stove for f e;: to twelve hours. Oil tank 
always c >ol, absolutely sal'.'. Ba:! handle always cold. Carry 
stove from room to room wherev* r bt at is desired. 

Bc-autiful, Simple, Economical, Clean. 

/|\ See the Beauty Oil Heater at youi lealers. Price $4.50 to 13.0). 
/.\ Send to us for iSescriptive Circular. 


jti\ Worcester, Mass. 



Pleasant Places in nature 
and Dfe. 

Poems by George Bancroft Griffith. 

Editor " Poets of Maine." 

An elegantly printed and illustrated volume of 
400 (octavo) pages. Price, $2.00 per copy, 
carri:.o,e paid. Address the author, No. 305 

Cumberland Street, 
Lempster, N. H. 

Portland, Maine, or East 


"Your "Chime in the Amies' enchanted me, 
haunted me. and enhanced my life. I never thought 
when I read it that I would ever go over the Andes 
on muleback, but the poem was one of the seed 
thoughts that led me to wish to go. I have been to 
South America three times, and my 'History of 
Liberty in the Andean Republics ' owes its origin 
in part to the suggestive and magic lines of your 
poe ni . " — Hezek ia h Bu tier u <o rtk . 

"I have read with much interest the article in the 
December Granite Monthly relative to yourself, 
and congratulate you on your success in literature, 
— which ^eenii fully assured." 

— Col. Henry Oakes Kent. 

"Mr. Griffith is one of the poets bom, and the 
shower of kind words from the press about his 
'Greta' were well deserved. None the less is his 
poem on Laura Bridgman a flue production, tender, 
reverent, and full of deep thought." 

— Esther T. House!/, late Editor Woman's 
Magazine and Slate Secretary IV. C. T. C 




} * ^«S>^^*Sj*S*©xS*<S;^SxS*S«©^3>« 




all Errors 
for which 



And statistics from absolute- 
ly trustworthy sources prove 
that a large percent 
have some visual defect 
or combination of de- 
fects, that cause poor 
vision or serious reflex 
disturbances, that cati 
only be corrected by 

" Tfie instruments foat We use 


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£3 vV 



In diagnosing these defects are the newest, and our ^ 
methods are the same as those of all up-to-date ^ 
Oculists, while our practice extends over a quarter ^ 

..-" : "^ n '..-.'. 

of a century. 


Applies to Quality, Style, and Price. 



and 30 No Main St.. Concohd. N 


Manchester, N.H.jg 




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